Ecosystem Services in Working Lands: US Northeast

Part 3: Methods


From the outset, three primary types of information were of interest for this landscape assessment, including program administration, incentive structure, and ecosystem functions/services (Table 3). An initial list of inclusion/exclusion criteria was established a-priori , and a selection of public and private agencies/organizations was systematically used as an initial point to “snowball” and expand the search to additional agencies/organizations. This assessment considered programs available from the federal government or national organizations, regional collaborations, and state agencies or state-level entities; highly localized programs available only at the county or municipal level were not considered in this report.

Table 3. Inclusion and exclusion criteria that helped identify relevant programs


Inclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria

Program Administration

U.S. public agencies, regional commissions/ coalitions: • Federal government • State government • Multi-state actors • Agricultural experiment stations/ Cooperative Extension U.S. private organizations, for example: • Audubon Society chapters • The Nature Conservancy • Watershed organizations • Land trusts • Foundations

Municipal policy/ordinances, specific county- or municipal-level programs

Corporations with missions outside the scope of this project

Incentive Structure

Programs that fund: •

Sponsorship, advertisement, fundraising programs, fee for service

Compliance/regulatory standards

• Income lost or costs accrued as a result of conservation practice(s)

Timeline Ongoing: presently active during FY 20/ 21 In development: legally backed/funded program that is not yet implemented

Repealed, de-funded, or suspended programs

Any USD amounts/eligible land units

All practices related to agriculture, animal husbandry, and land use/management

Practices related to the capture/release of wildlife for leisure

All types of producers (small farm/second income to large industrial operations)

Ecosystem Functions/Services

All types of ecosystem functions and services

Not tied to ag-related practices


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