(continued from page 29 ▪ Philippine Cockatoo) However, oil palm plantations are preferentially es- tablished in lowland areas, and therefore can be a direct threat to the cockatoos. Therefore it is vital to conserve existing forest fragments within or near the oil palm plantations as well as to create new ones, and such action is firmly part of the PCCP ’ s con- stant drive to recover the Philippine Cockatoo. References Bernardo, A.A. Jr. (2017) Disparity in bird communities of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) plantation and adjacent forest in Aborlan, Pala- wan: implications to avifaunal conservation. Journal of Nature Stud- ies 16 (1): 45 - 62. Que, G.C.L., Widmann, I.D.L., Widmann, P., Naval, D.G.B. and Fon- tanilla, I.K.C. (2020) Mitochondrial DNA haplotype analysis of the endemic and critically endangered Philippine Cockatoo ( Cacatua haematuropygia P.L.S. Müller, 1776). Philippine Journal of Science 150: 135 - 146
Picture by Peter Widmann /KFI; 2 Adapted from Que et al., 2020
by Debbie Schweikardt
How many macaw species?
Answer is b) 17
1. Hyacinth 2. Spix ’ s 3. Blue & Gold 4. Scarlet 5. Green - winged 6. Hahn ’ s (Red - shouldered)
7. Military 8. Buffon ’ s (Great green) 9. Severe (Chestnut - fronted) 10. Blue - throated (Caninde) 11. Lear ’ s 12. Illiger ’ s (Blue - winged)
13. Yellow - collared 14. Red - bellied 15. Red - fronted 16. Blue - headed (Coulon ’ s) 17. Glaucous Birds in red are mini - macaws
What is the IUCN Red List? The International Union for Conservation of Nature established the Red List in 1964. Today the list is con- sidered the world ’ s most comprehensive information on the status of threatened species, to include the con-
servation status of animal, planet and fungi species. The Red List classification categories include: DD
Data Deficient ▪ no assessment due to insufficient data
LC Least Concern ▪ species evaluated with a lower risk of extinction NT Near Threatened ▪ species close to the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened without on- going conservation measures VU Vulnerable ▪ high risk of unnatural (human - caused) extinction EN Endangered ▪ very high risk of extinction in the wild CR Critically Endangered ▪ when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of 5 criteria EW Extinct in the Wild ▪ known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range EX Extinct ▪ when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died International agreements use IUCN Red List data to guide decision making and as an indicator of the status of nature. These include, but are not limited to agreements such as CITES, the Ramsar Convention , UN Sus- tainable Development Goals and CBD Aichi Targets.
30 Volume XLVIX ● January 2022
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