City of DeSoto Basis of Budgeting and Accounting The accounting and financial reporting treatment applied to a fund is determined by its “measurement focus.” All governmental funds (i.e., General Fund, Special Revenue funds, etc.) are budgeted and accounted for using a current financial resources measurement focus. With this measurement focus, only current assets and current liabilities are generally included on the balance sheet. Operating revenues of governmental funds present increases (revenues and other financing sources) and decreases (expenditures and other financing uses) in net current assets. Proprietary fund types, including enterprise funds (i.e., Water and Sewer, Drainage Utility), are accounted for on a flow of economic resources measurement focus. With this measurement focus, all assets and liabilities associated with the operation of these funds are included on the balance sheet. Fund equity (assets net of liabilities) is segregated into invested in capital assets, net of related debt and unrestricted net asset components. Proprietary fund type operating statements present increases (revenues) and decreases (expenses) in net assets. Financial information is presented using the modified accrual basis of accounting for all governmental fund types and agency funds. Under the modified accrual basis of accounting, revenues are recognized when susceptible to accrual (when they become both measurable and available). “Measurable” means the amount of the transaction can be determined, and “available” means the amount is collectible within the current accounting periods, or soon enough thereafter to be used to pay liabilities of the current period. Ad valorem, franchise and sales tax revenues are recognized under the susceptible to accrual concept, since they are both measurable and available within 60 days after year end. Licenses and permits, charges for services (except for water and sewer billings), fines and forfeitures, and miscellaneous revenues are recorded as revenues when received in cash because they are generally not measurable until actually received. Expenditures are recorded when the related fund liability is incurred. Interest on general long-term debt is recorded as a fund liability when due or when amount have been accumulated in the debt service fund for payments to be made early in the following year. The accrual basis of accounting is used in Proprietary Fund types, i.e., Enterprise Funds for financial reporting purposes. Under the full accrual basis of accounting, revenues and expenses are identified with a specific period of time, and are recorded as incurred, without regard to the date of receipt or payment of cash. For example, water and wastewater service charges are customarily recognized as revenues when billed, rather than at the time when the actual payment of the bill is received, in contrast to license and permit fees, which are recognized as revenues when payment is actually received in cash. This method of accounting is used for financial reporting purposes in the City’s comprehensive annual financial report; however, for budget presentation purposes, working capital is recognized as fund balance. Working capital, rather than unrestricted net assets, is used to represent fund balance in Enterprise Funds (which is similar to using the modified accrual basis). Under the working capital approach, depreciation expense is not budgeted, and capital outlay and debt service principal are budgeted as expenses. Working capital is generally defined as the difference between current assets (e.g., cash and receivables, etc.) and current liabilities (e.g., accounts payable), and provides a more thorough analysis of proprietary fund reserves for budget purposes than does the presentation of net assets. In addition, budgeting capital outlay as an expense for budgetary purposes allows the proposed capital purchases to be reviewed and authorized by City Council.
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