20130823 BS Bioexclusion Final

STAKEHOLDERS

Government & State Agencies Bord Bia Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM) Teagasc

Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases Out of Your Herd Information leaflet for Irish farmers, advisors and vets

Dairy and Beef Processors ABP Ireland Arrabawn Co-op Carbery Group Connacht Gold Dairygold Dawn Meats Glanbia Kepak Group Kerry Agribusiness Lakeland Dairies Slaney Foods Tipperary Co-op

Town of Monaghan Co-Op Wexford Milk Producers

Farmers’ Organisations Irish Cattle and Sheep Farmers’ Association (ICSA) Irish Charolais Cattle Society Irish Co-Operative Organisation Society (ICOS) Irish Creamery Milk Suppliers’ Association (ICMSA) Irish Farmers’ Association (IFA) IrishHolsteinFriesianAssociation (IHFA) Irish Milk Quality Co-operative Society (IMQCS) Macra na Feirme Pedigree Cattle Breeders’ Council of Ireland Professional/ Advisory/ Support Services Cork Marts DAFM- Veterinary Lab Services ICBF Irish Dairy Board UCD Veterinary Ireland

THIS GUIDE IS PART OF A SERIES OF LEAFLETS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF BIOSECURITY 1. Understanding Infectious Diseases 2. Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases Out of Your Herd 3. Purchasing stock: Reducing Disease Risks

Biosecurity leaflet series Vol. 2, Ver. 1, Aug., 2013

Please refer to the disclaimer on the last page regarding information in this leaflet.

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The information in this leaflet can be used to assist you and your veterinary practitioner in formulating a Bioexclusion Plan for your farm. This involves an assessment to identify infectious disease risks outside your farm followed by developing an

action plan to minimise these risks. Biosecurity

Healthy cattle are one of the most valuable economic assets on modern Irish livestock farms, and will only increase in importance as on-farm production increases. Threats to the health of your stock may come from outside your farm and from within your farm. Protecting the health of animals on your farm by implementing simple preventative practices is called Biosecurity. There are two types of Biosecurity practices: 1. Actions taken to reduce the risk of infectious disease coming into your farm (BIOEXCLUSION). 2. Actions taken to reduce spread of infectious diseases within your farm (BIOCONTAINMENT).

Foot bathing animals on arrival to your farm is good practice

You can reduce (but not always eliminate) the risk of bringing-in disease by implementing bioexclusion practices. This leaflet deals with practical steps to help you improve and maintain a high level of Bioexclusion. As herds expand farmers need to be even more conscious of implementing bioexclusion practices. What are the most important disease threats to my stock from outside my farm? In order of importance the disease threats to your stock from outside your farm are indicated in Figure1.

More Important

Direct disease spread from animals • added animals • neighbouring animals Indirect disease spread • farm visitors • slurry • animal equipment • wildlife, vermin and other animals

• biological materials • farm environment.

Less Important

Figure 1: The most important disease threats to your stock from outside your farm.

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

DIRECT DISEASE SPREAD What can I do to reduce the risk of disease coming into my farm with added animals?

Added animals are those bought-in, ‘borrowed’ or returned frommarts, shows or contract rearing premises. Therefore they can include both new animals and existing home-farm animals. Bought-in animals are the highest risk. Many diseases are carried by animals that are not sick and appear completely normal. They are silent carriers which can bring disease into the herd quietly but effectively. All ages of animals being bought in have disease risks.

The highest risk of introducing disease is from added animals

How to reduce disease risks from added animals • The best and most obvious way to reduce the risk of new diseases coming into your herd from added animals is to close your herd . • Purchase semen and embryos from reputable suppliers.

On arrival, quarantine new stock away from your own stock

You don’t have a closed herd if you are: • buying in bulls • borrowing bulls • exhibiting at shows • sharing cattle handling facilities

• returning unsold cattle to your farm • using common grazing or housing. • poor boundary fences

Don’t forget even if you “only” buy a bull there is a risk of new diseases coming into your herd

Maintaining a closed herd may not always be possible. It may be incompatible with certain farming systems e.g. contract rearing heifers. Therefore you need to stop and think about what steps you can take to reduce the chances of bringing new diseases into your herd with added animals. AHI has produced a guide to reducing disease risks from purchased stock which is available on www.biosecurity.ie ‘Purchasing Stock: Reducing Disease Risks’. This guide has many useful hints that can help to reduce the chances of introducing new diseases. Ten minutes spent reading this guide could save you a lot of money and stress. Know your own HERD HEALTH STATUS This can be achieved by monitoring your own herd for the absence or presence of disease through examination of clinically ill animals, laboratory testing (culture,PCR, serology) and pathological (post mortem) examinations. Discuss the options most appropriate to your herd with your own veterinary practitioner.

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

What can I do to prevent disease coming into my farm from neighbouring animals? Good boundary fencing should prevent break-outs, break-ins, nose-to-nose contact between herds and reduce aerosol spread of infectious agents by livestock. Double fencing may include electric fences; ditches and hedging also reduce the risk of contact with neighbouring animals. These measures are also important on out-farms and with other species, e.g. sheep.

Good boundary fences are critical

How to reduce disease risks from neighbouring animals • Prevent nose-to-nose contact and animal break-ins/break-outs. • Maintain stock-proof farm boundaries , e.g., rebuild stone walls, block gaps in hedging. • When possible, avoid grazing fields at the same time as bounding neighbours’ fields are also occupied with livestock. • Double-spaced boundary fencing with a gap of at least 5 m should provide adequate protection.

Double fencing done well should never allow neighbouring cattle to touch each other.

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

INDIRECT DISEASE SPREAD What can I do to prevent disease coming into my farm from farm visitors?

Clean boots are essential for visiting farms

Every farm has visitors, and every farmer should aim to minimise disease risks from outsiders. High risk visitors are those who have direct and frequent contact with other farm animals and your cattle, e.g. veterinary practitioners, other farmers (especially those who also work on your farm), AI technicians, agricultural consultants, hoof trimmers, scanners, sales personnel and collectors of deadstock.

How to reduce disease risks from farm visitors • Keep farm visitors to a minimum. • Have only one farm entry point. • Use signage to direct farm visitors to a contact point or a mobile number. • Reduce direct contact between visitors and your stock. • Provide personal protective clothing for visitors such as gloves, footwear, overboots, overalls/gowns. This is a cheap measure that is easy to enforce on your farm for visitors. This is common practice on farms within other countries and other species e.g pig, equine and poultry farms. • Provide cleaning facilities for visitors - maintain and use hand-washing and boot-washing and disinfection facilities. Make it routine practice to have all visitors disinfect all protective clothing on entry to the farm. • Restrict deadstock collectors to areas away from where livestock are kept - bring deadstock out to the truck rather than bringing the deadstock collector vehicles into the farmyard. • Other farmers visiting your farm for farm walks or discussion groups should be encouraged to clean and disinfect footwear on arrival.

A list of approved disinfectants can be found from the DAFM or DARDNI websites. These are available on http:// www.agriculture.gov.ie/animalhealthwelfare/ animalhealthpublications/ and http://www.dardni.gov.uk/ dard-approved-disinfectant s.

Footbaths are effective if kept clean – however, the most effective way to prevent disease spread is to provide visitors with clean boots on arrival at the farm.

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

What can I do to prevent disease coming into my farm from slurry? Imported (brought in from another farm) untreated slurry, farm yard manure, sewage and other bio-wastes are possible sources of disease. In addition, biogas digestate from anaerobic digestion plants not processing manure to a defined temperature standard presents a risk of spreading disease. Introduction of these materials into a farm presents potential disease risks, e.g. Salmonellosis, TB and Johne’s disease. The disease risk reduces with storage. However, disease-causing organisms such as Johne’s disease bacteria can still be present for many months and sometimes for over a year. See AHI leaflets on Johne’s disease available online at http://www.animalhealthireland.ie/page. php?id=108. Discuss the risk of using imported slurry or other manure based products both other cattle farms, pig and poultry farms, or anaerobic digestion plants with your vet. Slurry can be a risk for disease infection How to reduce disease risks from slurry and other manure based products • Don’t use imported slurry and other wastes from other farms where possible. • If purchasing from external sources- enquire about the farms’ disease status . • If purchasing from an anaerobic digestion plant using manure – enquire about the temperature standard being used and the source of the material being used in the plant. • If using imported biological waste - spread on tillage or silage ground in preference to grazing land. • Do not use imported biological wastes on grazing land. • Discuss with your own veterinary practitioner the risks of using imported waste - the source, time and treatment. • Where possible, restrict slurry spreading to farm-owned machinery, thus avoiding the biosecurity risk associated with third party owned slurry spreaders. • Discuss with your own veterinary practitoner or your DVO the option of treating slurry with lime to reduce certain disease threats from imported slurry. • Every effort should be made to avoid the storage of poultry litter during warm weather. Poultry stacks should be completely covered (in the same way as silage is covered), on dry ground away from rivers, streams and other water courses and in places where livestock cannot gain access to them or they cannot contaminate livestock feed or bedding. • Poultry litter should not be spread on land adjacent to water courses, nor should silage be made from lands on which poultry litter has been spread. • Farmer using poultry litter as an organic fertilizer should advise their neighbours who have livestock, of the days on which poultry litter will be spread so that those neighbours can remove their animals from the surrounding fields. • Trailing shoe slurry spreaders will minimise disease risk from aerosols.

Slurry needs careful management to reduce disease threats especially if it is imported from another farm

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

Botulism Poultry litter presents a risk of transmitting of botulism to cattle. There are two risk periods in relation to botulism transmission:

1. when poultry litter is being stored prior to land-spread . 2. when poultry litter is actually being applied to land.

These risks are not confined to farms on which the poultry litter is being stored or spread, they may also affect neighbouring farms. Improperly stacked poultry litter (and wash water from poultry sheds) is a risk for botulism. There is also a risk from dogs and wildlife bringing poultry carcass fragments from a neighbouring farm onto your land. For more information on measures that should be taken to control the botulism risk and in relation to botulism in general, see http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/animalhealthwelfare/diseasecontrol/botulism/ .

What can I do to prevent disease coming into my farm from animal equipment? High risk animal equipment is that which is contaminated with body

Sharing animal equipment is a disease risk

fluids (saliva, mucus, blood, nasal secretions, and birth fluids) or faeces and is used directly on or by your animals. These fluids can all carry disease causing organisms. Examples include ear notch taggers, calving equipment, hoof paring equipment, scanning equipment, nose tongs, stomach tubes, gloves, portable crushes, multiple injectors, weighing scales and trailers.

How to reduce disease risks from animal equipment • Provide your own animal equipment and don’t lend it out. • Use disposable equipment and dispose of it after use. • Wash and disinfect non-disposable equipment. • Don’t share a crush, race or loading pen with neighbours. If this is unavoidable, disinfect these facilities before and after use. • Install and maintain a vehicle wheel bath at the farm entrance, • Store all equipment safely between use.

Clean and disinfect your dosing equipment

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

What can I do to prevent disease coming into my farm from wildlife and other animals?

It’s hard to make the feed shed vermin proof – but essential

Infections can potentially come in from wildlife such as badgers (TB), crows/ pigeons/seagulls (Salmonellosis), cats (Toxoplasmosis), deer (TB), dogs and foxes (Neosporosis), goats (TB), rats (Leptospira) and midges (Schmallenberg). Wildlife and vermin are attracted into farmyards by easy access to feedstuffs including deadstock and placentae. In addition they may bring diseased material onto your farm e.g. parts of chicken carcasses (Botulism) or aborted foetuses. How to reduce disease risks from wildlife and OTHER ANIMALS Operate a vermin / rodent control program. • Maintain bait at appropriate protected sites in the farmyard to reduce vermin numbers. • Make sure that all bait points are clearly identified and are fixed to a wall or the ground. • All bait points should be dog-proof and child-proof. • Vermin control programmes not involving bait are also available. Reduce access to feed and animal wastes • Provide netting or flaps to reduce bird access to feed. • Provide a closed shed for stored feed. • Clean up feed spillages. Maintain wildlife-proof farm boundaries • Where significant wildlife populations exist, provide fencing appropriate to the risk, e.g. badger-proof fencing (buried at least 0.6m) and deer-proof fencing (at least 2.5m high). Schmallenberg virus is transmitted by biting midges and the severity of infection depends on the stage of pregnancy that the animals are in when bitten. It causes abortions, congenital malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, goats. It is believed that there is no direct transmission from animal to animal, other than maternal transmission frommother to offspring in utero. Futher updates are available from https://www.agriculture.gov.ie/ animalhealthwelfare/diseasecontrol/schmallenbergvirus/ . The strains of Leptospira in rats are uncommon in cattle. Rats are not the primary source of leptospirosis in cattle. Leptospira infection from rats can cause leptospirosis in humans (Weil’s disease). Veterinary Technical Information

Aborted foetus from a suspected schmallenberg virus outbreak - all abortion outbreaks should be fully investigated

Dogs or wildlife should not have access to feed stores, feeding areas or calving areas

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

What can I do to prevent disease coming into my farm from biological materials? Introduction of biological material (colostrum, embryos, semen, unregulated vaccines or whole milk) into a farm presents potential disease risks. See the AHI website leaflet ‘Johne’s Disease FAQ’s’ on http://www.animalhealthireland.ie/page.php?id=108 for further information on guidelines regarding bringing colostrum into the farm.

Freeze colostrum from cows with a low risk of Johne’s disease for emergencies

How to reduce disease risks from biological materials: • Do not ‘borrow’ and feed colostrum or whole milk from a neighbouring farm. • Purchase semen and embryos from reputable suppliers. • Ensure your veterinary practitioner uses new syringes and needles when coming onto farm or keep your own supply on farm. • Only use medicines which are properly licensed and legal to use in this country (http://imb.ie/). • Always purchase approved medicines from licensed suppliers . • If considering using autogenous vaccines (e.g. warts) discuss the legalities and their use with your own veterinary practitioner.

Don’t bring in colostrum from a neighbouring farm Store your farms own frozen colostrum for emergencies

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

What can I do to prevent disease coming into my farm from the environment? The environment surrounding and in your farm, e.g. waterways, shared grazing, housing facilities, yards or crushes can be a source of disease for your farm stock when it is contaminated with faeces or body fluids.

Drinking from ponds exposes cattle to increased disease risk

How to reduce disease risks the environment • Fence off waterways and lakes both bounding and within your farm • Prevent stock access to land which is flooded • Don’t use shared handling facilities or housing.

Unfenced waterways and ponds are a disease risk for animals. Fencing them off is a good biosecurity practice.

What can I do to prevent exotic diseases from coming into my farm? Exotic diseases are those diseases not currently in the country, e.g. Foot-and-Mouth disease, Brucellosis and Bluetongue. Exotic diseases threaten not only your animals’ health but also Ireland’s ability to trade. Most exotic diseases are highly infectious so it is important to act quickly if you are suspicious of a case. Animals imported from other countries have increased risk of bringing in exotic disease. See the AHI leaflet on Purchasing stock: Reducing Disease Risks for more information. Further information on exotic diseases is available from the DAFM website http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/ animalhealthwelfare/diseasecontrol/ . Many exotic diseases are notifiable and farmers must notify their DVO if they suspect they have an exotic disease on farm. Always check the disease status of bought-in cattle.

How to avoid bringing in exotic diseases • Choose not to buy imported cattle . • If buying imported cattle- ensure they have been fully tested in-line with current DAFM guidelines. • Discuss with your own veterinary practitioner / local DVO any further testing you should do for any diseases you are particularly concerned about. • Observe a quarantine period of at least 4 weeks.

If you suspect an exotic disease

immediately contact your

own veterinary practitioner and your local DVO

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Bioexclusion: Keeping Infectious Diseases out of your Herd

Farmers are responsible for keeping diseases out of their herds

Bought-in cattle are the biggest disease risk to your stock

A herd is not closed if you borrow or buy a bull

The risks of bringing in infectious diseases into your herd are manageable

Stock-proof boundary fencing can keep disease out

Don’t share animal equipment

Draw up a Bioexclusion Plan with your own veterinary practitioner that is farm-specific, practical and effective

TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP John Mee (Chair) - Teagasc, Moorepark, Stephen Conroy - National Bull Performance Centre Tully, Bosco Cowley - MSD Animal Health, Bernard Eivers - National Cattle Breeding Centre, Tim Geraghty - University of Glasgow, David Graham - Programme Manager AHI, Richard Fallon , Pat Kirwan - Veterinary Practitioner, John Moriarty - CVRL, DAFM, Luke O’Grady - UCD, Ronan O’Neill -

PEER REVIEW BY N. T. Kavanagh, MVB, DPM, MBAE, FRCVS, DipECPHM, Veterinary Practitioner and Consultant, Oldcastle, Co Meath, R. J. Sibley BVSc, HonFRCVS, Director West Ridge Veterinary Practice Ltd, Witheridge, Devon UK. This leaflet is based on the following peer reviewed publication: Mee, J.F., Geraghty, T., O’Neill, R. and More S. (2012) Bioexclusion of diseases from dairy and beef farms: Risks of introducing infectious agents and risk reduction strategies. The Veterinary Journal, Vol. 194, Issue 2, Nov. 2012, p. 143 - 150. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S1090023312003048. of or any other person in respect of or in connection with the leaflet or the contents thereof or any matter omitted therefrom. No representation or guarantee is given, whether by AHI or any other such person, that the contents of this information leaflet are comprehensive, up to date, or free from error or omissions, nor that the advice provided is appropriate in every particular circumstance. The contents of this information leaflet are not intended to be a substitute for appropriate direct advice from your veterinary practitioner. Appropriate veterinary and health and safety advice should be taken before taking or refraining from taking action in relation to the animal disease dealt with in this information leaflet. The contents of this leaflet may be updated, corrected, varied or superseded from time to time by later publications or material on the AHI website and reference should be made to that website accordingly. Any references in this booklet or links in the AHI website to external websites or other resources are provided for convenience only and the content thereof are not to be considered as endorsed thereby.

CVRL, DAFM, Michael Sexton - Veterinary Practitioner. Technical Working GROUP RAPPORTEUR Fionnuala Malone , Animal Health Ireland

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY All images contained in this leaflet are the property of AHI, or have been included with the permission of the owner. Please seek permission from AHI if you wish to use these images and provide the correct attribution of ownership when reproducing them. If reusing any other material in this leaflet, please attribute AHI as the source. The image on page 8 of the aborted foetus was provided by DAFM RVL, and the images of the FMD lesions were provided by DAFM CVRL. All other images are property of Animal Health Ireland. IMPORTANT NOTICE - DISCLAIMER This leaflet is issued and shall be read only on the basis that it will not be relied upon by any person as a basis for any act or omission or otherwise without obtaining professional veterinary and health and safety verification and advice and that no liability or responsibility to any person is accepted or shall be incurred, and no recourse or claim by any person will be made, by or against AHI,any stakeholder,collaborator, officer, agent, subcontractor or employee of AHI, any member of the Technical Working Group, any contributor to, author, publisher, distributor, reviewer,compiler or promoter

Animal Health Ireland, Main Street, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim Phone 071 9671928 Email admin@animalhealthireland.ie Web www.animalhealthireland.ie

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