14 Measuring global education goals: How TIMSS helps
Target 4.c: Teachers
being taught by a teacher who has at least a bachelor’s or equivalent degree of long cycle tertiary education, compared with 85% of their Grade 4 peers. In some countries, a sizeable share of students are being taught by mathematics teachers who only have at most a secondary education qualification, including, for instance, Albania (19%) in Grade 4 and Morocco (34%) in Grade 8.
The Education 2030 Agenda calls for countries to increase the supply of qualified teachers. Although there is no international consensus yet on how to define a qualified teacher, one indicator is the highest level of formal education completed. The 2019 TIMSS offers the possibility to compare the relative qualifications of Grade 4 and 8 mathematics and science teachers. Grade 8 mathematics teachers have higher qualifications on average, with 95% of students
FIGURE 4.C.1: Percentage of Grade 4 and 8 students taught by teacher with different levels of qualifications
a. Grade 4
b. Grade 8
Masters or doctor or equivalent
Bachelor or equivalent
Short-cycle tertiary education
At most upper secondary
TIMSS 2019 participating entities reflected in the figure above have been selected by and named according to UNESCO.
Note: *Norway, South Africa and Turkey administered the assessment to fifth-grade students instead of fourth-grade students, while Norway and South Africa administered the assessment to ninth-grade students instead of eighth-grade students.
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