Ecosystem Services in Working Lands: US Northeast


Attribution
2

Table of Contents
3

Advisory Group And Acknowledgments
5

Executive Summary
6

Part 1: Project Overview
8

1.1 Research Objectives
8

1.2 Scope of Work
8

Part 2: Introduction
10

2.1 Background
10

2.2 The U.S. Northeast in an Age of Uncertainty
10

2.3 From Ecosystem Services to Managing Multifunctional & Multiscalar Landscapes
12

Part 3: Methods
14

3.1 Overview
14

3.2 Guiding Concepts and Definitions
16

3.2.1 Ecosystem functions and services
16

3.2.2 Working lands and producers/managers
19

3.2.3 Incentive or finance mechanisms
20

Part 4: Results
21

4.1 Overview
21

4.2 Farming, Food, And Agriculture
23

4.2.1 Programs for Producers/Businesses
23

4.2.1.1 Access to cash, land, and tools/machinery
23

4.2.1.2 Farmer training across career stages
26

4.2.1.3 Certified practices regulate detrimental organisms
27

4.2.1.4 New frontiers: carbon sequestration
28

4.2.2 Programs for Supporting Institutions
28

4.2.2.1 Production of specialty crops and “foodsheds”
30

4.2.2.2 Food production in schools and cities
30

4.2.3 Review of Funding/Program Organizations
31

4.2.4 Opportunities to Expand Market Presence
32

4.3 Working Forests and Woodlands
33

4.3.1 Programs for Producers/ Businesses
33

4.3.1.1 Sustaining habitat for family forests and working woodlands
33

4.3.1.2 Assistance for reforestation programs
36

4.3.1.3 Producing material goods
36

4.3.2 Programs for Supporting Institutions
36

4.3.2.1 Improving forest health
36

4.3.2.3 Supporting forest plans
37

4.3.3 Review of Funding/Program Organizations
37

4.3.4 Opportunities to Expand Market Presence
40

4.4 Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Shellfish Operations
41

4.4.1 Programs for Producers/Businesses
41

4.4.1.1 Food production and operations
41

4.4.2 Programs for Supporting Institutions
43

4.4.2.1 Healthy aquatic habitats
43

4.4.3 Review of Funding/Program Organizations
45

4.4.4 Opportunities to Expand Market Presence
46

4.5 Supporting Landscapes and Systems
46

4.5.1 Programs for Producers/Businesses
46

4.5.1.1 PES and land protection restore wildlife habitat
46

4.5.1.2 Nutrient trading and household rebates serve water quality/quantity concerns
47

4.5.1.3 Multilevel incentive structures and access to capital
49

4.5.2 Programs for Supporting Institutions
49

4.5.2.1 Land acquisition to sustain water quality and quantity
49

4.5.2.2 State grants support public access to parks and trails
50

4.5.2.3 Loans and grants to regulate present, recurring, and future hazards
50

4.5.2.4 Experiential professional development builds local capacity
51

4.5.3 Review of Funding/Program Opportunities
51

4.5.4 Opportunities to expand market presence
52

4.6 Summary by Region and State
53

4.6.1 Areas of regional significance
53

4.6.1.1 Programs for food production
53

4.6.1.2 Interstate watershed improvement programs
55

4.6.1.3 Technical assistance and job training programs
57

4.6.2 State Summaries
58

Part 5: Conclusions and Recommendations
59

5.1 Increasing farm profitability and sustainability
61

5.2 Positioning agriculture and forestry as primary leaders in mitigating climate change
63

5.3 Building resiliency of rural and urban communities
67

5.4 Increasing the appeal of agricultural professions to a wide range of young people
69

References
72

Appendix
75

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