Optical Connections Magazine Spring 2022


High-speed fibre grows as DSL declines

of their fixed broadband subscriptions: Korea with 86%, Japan with 83%, Lithuania with 77%, Spain with 76%, Sweden with 76%, Iceland with 72% and Latvia with 71%. DSL connections, meanwhile, saw sharp declines of over 30% in Chile (-37%), New Zealand (-32%), Norway (-40%), Spain (-32%), and Sweden (-31%). Some operators in OECD countries are in the process of shutting down copper connections altogether, for instance in France, Japan, Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Spain.

According to the latest update from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), high-speed fibre subscriptions grew by 15% across the OECD countries from June 2020 to June 2021, as living and working under Covid-19 restrictions continued to drive demand for high-quality internet connections with the rapid upload and download speeds that fibre offers. OECD’s broadband portal shows fibre now makes up 32% of fixed broadband subscriptions across the

broadband technology for nine OECD countries. DSL subscriptions declined by 6% over the same period, with several OECD countries showing sharp declines. Latin American OECD countries saw significant increases in fibre with growth rates of 74% for Costa Rica, 71% for Chile, 43% for Colombia and 26% for Mexico. Other countries with impressive growth in fibre connections include Israel with 76%, Ireland with 54% and Italy with 53%. Seven countries now have a fibre share of above 70%

OECD’s 38 member countries, up from 12% a decade ago, and is by far the fastest-growing broadband technology, outpacing a 4.5% rise in overall fixed broadband subscriptions. It says that while countries use different technology mixes, 23 OECD countries have now a higher share of fibre than copper DSL in their total fixed broadband connections, up from 20 countries a year ago. Cable showed more modest growth of 4% in the year to June 2021, and is now declining in 15 countries, yet it remains the main fixed

Partners build first QKD network for Blockchain app

OIF releases CPO framework agreement

Global industry forum OIF, has released a framework implementation agreement for co-packaging, identifying the critical co-packaged applications and their requirements, and charting a path for interoperability standards. The Co-Packaging track of OIF’s Physical & Link Layer (PLL) Working Group began by studying the application spaces contributed by the end-users. Then, it examined various related topics, including electrical and optical interfaces, thermal and mechanical considerations, reliability, safety, environmental and management interfaces. The findings of the work are summarized in the Framework Document implementation agreement. This work also guided OIF to initiate two

March 2021. “OIF is leading industry discussion on this critical dense integration technology,” said Jeff Hutchins, Ranovus and OIF board member and PLL Working Group – Co- Packaging vice chair. “This framework IA provides the industry with a foundation for developing interoperable energy efficient co-packaged solutions.” “Co-packaging represents a significant change to the way high-performance communications ASICs are packaged today,” said technical editor of the Co- Packaging Framework IA, Kenneth Jackson, Sumitomo Electric. “This Framework document addresses many of the issues that initially challenged this new architecture and narrows the scope of achievable solutions. This is precisely what OIF excels at…identifying a

New research involving JPMorgan Chase, Toshiba and Ciena, has demonstrated the viability of a QKD network for metropolitan areas. Resistant to quantum computing attacks and capable of supporting 800 Gbps data under real-world environmental conditions, it is believed to be the first demonstration of QKD securing a mission-critical blockchain application in the industry. The research team

JPMorgan Chase’s Future Lab for Applied Research and Engineering (FLARE) and global network infrastructure teams, researchers from all three organisations collaborated to achieve the following results: • A QKD channel was multiplexed on the same fibre as 800 Gbps optical channels and was used to provide keys for encryption of the data stream. • Co-existence of the quantum channel with 2 x 800 Gbps and 8 x 100 Gbps channels was demonstrated for a 70km fibre, with a key rate sufficient to support up to 258 AES-256 encrypted channels at a key refresh rate of 1 key/sec. • Operation of QKD and the ten channels was demonstrated for distances up to 100km. The proof-of-concept network infrastructure used Toshiba Europe’s Multiplexed QKD System.

demonstrated the ability of the QKD network to

instantly detect and defend against eavesdroppers. It also studied the impact of realistic environmental factors on the quality of the quantum channel and used a QKD- secured optical channel to deploy and secure Liink by J.P. Morgan, the world’s first bank- led, production-grade, peer- to-peer blockchain network. Under the leadership of

follow-on co-packaging projects: External Laser

Small Form Factor Pluggable (ELSFP) Project, announced in May 2021, and the 3.2T Module Project, announced in

gap and collaborating on a path forward towards interoperability.”



| ISSUE 28 | Q1 2022

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