PP&L Solution Starter-Hellebore 2021 Technical Guide

SOLUT I ON STARTER

HELLEBORE

Liner Size: 72-Cell and 32-Cell Availability: Weeks 5-15 for 72-Cell | Weeks 35-40 for 32-Cell Hardiness Zone: 5-8 Growing Temps: 40-50ºF in fall for flower initiation, 32-40ºF through winter Exposure: Part Sun-Shade Average Finishing Time: 40-52Weeks using 72-Cell and 18-26Weeks using 32-Cell for 1 gallon

HELLEBORE FROSTKISS ® TECHNICAL GUIDE

2020-2021

HEAT TOLERANT Hellebores and heat are two words that generally do not go well together. Frostkiss ® are successfully grown in very warm climates by following the growing tips in this solution starter. GUARANTEED UNIFORMITY Because our liners are born from tissue culture rather than seed,crops will be very uniform and easily row run.Another benefit to tissue culture is that crops will bloom in under one year (crops from seed can take two to three)!

TWO SIZES & PLANTING SEASONS TO FIT YOUR NEEDS Want to save some money? Start your crops in the spring using our 72 cell liners.Don’t want to over-summer your Hellebore crop? Start crops in the fall using our deep 32 cell to quickly fill pots for early spring sales. TECHNICAL SUPPORT Hellebores are not new to the US market but there is still a bit of mystery to growing a good crop. PP&L has teamed with the breeders of Frostkiss ® to provide unparalleled growing support. If you need help or have questions, shoot us a line!

LATER TO BLOOM Frostkiss ® are not early Hellebore like many niger types on the market.In general,these varieties start to bloom late January and will hold until April or later depending on the temperature.The colder the better for holding the flowers. FROSTKISS ® HELLEBORE

SOLUT I ON STARTER

PROGRAM SPOTLIGHT Trade Name: Hellebore Frostkiss ® | Scientific Name: Helleborus x hybridus Liner Specs: 72-Cell Growcoon and 32-Cell Deep

VARIETIES

EXPOSURE Hellebores like cool roots at all times and grow best with sun protection. It is very important to prevent the sun from shining directly on the pots at any time.Therefore, leave as little space between pots as possible and make sure the leaves cover the pots, creating shade on the pot. In the summer months when temperatures are warmer, take further precaution by using 30-35% shade cloth. If overwintering under plastic, be sure to use a white poly vs. clear poly. This will help keep plants from burning on sunny days. Hellebores is between 40-50°F, this range triggers the flowers to initiate.Depending on the climate, this will occur between September and December. In winter, keep Hellebores inside a frost-free greenhouse with temperatures ranging between 32-40°F. When there is no frost, the plants will flower by their natural genetics. If there is frost, it will postpone the flowering time. In the summer months, it is important to shade at 30-35% when temperatures rise above 80°F. TEMPERATURE In the fall, the perfect temperature for growing

ANNA'S RED | USPP# 24,720

CHARMER | USPP# 29,873

BAYLI’S BLUSH ® | USPP# 27,120

CHERYL'S SHINE ® | USPP# 28,009

DANA’S DULCET ® | USPP# 27,970 DOROTHY’S DAWN ® | USPP# 28,010

GLENDA’S GLOSS ® | USPP# 28,008

ILLUMI LIME™ | USPP# 30,807

MOLLY’S WHITE | USPP# 25,685

MOONDANCE ® | USPP# 27,969

PIPPA’S PURPLE ® | USPP# 27,121

PENNY’S PINK | USPP# 24,149

2020-2021 Hellebore Program / Pacific Plug & Liner

SOLUT I ON STARTER

PROGRAM SPOTLIGHT Trade Name: Hellebore Frostkiss ® | Scientific Name: Helleborus x hybridus Liner Specs: 72-Cell Growcoon and 32-Cell Deep

PROGRAM AT A GLANCE

Var iety

Habit

Flower Color

Flower ing Time

Tall, less branching

Burgundy Red

December till March

ANNA’S RED

Compact

Raspberry Pink

December till March

CHARMER

Medium

Two-TonedViolet Blush with CreamyWhite

January till April

BAYLI’S BLUSH ®

Vigorous

Light Pink

January till April

CHERYL’S SHINE ®

Compact

Two-Toned Smokey Pink with GreenishWhite

February till April

DANA’S DULCET ®

Vigorous

Light Pink

February till April

DOROTHY’S DAWN ®

Tall, less branching

White with Magenta-Purple Edging

December till March

GLENDA’S GLOSS ®

Medium

Chartreuse-Lime Green

January till April

ILLUMI LIME ™

Vigorous

White Fading Into Green

January till April

MOLLY’S WHITE

Vigorous

White Fading Into Green

January till April

MOONDANCE ®

Medium

Mauve Pink

January till April

PENNY’S PINK

Medium

Smokey Pink with Burgundy Flecking

January till April

PIPPA’S PURPLE ®

*Growers should use the information presented here as a guideline only. Flower times might vary due to winter temperatures. Colder growing temperatures will lead to later flowering.

GROWER TIPS

• Hellebores are fast growing in spring and fall, these are the recommended seasons to plant in. Hellebores grow very slow in the summer months, therefore, it is not recommended to pot liners during the warm months of summer. • Hellebores need a very well drained, coarse soil with lots of aeration. pH should be at 5.5.A peat-based soil with decomposed bark works best. • Plants should be shaded at 30-35% in the summer months to prevent overheating and/or burning of foliage.

• Hellebores do not like to be watered during the hottest part of the day, so water them in the early morning or late evening. • Opposite of many plants, Hellebores need more fertilizer in the fall to help to initiate flowers. • Always keep a Hellebore actively growing, even in the summer months. If they stop growing because of low fertilizer, it can set back the growth by 2-3 months. • Flower initiation occurs with shortening of days in the fall and lowering of temperatures, at around 40-50°F.

• Keep frost-free during the winter in a cold greenhouse, 32-45°F, to prevent flower delay. • To delay flowering, keep crop very cold, just below freezing. This can delay flowering by one month or more.

BLOOM CHART

Mid December

Early January

Mid January

Early February

Mid February

Early March

Mid March

Early April

Mid April

ANNA’S RED

CHARMER

GLENDA’S GLOSS ®

CHERYL’S SHINE ®

MOLLY’S WHITE

MOONDANCE ®

BAYLI’S BLUSH ®

ILLUMI LIME ™

PENNY’S PINK

PIPPA’S PURPLE ®

DANA’S DULCET ®

DOROTHY’S DAWN ®

Early

Late

FERTILIZATION & IRRIGATION GUIDELINES The most important thing with Hellebores is to keep them growing during the year. Never stop fertilizing for any reason. Hellebores need a steady feed throughout the growing cycle with an EC of 1.2-1.5, measured directly in the soil. A slow release 8-9 month fertilizer is recommended when spring planted. In the fall, Hellebores start initiating flowers so they need extra Nitrogen (N) and Iron (FE) during this time.This can be supplied using a liquid drench, keeping EC levels at 1.2-1.5.

Macro-elements

PPM MMOL

Micro-elements

PPB UMOL/L

NH4

<1.9

<0.1

Fe

558

10

K

47

1.2

Mn

110

2.0

Na

<58

<2.5

Zn

131

2

Ca

40

1.0

B

108

10

Mg

7.3

0.3

Cu

44

0.7

NO3

155

2.5

Mo

<9.6

<0.1

Cl

<89

<2.5

S

58

0.6

HCO3

<6.2

<0.1

P

15

0.5

K/Ca

1:2

1:2

**Keep in mind; these are not fixed numbers, just guidelines.

The method of watering is very important for Hellebores to avoid stress. Drip irrigation works best but overhead irrigation with feed is also possible.With overhead irrigation, try to avoid watering during the hottest hours of the day because the leaf temperature is high and the water temperature much cooler. Leaf temperatures can go up to 105°F while in most cases the water temperature is around 75°F. This difference creates a temperature shock and causes stress. Stress will weaken plants and make them vulnerable to root problems such as Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Phytophthora.When watering using overhead irrigation on warm days, irrigate only in the early morning or late evening.

TECHNICAL GROWING INFORMATION

Use a well-drained soil made with mostly white peat, Canadian or Baltic, and not more 20% quality black peat. Black peat will shrink throughout the growing cycle causing poor drainage. Contrary to many crops, Hellebores need a lower soil pH at 5.5.

MEDIA

Hellebores need to be grown cool in the winter for proper flower development.A temperature range of 32-45ºF is suggested.

VERNALIZATION

Whether crops are spring or fall planted, it is advisable to pot as early as possible in the season to get the growth needed to fill the pot.This is particularly true in the spring as Hellebore only actively grow when the temperatures are cooler. A delay in planting can stunt the overall finish size of the crop and decrease the flower bud count. For growers not wanting such a long crop time or for growers wanting to avoid over-summering a Hellebore, fall planting is highly recommended as it can cut the crop time in half. The chart below gives recommended planting dates and corresponding crop times.

LINER SIZE

PLANTING DATES

CROP TIME 2.5 QT-1 GALLON

PLANTING

72 Cell

Weeks 5-15 (Once chance of frost has passed) 40-52 weeks

32 Cell

Weeks 35-40 (Once temps start to cool)

18-26 weeks

It is important to fill pots to the top with soil, this will help prevent warm roots. Leaving a gap between the top of the pot and the soil level will cause pots to heat up more than if the pot is full, potentially burning the Hellebore roots.When planting liners, plant a little deeper than the surface of the soil. This will help to increase flower bud development.

Frostkiss varieties are bred with efficiency in mind, so most of the crop life they can be kept can tight.The Frostkiss varieties do not have a heavy rosette habit, but grow upright; therefore, they need less space and will not stretch when grown can tight. Hellebores enjoy cool roots so keeping plants close together causes the foliage to shade the pot and prevent root burn. Cool roots will allow plants to grow much bigger and create more flowers by time of sale. Once plants start to flower in the spring they can be spaced (12 gallon pots per m²) to give flowers room to develop.

SPACING

Hellebores should never be pinched. Every leaf on a Hellebore helps to form flower buds so removing leaves will decrease flower count and overall finished quality. If there are damaged leaves, they can be removed at time of shipping.

PINCHING

HEIGHT CONTROL

PGRs are not required and are not recommended.

Hellebores are tough plants and rarely get diseases.The main disease issue seen is Botrytis in the flowers. Prevent this by keeping plants dry and in an area with good air flow.

DISEASE

INSECT

Watch for aphids and spider mites.

It is important to remember that Frostkiss Hellebores can flower up to 2.5 months. For this reason, crops do not need to be shipped to garden centers all at once.At the garden center, keep plants in a shaded location away from direct sun and in cool temperatures to prevent flower fade and water as needed.

POST PRODUCTION/ GARDEN CENTER CARE

2020-2021 Hellebore Program / Pacific Plug & Liner

P L A N T H O L O G Y

BROUGHT TO YOU BY

Pacic Plug & Liner

750 Casserly Road / Watsonville, CA 95076 / 831.768.6300 find out more at ppandl.com

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