Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2020.

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2020.

Other facts According to the Association of Oil Pipe Lines, a single major pipeline construction project in the United States is estimated to employ 7,000 construction workers and provide them and their families with more than $US400 million in salary and benefits. More than 500 workers are needed to con - struct each 100-mile section of pipeline. Pipelines also need pumping stations constructed every 50 miles. Heavy equipment operators, labourers, welders, truck drivers, foremen, engineers, and quality control personnel are all needed to construct a pipeline. Conclusion The Canada-United States pipeline network is a critical component of North American energy security. Pipelines carry crude oil, natural gas, and refined petroleum products within and between the two countries. In addition, and relevant to the existing pipeline network, in 2019, Alberta Treasury Board and Finance estimated that with market access achieved through the completion of all three major pipeline expansion projects (Line 3, TMX, and KXL), Canadian GDP would increase by about $19 billion annually. Canadian producers and governments would achieve $43 billion in increased income due to increased production and investment between 2019 and 2023, or almost $9 billion per year. • New pipeline infrastructure, such as Keystone XL, TMX, the Line 3 replacement, and the Line 5 tunnel replacement, would serve increased demand for crude oil, natural gas, and refined petro - leum products and be critical to enhancing North American energy security and would lead to concurrent economic prosperity.

Notes The authors and the Canadian Energy Centre would like to thank and acknowledge the assistance of Philip Cross in reviewing the data and research for this Fact Sheet. References (All links live as of February 25, 2021) About Pipelines (undated). . Alberta Budget (2019). . Alberta Labour Information Service [ALIS] (2020), Oil Pipeline Operators and Maintenance Workers. . American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (undated). . Association of Oil Pipe Lines (2020). . Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (2020), 2020 Transmis- sion Pipeline Industry Performance Report. . Morning Consult (2019), North American Energy Security Depends on Modern Pipeline Expansion. . Natural Resources Canada (undated), Pipelines across Canada. . Statistics Canada (2016), 2016 Census. Catalogue Number 98-400-X2016359. . Statistics Canada (2020), Gasoline Sales Flat in 2019. . Statistics Canada (2021a), Table 25-10-0077-01: Crude oil and petroleum products movements, by mode of transport and by product type, monthly. . Sta- tistics Canada (2021b), Table 36-10-0487-01: Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by sector and industry, provincial and territorial (x 1,000,0000). . Universe Today (2010), How Many Miles around the Earth? . US Bureau of Economic Analysis (2021), GDP by Industry. . US Bureau of Labor Statistics (2020), Occupational Employment and Wage Esti- mates. . US Bureau of Labour Statistics (2021), NAICS 486000 – Pipeline Transporta- tion. . US Energy Information Administration (2020a), Canada is the Largest Source of U.S. Energy Imports. . US Energy Information Administration (2020b), U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry, 2020. .





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