THE WORLD TRADE CENTER
How the Towers Came to Be
East River, and construction on the $250 million complex began. He also turned to the Port of New York Authority for financial support to ensure the World Trade Center’s completion, and the first real plans for the World Trade Center were put into action. It was then that the Port Authority decided the towers should break the record for the tallest building in the world, beating the 1,250-foot Empire State building. To do this, architect Minoru Yamasaki designed the towers to hold 110 stories each, but they would not have the traditional glass-and-steel-box design used for most skyscrapers at that time. Instead, Yamasaki worked with structural engineers to come up with a revolutionary design that would disperse the weight throughout. The plan included two hollow tubes supported by steel columns spaced closely together and wrapped in aluminum, while floor trusses connected this shell to the tower’s central steel core. Construction of the World Trade Center officially began in February 1967. The north tower was completed in December of 1970, and the south tower was finished in July of 1971, but construction continued for the next two years until the outdoor plaza was finished. An estimated 10,000 workers labored to build the World Trade Center. The towers had 99 elevators, 43,600 windows, 40,000 doors, and 3,000 miles of electrical wiring, and each building weighed 250,000 tons. They were the tallest buildings in the world until Chicago’s Sears Tower was completed less than a year later. The towers were first attacked in 1993. Down in the basement of the north tower’s parking garage, a 1,200-pound bomb was set off. The attack cost six people their lives, and over 1,000 people were injured. The Port Authority wasted no time in renovating the building; over the next eight years, the company spent
On Sept.11, 2001, at 8:46 a.m., American Airlines Flight 11 struck the north tower of the World Trade Center traveling at 470 mph, ripping a hole in the building from floors 93 to 99. At 9:03 a.m., a second plane smashed into the south tower traveling at 590 mph, cutting a gaping hole from floors 75 to 85. Within an hour, the south tower collapsed due to the sheer weight of the building combined with the damage dealt by the impact and the burning jet fuel. At 10:28 a.m., the north tower followed. The rubble and debris from the collapsed towers caused fires and further damage to the surrounding buildings and areas. Within hours, nearly 3,000 people had lost their lives. The attack left the world in a state of terror and grief, and the United States was changed forever. Today, the twin towers’ last day is remembered as the worst terrorist attack in history, but few people know how the buildings became part of New York City’s skyline in the first place. A world trade center pavilion was first hosted during the New York World’s Fair in 1939 — the exhibit was dedicated to the slogan “world peace through trade.” The idea for the World Trade Center was then abandoned after seven years, until David Rockefeller revived the concept to reinvigorate lower Manhattan.
$700 million on renovations, including added safety features such as battery-powered stairway lights and a separate emergency command center for each building. The towers remained an iconic part of NYC’s famous skyline for another eight years. Today, the towers are gone, but the peace they once symbolized lives on in the tranquility of Ground Zero, and every man, woman, and child who lost their life on Sept. 11, 2001, is memorialized on the stone monuments and through the annual reading of names. As Sandy Dahl, wife of Flight 93 pilot Jason Dahl, said, “If we learn nothing else from this tragedy, we learn that life is short and there is no time for hate.”
Rockefeller took the reins and continued the project, finding premises near the Fulton Fish Market on the
“If we learn nothing else from this tragedy, we learn that life is short and there is no time for hate.”
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NEED A PERSONAL ASSISTANT TO MANAGE YOUR KIDS’ CRAZY SCHEDULES? Try These 3 Tips Instead
and the dust bunnies around the house now have names. Housecleaning is a part-time job in its own right. The only way to stay on top of duties around the house is to work together. A chore chart with clear responsibilities is a great place to start. Whether you have one child or eight, everyone is capable of pitching in. You can have all the organizational abilities in the world, but the best way to manage life’s madness isn’t by directing day-to-day tasks; it’s by managing stress. Instead of using these tools to control life, look at them as a way to free up time so you can decompress and enjoy the things you love.
drivers weekly, which provides the opportunity for you to focus your attention on other priorities — or if you’re lucky, have some freedom. THE RIGHT TOOL FOR THE JOB Technology makes organization easier and more accessible than ever. By using a tool like a shared calendar, you can coordinate the entire family’s schedule so you never miss a beat. And apps like Mealime and MealBoard give you the ability to whip up food that is cost-effective and delicious. TEAMWORK MAKES THE DREAMWORK While you’re busy trying to rally the troops at soccer practice, the scene at home resembles a horror movie. Laundry is piling up, food is spoiling in the fridge,
School has started. Youth sports are in full swing. Work is crazy. Food has become more about necessity than enjoyment. All of this can only mean one thing: Fall has begun. The crazy schedules this time of year can make it tough for parents to keep their heads on straight; making it through the insanity sometimes feels more like survival than life. But there are tactics you can employ to turn the tide and find more time for yourself. TAG TEAM There’s no reason to try to do everything on your own. The phrase “It takes a village to raise a child” exists because managing the stressors of life requires help. A great place to start is by establishing car pools with a parent group you trust. You can alternate
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“I hired Danny for a DUI ticket, which was later reduced to reckless driving. I was really scared at the time because I have never been arrested. He acknowledged the stop that was wrongfully made and decided to fight the case. He kept me informed at all times. There are no words that can describe how good he is. He will take care of your case no matter what and be there during the process.”
–ABRAHAM CARDENAS, IMMIGRATION ATTORNEY
–PETER ROWELL, LITIGATION ATTORNEY
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TRICKY INSURANCE COMPANIES
3 Disputing Medical Treatment An insurance adjuster may never have gone to medical school, but they claim to know exactly what treatment is right for you. They can suddenly appear to have extensive knowledge about how much or little medical attention you need. It’s crucial to rely on medical professionals in this type of situation. 4 Nickel and Dime the Medical Charges If they shave just 5 percent off your claim and repeat that to the millions of claims made each year, they get richer. 5 Misrepresenting Insurance Benefits This is a big one. They’ll tell you there’s only $100,000 in coverages. Then, when attorneys file suit, they find an umbrella policy! Wouldn’t you think the insurance company would know such a policy was in their systems? Of course they did. 6 Acting Like Your Friend and Making False Promises Be wary of an adjuster who befriends you, shows up at your house, and promises to pay your
Insurance companies will do anything they can to dissuade people from seeking help and advice from at attorney. To prevent someone from receiving more money on their claim, an insurance company will use fear and sow mistrust all so that they won’t seek help from an attorney. There are many tactics they’ll use to give you the least amount they possibly can. 1 Deliberate Delay Often, they’re aware that a person is in a financial squeeze. If you aren’t working, even if you have good health insurance, it can be difficult to pay copays and deductibles. The insurance company knows you’re getting dunned by the doctors, so they take their time with your claim. 2 The Quest for Unnecessary Information Insurance companies will insist that you track down every little piece of information, even if it’s unnecessary. They would prefer to wait another six weeks for you to track down new information that wouldn’t add a penny to their offer. All the while, they’re earning interest on money they won’t pay you.
future medical bills. This is a tactic to stop you from hiring a lawyer. They’ll only pay the future medical bills until the claim starts costing them too much. If you’re injured, your best option is to consult a lawyer before moving on to the next stages of a claim — especially if you don’t understand the system.
Laugh Out Loud
Inside-Out Grilled Ham and Cheese Want to take your grilled cheese game to the next level? This recipe calls for cheese both inside and outside the sandwich, adding a crispy crunch to the grilled cheese experience. It’s a quick, delicious weekday dinner option the whole family will love. Ingredients
8 ounces ham, thinly sliced
8 slices of bread (Pullman works best)
1/2 pound Swiss cheese, sliced
4 tablespoons unsalted butter, room temperature 1/2 cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese (preferably Parmigiano-Reggiano)
2 tablespoons Dijon mustard
1/4 cup apricot preserves
4. In a cast iron skillet or large sauté pan over medium heat, grill sandwiches until golden, about 3 minutes per side. 5. Cut in half and serve.
1. Butter each slice of bread on the outsides and sprinkle with Parmesan. 2. Layer ham and cheese evenly on top of 4 slices of bread. 3. Spread apricot preserves and mustard across the other 4 slices. Press sandwiches together.
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INSIDE this issue
The Hopeful Beginning and Catastrophic End
3 Tips to Help Organize Your Crazy Life Hear From Satisfied Clients
Insurance Company Tactics Inside-Out Grilled Ham and Cheese
Why Labor Day Is Indebted to the Pullman Strike
THE PULLMAN STRIKE AND THE ORIGIN OF LABOR DAY How a Railroad Protest Laid the Foundation for a National Holiday
Eventually, President Grover Cleveland sent in soldiers to break up the strike. Violence ensued, with soldiers making a great effort to quell the strike at its core. By the time the violence ended, 30 people had lost their lives and an estimated $80 million in damages had been caused throughout the town. A few months later, President Grover Cleveland declared Labor Day a federal holiday. Many experts believe that this act was an effort to build rapport among his pro-labor constituents after handling the incident so poorly. This month, as you fire up the barbecue and enjoy your day off, take a moment to remember the workers who fought for labor rights in our country.
30 percent, but he neglected to adjust the rent on the company-owned buildings in turn. As a result, life became untenable in the town, with workers struggling to maintain the barest standards of living for themselves and their families. In response, the workers began a strike on May 11, 1894. As the event ramped up, it gained the support of the powerful American Railway Union (ARU). But Pullman, stubborn as he was, barely acknowledged the strike was happening, and he refused to meet with the organizers. The tension increased when Eugene Debs, the president of the American Railway Union, organized a boycott of all trains that included Pullman cars. The strike continued to escalate until workers and Pullman community members managed to stop the trains from running.
Today, Labor Day mostly means a day off and the closure of public pools. But when it was first created, it was a president’s desperate attempt to curb the tension after one of the most violent strike breakups in American history. In the late 19th century, the workers of the Pullman Company, which manufactured luxury train cars, all lived in a company-owned town. George Pullman, the owner, lived in a mansion overlooking houses, apartments, and crammed-together barracks, all of which were rented by the thousands of workers needed for the operation. For some time, the town operated without a hitch, providing decent wages for the workers while netting the higher- ups millions of dollars. But after the economic depression of the 1890s brought the country to its knees, everything changed. George Pullman slashed his workers’ wages by nearly
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