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THE COVER A Texas-Sized Endeavor – story on page 10
CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILTY 13 Underwater Visualization Drives Timely, Successful Habitat Restoration Project STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 16 The Durability Factor with Cold-Applied versus Hot-Applied Liquid Waterproofing 18 The Shark Habitat Challenge TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 20 Leading the Charge: Engineers Play a Key Role in Developing Electric Vehicle Infrastructure WATER + STORMWATER 22 Army Corps Partners with Community for First Line of Coastal Defense 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season 24 Wilmington’s Riverfront Park 26 Sarasota Project “Hurricane-Proofs” Sewage Spills 30 City Park Golf Course Opens as a Key Project in Denver’s Platte to Park Hill Stormwater Program 32 Land & Water Improves Ecological Status of Southmere Lake as it Safeguards UK Waterways 33 Sun & Water BUSINESS NEWS 36 Envision is the Solution for Building Back Better – ISI’s ‘Sustain it or Explain it’ Blog SOFTWARE + TECHNOLOGY 37 Turnagain Marine’s Secret to Delivering the Icy Strait Berth II Seven Months Ahead of Schedule 38 The Future of Roadside Infrastructure 39 Completing the Picture: The Future of Hydraulic Modeling is Two Dimensional SURVEYING 41 The Ingenious Way 1 Alliance Geomatics Combats Survey Equipment Theft departments 8 Events 43 Benchmarks: Where did the pandemic affect industry firms on the income statement? 44 Reader Index Columns 5 Engineering Front Line: How will PFAS impact the AEC Industry? Stephanie Warino 7 Looking Back, Moving Forward: The Lake Leatherwood Dam Luke Carothers
VOLUME 7 ISSUE 6 csengineermag.com
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Stephanie Warino P.G., WV LRS, PMP How will PFAS impact the AEC Industry?
There are many drivers in strategic business planning. The competitive environment, labor force conditions, funding cycles, commodity prices, international influences, and regulatory changes are all factors that drive market conditions, among others. Each factor is important and should be evaluated as a component of your strategic business planning market research. Some factors, depending on the markets you serve, can have larger impacts than other factors. One factor that will have significant, widespread impacts in the United States, and will especially affect the AEC industry and our clients, are emerg - ing contaminant groups. Emerging contaminant groups are chemicals – they can be man-made or natural. They are recently discovered, and they are classified as “emerging” because the environmental and overall health risks have not yet been quantified. There are a number of contaminants that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classify as “emerging”. The most potentially impactful emerging contaminants under continuing investigation are a group of extensively produced, man-made chemicals called per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). This group of chemicals are extremely pervasive in the environment, are soluble in water, bioaccumulate, and do not break down easily. PFAS can be found in food, household items, in the workplace, in drinking water, and in living organisms. Many of the facilities in which AEC works could be sources, have produced or have utilized PFAS. These potential sources include aviation facilities, car washes, chrome electro - plating, anodizing, and etching services, coatings, paints, and varnish manufacturers, fire-fighting foam manufacturers, landfills, municipal fire departments and firefighting training centers, paper mills, petroleum refineries and terminals, photographic film manufacturers, polish, wax, and cleaning product manufacturers, polymer manufacturers, printing facilities where inks are used in photolithography, textile and carpet manufac - turing, and wastewater treatment plants. AEC and our clients will need to understand the technical and business implications for these emerging contaminants and the levels at which ac - tion could be needed. For chemicals which have been fully assessed and have a known, quantified health hazard, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the EPA will issue a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Currently, the US EPA is on a path to developing a drinking water standard for two of the most widely studied PFAS – and there are 4,700 PFAS. And the safe threshold right now is incredibly low. Currently, the EPA Health Advisory levels are 70 parts per trillion. Not only that, but specialized sampling methodology and equipment needs to be used to prevent sample contamination - much of the commonly used sampling equipment used to collect samples (tubing, sample containers, and sampling tools) may themselves contain PFAS. Upcoming legislation that seeks to have PFAS designated as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Com - pensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) would have significant and far-reaching effects in nearly all the markets that we, in AEC, operate within. This legislation, if approved, can result in enormous liabilities for both AEC and our clients. Sources of PFAS are incredibly varied and encompass many of the facilities in which the AEC industry works. Sites should be evaluated for emerging contaminant potential prior to property transfer and subsequent redevelopment. Already over 30 states have PFAS policies of some sort in place, which is predictive of the eventual federal outcome. This is just one group of emerging contaminants, and there are certainly others out there, including but not limited to 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,4-dioxane, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, hexahydro-1.3.5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, and numerous others, including vapor intrusion, which is being investigated as an emerging contaminant (even though it’s really an exposure pathway for various volatile chemicals, and not a specific chemical). But PFAS are by far the most ubiquitous and lasting in the environment, and the most likely to have wide-ranging health effects due to their high rate of use, and their pervasiveness. The most immediate impacts, of course, will be to assess and address groundwaters and surface waters sources for potable water uses, as well as to address wastewater treatment. Both issues have some extremely wide-ranging implications, and it doesn’t stop at finding an unimpacted source of drinking water or designing a wastewater treatment plant to remediate for PFAS. For example, once you determine your existing source is contaminated, then not only is there the issue of finding a new water source, but also the issue of identifying the responsible party. This leads to the issue of investigating, delineating, and remediating the contaminated groundwater. With a re-designed wastewater treatment plant, there will be PFAS-contaminated byproducts that will need proper disposal. And so far, we’ve only talked about water and wastewater. Think about the environmental fate and potential remediation implications of PFAS in soil, in sediment, in landfills, and even as a contaminant in air. Remediation effort costs can range into the millions. For the AEC industry, our involvement in development projects, if there is environmen - tal due diligence, should include attention to this issue. Environmental risk is always manageable to some degree with careful, up-front due diligence – these steps are normally taken in a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment, which is an extremely commoditized task in the AEC in - dustry, so much so that they are sometimes conducted and produced using software. The more commoditized it has become, the more it becomes a sort of “check-the-box” mentality. AEC and our clients have a lot of challenges ahead of us with PFAS regulatory changes likely to be in the not-so-distant future. In addition, strategic market research may also be warranted for your firm to assess the potential business aspects - what clients are we currently serving that may be impacted, and not only how will it affect them and our operations. As a highly innovative industry full of brilliant people, we are up to the challenge - as consultants we can take action now to educate ourselves and our clients, and position both parties for the best possible outcome.
STEPHANIE WARINO is a Strategic Planning Advisor at Zweig Group. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lake Leatherwood and the dam that created it are located in Eureka Springs, Arkansas, nestled snugly in the Boston Mountains region of the Ozark Plateau. If it’s your first time visiting the area, you are bound to hear a common local legend: that the Lake Leather - wood Dam is the largest hand-carved limestone dam in the country. While this is almost certainly not true, the real story behind the dam and its history is no less interesting or significant. Plans to create Lake Leatherwood came as a result of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Soil Conservation Service (SCS) at the
The Lake Leatherwood Dam: Construction, Life, and an Uncertain Future Luke Carothers
height of the Dust Bowl. In 1937, Arkansas Governor Carl E. Bailey signed legislation that split the state into four soil conservation districts. Amongst the projects that improved soil quality in the four districts, the Lake Leatherwood Dam was considered the premier project. When the dam was completed in 1940, it featured a concrete-poured core covered in locally-quarried limestone. It is this on-site quarrying that lends to the myth of it being the largest hand carved dam in the country. The other contributing factor to the myth is the dam’s size: 630 feet long and 55 feet tall. Work on the project began early in 1938 under the direction of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the Soil Conservation Service, and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). Straddling two hills, the dam is impressive when approached from either angle. When approached from beneath, the cascading fresh water and natural feel of the local stone give the structure the feeling that it grew from the landscape naturally. When you traverse the walkway across the dam’s span, you are treated to commanding views of not only Lake Leatherwood, but also the lush valley to the north. On one hand, the Lake Leatherwood Dam was constructed as a soil conservation project. Prior to the dam’s construction, the northern area of West Leatherwood Creek was experiencing significant forest loss. Once completed, the dam was able to curb further soil erosion and loss, which allowed the verdant land around the creek to flourish. Additionally, the formation of Lake Leatherwood provided a stunning outdoor space for local residents to enjoy canoeing, sailing, fishing, and swimming. From its initial plan to create Lake Leatherwood, the project soon grew to include several other buildings and facilities along its shores. These additional structures are indicative of the dual purposes the project served. Approximately one mile south of the dam, on Lake Leatherwood’s western shore, the CCC constructed a stone bathhouse and a barbe - cue pit to form a larger picnic area. In order to facilitate the building of the dam, workers had to construct a new road, which is now part of Country Road 61, connecting the park to Highway 62 and making the park much more accessible to modern tourists and local residents Along this road, workers for the CCC built 6 stone culverts and 2 bridges: one single arch bridge and one double arch. In addition, the service road workers used to access the dam has been repurposed as Beacham Trail, which allows hikers to traverse the shores of the 120 acre Lake Leatherwood and cross the top of the dam. For over 80 years, travelers and hikers visiting the region who are not afraid of heights have been able to walk the shores of the Lake and cross the small walkway at the top of the dam, accessing the Eastern shore. In August 1992, the site was nominated and accepted to the National Reg - ister of Historical Places. The report submitted with the nomination noted a few issues such as spalling in a few places, but otherwise recorded the dam as being in good condition. Since that time, however, significant issues have developed with the structural integrity of the dam's stone walkway. In March 2021, the Eureka Springs Parks and Recreation Commission announced that the dam was closed indefinitely to cyclists and hikers. After finding significant dam - age to not only the railings but the integrity of the concrete itself. The commission found the reasons for such rapid deterioration twofold. On one hand, the locally sourced concrete, poured half a century ago, would not meet current standards, making it more and more susceptible to corrosion as time goes on. On the other hand, the area recently experienced the severe cold weather that affected much of the Southern U.S. in February. This bout of extreme cold weather took a huge toll on the structure, shearing off large portions of the upper railing structure. Repairs to the dam have been estimated to be upwards of $500,000, which can be a daunting number for a municipally-owned park. Luckily, the integrity of the dam itself is not thought to be in jeopardy, only the portion open to the public. Moving forward, the City plans to reassess their maintenance and inspection practices and figure out what can be done to monitor the health of the structure moving forward. Although the dam is closed to the public for now, there is hope that the proper repairs can be made to ensure its continuing use by the public.
LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at email@example.com.
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events + virtual Events
at automatica sprint 2021 as a special solution regarding the current situation. Selected teams of roboticists from academic and professional spheres will converge to solve a modern day manufacturing grand challenge in a multi-day competition. https://www.robothon-grand-challenge.com/
Movin'on summit june1-4 – MONTREAL, PARIS, SINGAPORE, & virtual
Take advantage of 4 days of inspirational and interactive phygital programming expanded to 3 continents and broadcast live from TV studios in the innovation-driven cities of Montreal, Paris and Singapore. Immerse yourself in an imaginative range of learning, connecting and collaborating environments hosted on a new, hive-like digital event platform buzzing with activities and opportunities. https://summit.movinonconnect.com/ Practical leadership skills are vital to the health and success of every company in any industry. Effective leaders motivate their teams to achieve exceptional results, inspire others to be better than they thought possible, and create an environment where their team is focused and working towards a common vision. Zweig Group’s team of management experts – who have extensive experience working with AEC firms providing solutions to the challenges facing AEC firms today – deliver practical solutions that technical professionals can put to work immediately to lead their firms to success. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/ leadership-skills-for-aec-professionals-virtual-seminar-starting-june-8- 2021?variant=39017810460823 Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals june 8 – virtual Cloud Architecture Summit features 6-10 vendors who will show how to make the cloud a core pillar of a modern end-to-end enterprise architecture. Cloud-Native Apps, Hybrid Integration & iPaaS, Modernize with APIs, Security and Governance, Enterprise-Class DevOps, AI/ML Lifecycle. https://www.idevnews.com/registration/cloud-architecture-summit A Syposium on the BIM-to-GIS Movement in the AEC Industry. In the second The Power of Where session, our AEC industry panelists bring the reasoning and approach to their firm's BIM-to-GIS workflow to light. We will discuss the real value BIM-to-GIS brings to their projects and the lessons learned in developing their workflow along the way. This session also features excellent insight from working practitioners of BIM-to-GIS that will guide your reasons for developing your firm’s spatial intelligence program. https://info.mg-aec.com/en-us/the-power-of-where Cloud Architecture Summit june 10 – virtual THE POWER OF WHERE june 15 – virtual
business of automated mobility forum june 23-24 – munich, germany & virtual
From drone delivery to driverless cars, automated mobility provides limitless opportunities and very real challenges. Join AUVSI and SAE International for the inaugural Business of Automated Mobility (BAM) Forum for tactical insights to get your business on the path to profitability. https://www.bam-forum.org/register july 2021
International Conference on Civil Engineering and Architectural Design july 1-3 – munich, germany
CEAD Germany 2021 will make an ideal stage for worldwide, as it unites famous speakers, specialists, business people over the globe, with a generally energizing and important logical occasion loaded up with a lot of edifying intuitive sessions, world-class display, Oral and publication introductions. Civil engineering conference 2021 show’s a goal to furnish the development, business with a profoundly engaged entryway to learn, arrange, and exploit the significant developments and Learning. https://ic2020cead.org/ Each team member brings their own unique experiences and skillset to project teams. Effectively leveraging the talents of your team can optimize team effectiveness. Project Management for AEC Professionals provides people-focused, science-driven practical skills to help project leaders harness the power of their team. By addressing the most important aspects of any project – the people – this course will provide practical techniques that can be immediately implemented for a positive impact on any AEC team or business. Project Management for AEC Professionals july 6 – virtual https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/project- management-for-aec-professionals-virtual-seminar-starting-april-7- 2021?variant=39017656877207 AUVSI’s Automated Freight Summit (AFS) will take place July 7-8, 2021 as a virtual event, diving into all things automated freight – safety, insurance, workforce, policy, and more. Join a diverse set of summit attendees as we tackle key questions related to accelerating the safe deployment of automated freight across the United States already underway. https://www.auvsi.org/events/automated-freight- summit?source=search-events AUTOMATED FREIGHT SUMMIT july 7-8 – virtual
Robothon june 22-24 – munich, germany & virtual
A robotics competition held during the automatica trade fair every two years, as part of munich_i, to showcase state-of-the-art methods in robotic manipulation. This year, the Robothon® will take place
Commercial UAV Expo Americas 2021 is where the commercial drone community gathers to learn, connect, and drive the industry forward. In addition to content about new opportunities and challenges the industry is facing due to COVID-19, industries covered include Construction; Drone Delivery; Energy & Utilities; Forestry & Agriculture; Infrastructure & Transportation; Mining & Aggregates; Public Safety & Emergency Services; Security; and Surveying & Mapping. It is presented by Commercial UAV News and organized by Diversified Communications. https://www.expouav.com/ ENGINEER is the newest trade exhibition presented by C.I.S jointly organised with Malaysia’s official professional organisation for the engineering fraternity – The Institution of Engineers (IEM). This industry trade event is aimed towards providing engineering professionals in Malaysia and the region with an exciting and unique platform to gain an insight into cutting-edge solutions and advanced engineering technologies by international leading manufacturers. ENGINEER offers invaluable opportunities to network, collaborate and exchange ideas over the four-day event. https://engineermalaysia.com.my/ ENGINEER 2021 september 8-11 – malaysia 2021 Virtual Elevate AEC Conference & ElevateHER Symposium september 13 - October 8 Our annual ElevateAEC Conference & ElevateHer Symposium will be a four-week virtual experience with over 40 speakers and 30 credit hours of networking, learning, and celebrating – all in an unlimited virtual environment. With over 1900 registrants at last year’s virtual conference, we are excited to present an evolved and more interactive virtual platform where many can gather to elevate themselves, their firms, and the industry, all from the comfort of their home or office. From Project Manager to CEO, there is something for everyone at the 2021 ElevateAEC Conference and ElevateHer Symposium. https://www.zweiggroup.com/2021-elevate-aec-conference/ The International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) is a scientific/technical Association comprising members in 100 countries and counting 56 National Groups. The aim of the Association is to exchange knowledge and to advance the practice of structural engineering worldwide in the service of the profession and society. Founded in 1929, IABSE hosted a series of Congresses every four years from 1932 to 2016 and every year from 2019. https://iabse.org/ghent2021 IABSE Congress Ghent 2021 september 22-24 – ghent, belgium
Elevating Doer-Sellers: Business Development for AEC Professionals july 7 – virtual Elevating Doer-Sellers: Business Development for AEC Professionals is specifically developed to help design and technical professionals in architecture, engineering, planning, and environmental firms become more comfortable managing clients and promoting the firm and its services. Led by two retired and current CEOs with extensive experience from the design desk to the board room, this one-of-a-kind seminar presents business development techniques proven to drive real growth and value in your AEC firm. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/elevating- doer-sellers-business-development-for-aec-professionals-virtual- seminar-starting-april-4-2021?variant=38779972518039 Intelligent Data Summit - is a multi-vendor virtual summit where experts will share how to design and deliver a modern digital enterprise powered by analytics, data & AI/ML. Topics include proven strategies, tools and platforms for all environments. https://www.idevnews.com/registration/?event_id=518&code=23053 august 2021 Powered by the global reach of the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI), XPONENTIAL is the only gathering for leaders and end users in every industry to share use cases, experience new technology, strike up new partnerships, and solve real problems. It’s a global platform optimized to help big ideas take flight. From hands-on demos on the XPO floor to a video call with someone on the other side of the globe, personal relationships are at the heart of the experience– because a single conversation could spark your next ‘aha’ moment. https://www.xponential.org/xponential2021/public/Enter.aspx Intelligent Data Summit july 22 – virtual AUVSI XPONENTIAL august 16-19 – atlanta, ga Advanced Project Management for AEC Professionals august 10 – virtual The recommended prerequisite for this course is Zweig Group’s Project Management for AEC Professionals as this advanced-level content builds on and hones the skills developed in this course. This course is ideal for people that have existing experience leading projects and teams. A new advanced skills training course for project managers led by a panel of three experts backed by a ton of research on how to best train project managers to be more effective and efficient. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/advanced- project-management-for-aec-professionals-virtual-seminar-starting- february-3-2021?variant=39017772679319 september 2021
Commercial UAV Expo Americas september 7-9 – las vegas, nv
Things are indeed bigger in Texas. And Houston’s Northeast Transmis - sion Line is no exception. After a decade of astonishing 21.6 percent population growth, the Houston region is expected to double its cur - rent population by 2050. To keep up with projected water demands, and in response to the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District mandate to reduce groundwater pumping along the Texas coastal region, the City of Houston partnered with regional water authorities to build the Northeast Transmission Line (NETL). The NETL program, Houston’s largest water transmission program yet, is full steam ahead. The project will convey 365 MGD of treated surface water from the newly expanded Northeast Water Purification Plant (NEWPP) through 16.5 miles of primarily 108-inch steel water line from Lake Houston to west of IH-45 with various take-points and interconnections along the way. The water line will also provide redundancy for areas serviced by the existing 66-inch waterline along the Greens Road corridor. “Houston Public Works is integrating multiple segments into one mas - sive pipeline. Once complete, the City will be able to increase surface water usage to help minimize subsidence and flooding,” said Pan - duranga P.K. Kuruva, P.E., managing engineer for Houston's surface water program. “Increasing water capacity is vital to meet Houston's Houston Public Works divided the 16.5 miles into 13 construction contracts. With most of the line being 108-inch diameter, the proj - ects also included 120-inch, 96-inch, 84-inch, 66-inch, 54-inch and 42-inch diameter interconnections. All 16.5 miles of steel water line was manufactured in Texas factories with more than 21,700 metric tons of domestically sourced steel coil. The total construction cost is nearly $450 million, with 26 large diameter isolation valves, more than 17,000 linear feet of tunnels, and over 100 easement parcels. Once the Northeast Water Purification Plant (NEWPP) Expansion is completed, the NETL will serve more than 900,000 homes in Harris County. “A project of this magnitude required years of planning and extensive collaboration,” said Mackrena Ramos, P.E., vice president at Lock - wood, Andrews & Newnam, Inc. (LAN), a national planning, engi - neering and program management firm that is serving as the technical advisor. “Just the sheer size of the project makes it unique, but the number of individuals it took to make it a reality is quite amazing. From the City team to their partners, engineers, utility coordinators, manufacturers, and contractors’ workforce, we all had a vested interest to meet the water needs of Texans.” growing demand.” By the Numbers A Texas-Sized Endeavor Houston Public Works’ Northeast Transmission Line Takes Shape By Christine Kirby and Kevin Tran
108 x 84 x 54-inch interconnection for NETL workaround solution. Photo: LAN
Texas-Sized Challenges For a project of this scale, challenges of equal magnitude were faced throughout the design and construction process. The 13 segments were organized in three phases, known as the eastern projects, the western projects, and the “workaround solution”. The workaround solution – three projects which fell in the middle of the alignment – was designed and built first as it could be placed in service with interconnections to the existing system on each end. This created a long bypass for a segment of the existing 66-inch water transmission main along the Greens Road corridor. The first of the projects began construction on summer 2018, and the workaround solution was placed in service by fall 2020. The City was able to isolate part of the existing 66-inch main for condition assessment and rehabilitation, all while the eastern and western segments were still in construction. By the spring of 2021, a much-needed repair was successfully completed on the existing 66-inch water line, which is a major source of water for the City and surrounding areas, including George Bush Intercontinental Airport. “The internal repair of the existing 66-inch main was crucial to restor - ing service to an essential line within the NEWPP service area. The interconnection between the 108-inch and 66-inch was on the critical path during design and construction. Now complete, the interconnect 137-inch diameter earth pressure balance machine ready to be lowered into shaft for tunnel excavation under IH-69. Photo: LAN
Each standard 40-foot-long pipe segment, weighing 35,000 pounds, arrived on site on an 18-wheeler truck. Once the pipe arrived, it was offloaded in a location as close as possible so that the excavator could reach it without having to travel a long distance. To lift and move this pipe, a 70 metric-ton excavator was needed. Harper Brothers Construction used a Hitachi 870, a slightly larger tracked excavator, to perform the double duty of lifting the pipe and excavating a deeper trench. Stabilized construction roads were built within easement areas so that 18-wheelers, dump trucks and other vehicles could enter and exit the job site. Where pipe and materials could not be stored on site, a secondary laydown area was used. “One of the biggest challenges with construction projects in urban or semi-urban settings is the logistics. To overcome the space constraints on site, we had to have a thorough site plan. We staged our materials in a way that allowed for fluid movement of the crew through the line. The key to a successful project is a solid plan,” said Jon Harper, CEO of Harper Brothers Construction, LLC. When the COVID-19 pandemic struck the Houston area in March 2020, quick thinking was needed on the part of the City’s team. Two of the western projects had advertised for bids, but the mandatory pre- construction meeting had not yet been held. There was no room for delay, so the team quickly converted the meetings to a virtual format, and attendees were able to call in by phone or log in through a com-
and repair provide operational flexibility and longevity to the two sys - tems,” said Ramos. Part of the workaround solution included a 1,163-foot tunnel under IH-69 at Aldine Bender Road. The freeway consists of 15 elevated main lanes and eight frontage road lanes at this crossing location. The tunnel alignment stretched between bridge columns, and soil condi- tions included fine sand and silty sand under the groundwater table. Harper Brothers Construction, LLC procured an earth pressure balance machine (EPBM) and successfully completed the tunnel between Janu - ary to March 2020. Another challenging aspect of this large-scale waterline project was construction staging and access within an urbanized area. Easements ranged in width from 50 feet to 90 feet, with many of the parcels on developed land. Existing utilities, surface features such as driveways, parking lots, trees, landscaping, and monument signs were within close proximity to the proposed construction work. Contractors needed ev - ery inch of space for equipment and material staging, and this was a major consideration during the design phase. Design engineers identi - fied conflicts and worked with private utility owners to relocate over - head and buried utilities to make way for construction. Relocations of easement encroachments, such as monument signs, landscaping and fences, were identified by the design engineer and coordinated through the City in advance of construction. The City’s public engagement team’s primary goal is to engage, edu - cate, and inform the community. They conducted community meet- ings to provide information to residents and business owners for the upcoming construction work. The meetings, held after the contractor was selected but before construction work began, allowed attendees to interface directly with the design team and contractor’s representatives. "Transparency is key for any large project like this. Houston Public Works relies on the community's support to ensure success throughout construction and implementation," said Kenya Williams, public engage - ment team for Capital Projects. "Our engagement team made sure to address any challenges and concerns before construction began." 108-inch diameter water line installed by open-cut construction in easements. Photo: LAN
puter. Monthly progress meetings were converted to a virtual format as well and are still being conducted this way today. Safety of the field crews and support staff, all considered as essential workers, were of the utmost priority. Face coverings and hand sanitizer were provided, along with implementing social distancing and contact tracing for crews. Teams quickly adapted to new restrictions and safety protocols, and field activities never missed a beat. “For the NETL project, all the materials were local and made in Texas. Therefore, we didn’t have major delays. We were fortunate that we did not have any severe cases in our workforce,” said Harper. On February 15, 2021, temperatures across the state plunged into record-setting, sub-freezing conditions, resulting in widescale electric- ity outages that lasted for several days. In a matter of hours, chemical plants along the Texas Gulf Coast underwent swift unplanned shut - downs, disrupting global supply chains, and triggering a shortage of raw materials, including polypropylene and polyethylene. As a result, a shortage of materials such as PVC pipe and protective coatings for pipelines is looming over the NETL and the construction industry. So far, manufacturers and suppliers have met commitments, but impacts from the Texas freeze will be felt for months to come. Where We Are, and Where We’re Going To date, seven segments have been completed and placed in service. Six segments are currently in construction, and the entire NETL is expected to be completed by late 2022. “The Northeast Transmission Line is more than ten years in the making and will be the largest water line for the City of Houston,” says Kuruva. “Our purpose is ‘Together we create a strong founda - tion for Houston to thrive’ and the Northeast Transmission Line embodies our goal for improved water service across the area.” Houston’s legacy continues with its trail-blazing water infrastruc - ture expansion initiatives. Thanks to these initiatives, the City of Crews wearing face coverings as part of new COVID 19 safety protocols. Photo: LAN
Houston’s drinking water system maintains a “Superior” rating, the highest rating for water quality issued by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. CHRISTINE KIRBY, P.E. is a senior associate and senior project manager at Lockwood, Andrews & Newnam, Inc. (LAN), a national planning, engineering and program management firm. She can be reached at email@example.com. KEVIN TRAN, P.E. is a supervising engineer and NETL team lead at City of Houston Public Works, Capital Projects, Facilities Delivery Line, Surface Water Transmission Program. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
S t r u c t u r a l E n g i n e e r s A x i o m # 7 Structural Engineers Axiom #7
Professional Liability is essential. Overpaying is not. Professional Liabi ity is Essential. Overpaying is Not.
I t pays to have the right profes- sional liability coverage. But you shouldn’t overpay. At Fenner & Esler, we’re more than just brokers. We’re A/E specialists. Delivering the right coverage and value to design firms of all sizes since 1923. With multiple insurance carriers. At Fenner & Esler, we’re more than just brokers. We’re A/E specialists. Delivering the right coverage and value to design firms of all sizes since 1923. With multiple insurance carriers. And a proven track record serving the unique risks of structural engineers. And a proven track record serving the unique risks of structural engineers. It pays to have the right profes- sional liability coverage. But you shouldn’t overpay.
Get a quote—overnight. Visit: www.fenner-esler.com Click “Need a Quote” Call toll-free: 866-PE-PROTEK (866-737-7683 x. 208) Ask for Tim Esler. Email: email@example.com im@Insuranc 4Structurals.com ww .insurance4structurals.com Get a quote—overnight. Vi it: w.insurance4structurals.com Click “Need a Quote” ll toll-free: 866-PE-PROTEK ( 66-737-7683 x.208) Ask for Tim Esler. Email: ti @Insurance4Structurals.com
T H E P RO F E S S I O N A L ’ S C H O I C E S I N C E 1 9 2 3
The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) is facilitating the multi-year, $18-million Kingsbury Bay – Grassy Point Habitat remediation and restoration, a site located in St. Louis County, Minne - sota. The goal of the project is to restore 240 acres of fish and wildlife habitat within a part of the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC). Critical to the project is to excavate and reuse excess sediment, remedi - ate and reuse legacy wood waste and remove non-native vegetation. Minnesota DNR contracted Barr Engineering Co. to manage the en - gineering and design, construction administration, and quality control oversight and Veit & Company, Inc. for the construction effort. Begun in 2019, the restoration effort includes: • The removal of invasive cattail from Kingsbury Bay to an offsite disposal location • The removal of legacy wood waste from Grassy Point and reuse of waste to construct small islands in the area • Sediment dredging from Kingsbury Bay and reuse of sediment to restore aquatic and upland habitat The Veit crews also installed in-water stream control structures at the inlets of Kingsbury and Keene Creek, with a little help from technology. Underwater Visualization Founded in 1928, Veit & Company, Inc. has long been a technology leader in the Upper Midwest’s site prep and civil works market seg - ment. Its technology-enabled fleet includes dozers, excavators, motor graders, and skid steers all equipped with 3D machine control systems, as well as rovers, base stations and total stations—all connected to the cloud, enabling the easy transfer of 3D project files to field crews. For the Kingsbury Bay – Grassy Point Habitat project, GPS-guided machine control on excavators was particularly valuable, especially when combined with a Trimble Marine Construction System to track underwater material removal in real time. One of the most challenging tasks in the marine construction environ - ment – whether for dredging, building, or demolition – is working in turbid water including suspended sediments and materials, making it impossible to accurately monitor progress. Conventional practice is for a contractor to estimate the approximate amount of material to be removed or placed on a given site based on experience and pre- construction hydrographic surveys. Once the operator has reached an estimated point of completion, they conduct a post-construction survey for verification and certification, and almost always, the operator must return to the site for rework. The Trimble Marine Construction System can be integrated with a Underwater Visualization Drives Timely, Successful Habitat Restoration Project
single beam echo sounder (SBES) to acquire pre-/post-dredge survey data from below the water and then quickly identify high and low spots, calculate progress volumes and send grid model updates to both the office and the dredge vessel. “We use the Trimble Marine Construction System to track the bucket location in real-time in 3D—a huge advantage in water,” said Britton Lawson, Director of Construction Technology at Veit. “Essentially, the 3D map created by Trimble is the only eyes for the excavator operators to know where they’ve been and where they need to go. Project manag - ers are also able to track progress and material quantities moved.” Dredged with Accuracy For the Grassy Point job, Veit used two Liebherr excavators with clam - shell buckets on barge spreads. Each was equipped with the Trimble Earthworks Grade Control Platform using the Minnesota Department of Transportations’ MnCORS VRS Virtual reference station network for instant access to RTK positioning services. “One machine would excavate to design and load the material. Two tugboats moving four hopper barges were used to transport the material
to the placement site. The other unit would unload the material, placing it on the seabed to a design grade. This was all achieved with Trimble guidance,” Lawson said. “We also had a Trimble Siteworks Positioning System with a TSC7 Controller that was performing quality control/ quality assurance checks behind both spreads.” The Veit team relied on a remote connectivity cloud platform to remotely manage the units. Bi-weekly as-built progress surveys were completed by survey crews using a single beam sonar. The subsequent surveys were then uploaded to the machines for reference. “The data from the single beam echo sounder was compiled in Trimble Business Center and sent out with plan sheets,” said Lawson. “We used aerial drones to gather topographic data of the island surface above the water and then combined those surveys with the machine mapping data. That process helped significantly to reduce rework. We never had to go back because it was field-verified right away.” The Trimble Marine Construction System makes the process much faster and more accurate. Lawson estimates that the initial excavation is about 50 percent quicker than traditional methods because operators know where the bucket has been and where it needs to go. Lawson added, “With the 3D visualization, we have greater assurance that cut depths are accurate as compared to a mark on the stick. Reducing the time spent returning to a site for rework is invaluable.” Enabled by technology, Veit crews worked 24-hours a day, Monday- Saturday, to complete the required tasks from June to September 2020. Summer 2021 will conclude the restoration project, finishing the cap on the Grassy Point islands using clean sediment removed from Kingsbury Bay, dredging remaining excess sediment from open water portions of Kingsbury Bay, restoring Grassy Point wood removal ar - eas using sediment from Kingsbury Bay and restoring and reseeding disturbed areas. Lawson concluded, “I cannot imagine performing this project with - out 3D positioning technology. Using the Trimble workflow greatly
contributed to our success and reduced our rework to almost none. We would not want to tackle this type of project without the 3D tools we had available to us from Trimble.” Customer Profile: Veit & Company, Inc. is a leading, technology- progressive specialty contractor with corporate offices in Rogers, Min - nesota. The company specializes in earthwork, utilities, foundations, demolition, dredging and industrial cleaning. With an annual revenue of more than $200 million and 100-120 projects running at any one time, approximately 75 percent of the company’s earthwork projects rely on technology including machine control, rovers, total stations and base stations. Business Challenge: Efficiently remove and reuse sediment, legacy wood waste and non-native vegetation to restore the Kingsbury Bay – Grassy Point Habitat. Solution • Trimble Marine Construction System • Trimble Earthworks Grade Control Platform • Trimble Business Center • Trimble TSC7 Controller/SPS986 Antenna • Trimble Siteworks Positioning System • Trimble Remote Assistant
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The Durability Factor with Cold-Applied versus Hot-Applied Liquid Waterproofing By Greg Austin
Introduction There are many obvious reasons why durability is important for com- mercial construction and the waterproofing of covered podiums and plaza decks, green roofs, balconies, and terraces. Most of these public areas need to withstand foot traffic, vehicles, and equipment transport. In all cases, especially with roofs, specifiers need to ensure there is a reliable, highly durable membrane sealing the surface and any design features to provide long-term water protection. Commercial builders, designers, and architects can choose from nu - merous different types of waterproofing products. Liquid-applied is typically preferred when conformation to the given site layout and/ or speed of installation are critical. There are two types of liquid wa - terproofing – cold-applied and hot-applied – each of them has its own set of features and benefits. In addition, the total amount of material needed to provide a reliable waterproofing layer should be considered. So, which type of liquid waterproofing is more durable? After looking at the durability factors in waterproofing, we will explore the differ - ences between cold and hot-applied waterproofing, concluding which liquid waterproofing type is recommended based on those all-important durability factors. The Durability Factors in Liquid Waterproofing There are six major criteria that should be considered when assessing the durability performance of a component product and system overall, five of which are defined through ASTM International standard test - ing methods. Formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM is a standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. The six testing criteria for vulcanized rubber and thermoplastic elas - tomers (the materials that hot-applied and cold-applied liquid water - proofing solutions are made of respectively) are as follows: 1. Tensile (tension) strength (ASTM D412) – The ability to withstand tensile forces. Tensile strength measures the stress required to stretch the material to the point where it breaks. It can be used to evaluate the maximum amount of tensile force that a material can be subject to before failure. 2. Tear resistance or tear strength (ASTM D624) – The resistance to tearing action, including the force to initiate tearing of the materials or tear propa- gation. With a waterproofing application, the force to initiate the tearing is particularly important.
3. Adhesion to concrete (ASTM D4541/ASTM D7234) – The greatest perpendicular force a surface area can bear before a section of material is “pulled off” or detached. How well the material adheres to the concrete and maintains after water immersion is very critical with liquid waterproofing. 4. Shore hardness (ASTM D2240) – The resistance a material has to inden- tation. This measures the indentation hardness of substances such as ther- moplastic elastomers, vulcanized (thermoset) rubber, elastomeric materials, and some plastics. 5. Abrasion resistance (ASTM D4060 - Taber Wear Index) – The rate of wear as calculated by measuring the loss in weight (in milligrams) per thousand cycles of abrasion. The lower the wear index, the better the abrasion resistance. 6. Low-temperature crack bridging (ASTM C836 or ASTM C1305) – The abil- ity of the material to maintain its integrity while bridging a crack in the substrate at low ambient temperatures when the polymeric materials are least likely to be flexible. Meeting this criterion allows the material to perform exceptionally at crack-bridging, a critical factor with construction-based waterproofing. A waterproofing system should be evaluated on the basis of the re - sults of this set of tests and should not be selected based on a single performance value. Importantly, the highest possible test value does not always translate into installed performance. Therefore the system should be evaluated in total to determine the likelihood of achieving the desired installed performance. Notable Durability Differences Between Cold-Applied and Hot-Applied Waterproofing Product materials and chemistry Hot-applied liquid waterproofing systems consist of rubberized as - phalt. Multiple layers must be applied to achieve durability, along with a reinforcement layer made of fleece and a protection board, which add complexity to the installation. Because of the additional skill set required for the installation of reinforcement and protection, there is a greater chance of errors occurring during the installation that could affect the watertight performance and durability of the product. Cold-applied liquid waterproofing requires applying only one or two layers (after the primer) to achieve durable performance. Some of these systems do not require a reinforcement layer or protection course during construction.
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