C+S October 2021 Vol. 7 Issue 10 (web)



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THE COVER Repairing the Hernando De Soto Bridge – story on page 10

CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 13 Addressing Ecological and Coastal Protection in the Gulf Region 14 Interior Department Commits Funds to $22B Parks Maintenance Backlog 15 Moving Towards Digitization 16 Modern Design is Inclusive Design STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 18 Low-density Cellular Concrete for MSE Wall Backfill in Hawaii TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 19 Inspection and Testing for a Safer World 20 Chongqing and Guizhou Organizations Advance Construction of Taihong Yangtze River Bridge 22 The Envision Verification Process Incorporates Sustainability into Infrastructure Projects 24 How Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring Technologies are the Key to Creating the “Smart Cities” of the Future 26 Improving Coastal Facilities Resiliency Systematically WATER + STORMWATER 29 Washington Project Restores Water for Farmers BUSINESS NEWS 32 Digitization of the Capital Lifecycle 33 Assessing the Risks and Benefits of COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates for Employees SOFTWARE + TECH 35 Bowen Engineering Levels Up Its Game with Mixed Reality 37 Scoring System for Facility Health Assessment 39 A New Bridge Over an Old Canal UNMANNED SYSTEMS 41 Automating Data with Drones SURVEYING 42 Morrison-Shipley Sets New Benchmark for Fast-Turnaround Reality Capture 45 Benchmarks 47 Reader Index Columns 5 Engineering Front Line: A Bridge to Innovation Phil Keil 6 Looking Back, Moving Forward: Rural Infrastructure: Bridging America Luke Carothers departments 8 Events




October 2021


VOLUME 7 ISSUE 10 csengineermag.com

publisher Chad Clinehens, P.E. | 479.856.6097 | cclinehens@zweiggroup.com media manager Anna Finley | 479.435.6850 | afinley@zweiggroup.com ART director Maisie Johnson | 417.572.4561 | mjohnson@zweiggroup.com Editor Luke Carothers | lcarothers@zweiggroup.com

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Civil + Structural Engineer (ISSN 23726717) is published monthly by Zweig Group, 1200 North College Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72703. Telephone: 800.466.6275. Copyright© 2020, Zweig Group. Articles not be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of Zweig Group. Unsolicited manuscripts will not be returned unless accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Subscriptions: Annual digital subscription is free. To subscribe or update your subscription information, please visit our website www.csengineermag.com/ subscribe/ or call 800.466.6275.

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Nov. 1–12, 2021

The National Precast Concrete Association presents Precast Days 2021, a unique educational opportunity to provide students, specifiers, engineers and contractors with an up close experience at a local precast concrete plant. SPONSORED BY

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October 2021

A Bridge to Innovation

Phil Keil

It is an exciting time to be a part of this industry although, on a day-to-day basis, it may not feel that way. Indeed, there are plenty of challenges and concerns out there to keep us occupied. People are feeling a lack of purpose combined with high burnout, utilization is at a record high, backlog feels overwhelming, it seems impossible to recruit and retain great people, and training/mentoring is not happening in a meaningful way. That is simply the beginning. Looking at the economy on a macro level, there is cause for concern. Looking at drivers within AEC, there is a lot of optimism. This leads to many that we speak to around the world feeling the need to capture as much as we can before the economy falls off a cliff. If necessity is the mother of invention, these times of uncertainty and pressure are precisely the mix of factors that will allow for a transformation – a bridge to opportunity and innovation if we are willing to seize it. The goal is to remain solution, rather than problem oriented. Transformation generally emerges from an organization or industry at times of chaos, struggle, division, or major change. At the individual contributor level, it will require resilience, emotional intelligence, strength and mercy, confidence and humility, patience, and persistence. Those that remain focused on a just purpose stand to transform the competitive landscape and capture more value in a short timeline than arguably at any other point in history. Research has shown that companies with a high level of purpose outperform the market by 5-7 percent per year which is on par with firms that have best-in-class governance and innovation capabilities. My argument is that it drives innovation capabilities. They also grow faster and have higher profitability. Take a moment to reflect on the compounding effect that can have over time. One profession I like to look towards when thinking about how labor constraints and pressure have contributed to change is Surveying. They’ve faced some of the aforementioned challenges earlier than other parts of our industry. The result is an incredible adaptation and adoption of technology. Zooming out to look at the pandemic period to date, we see a skyrocketing adoption of AI. According to PwC, 52 percent of companies accelerated their AI-adoption plans because of the COVID crisis. 86 percent say that AI is becoming a “mainstream technology” at their company in 2021. A Harris Poll found that 55 percent of companies reported that they accelerated their AI strategy in 2020, and it is only looking like this trend will further accelerate. AEC is not typically thought of, internal to the industry, as a first adopter of technology and work practices. I believe we are in the middle of a global transformation, however, that will affect just about everything. The opportunity to shake the old narratives is ripe. Many were labeling this “Industry 4.0” prior to the pandemic, and my argument is that the pandemic has only added accelerant to that already burning fire. Industry 4.0 is just a label to represent the fourth industrial revolution that moves us from the first industrial revolution (mechanization through water and steam power) to the mass production and assembly lines of the second, to the fourth industrial revolution that will accelerate the adoption of automation through smart and autonomous systems fueled by data and machine learning. This includes the Internet of Things (IoT), the Internet of Systems (IoS), 3D printing, AR, and VR, for example. Looking at the major trends, it can sometimes feel that the individual has little power to make change. I believe the opposite. I know we can empower the individual as we never have before. It allows for decentralized systems and information accessible by all. What this means practically within our companies is that young leaders will be more influential than ever. A few things you can do at an individual level to position yourself well to reap the rewards of this transformation include: • Keep your word and establish trust • Quickly acknowledge where failure has occurred and demand change • Anticipate different viewpoints and pushback • Know when to be restrained and when to push forward • Set the example • Understand your team’s emotional needs • Refuse to allow dwelling on past failure and disagreement • Control your own emotional outbursts • Protect your team from blame There is a bridge filled with opportunity and potential that can lead us from where we are today to a landscape where the change you’ve been seeking is possible. The environment is ripe for transformation. It is up to you to seize the day, work harder, and go farther.

PHIL KEIL is director of Strategy Consulting, Zweig Group. Contact him at pkeil@zweiggroup.com.


October 2021


looking back, moving forward Rural

When writing about the history of bridges in the United States, it is easy to focus on the grandiose and spectacular, and rightfully so. Some of the nation’s most spectacular engineering feats are bridges; stories of these projects–

Infrastructure: Bridging America

vital link along the National Road, which allowed America to continue expanding westward. The Dunlap’s Creek Bridge is still standing today, and continues to carry a heavy vehicle load. As the United States moved through the 19th century, railroads exploded in popularity, and the need for new bridges again reached a peak. Unlike previous bridges, these new bridges had to be capable of supporting the higher loads associated with trains. In order to compensate for these heavier loads, engineers turned to steel, which was easier to produce as a result of the Industrial Revolution. The addition of steel to design allowed for new innovations in design such as cantilevered arches. Bridge design was further influenced in the later half of the 19th century with the invention of reinforced concrete, which was originally based on a patent for reinforcing thin clay flowerpots with steel mesh. Concrete, which is significantly cheaper to source and use than stone, could easily be molded and transported. When reinforced with steel, concrete also posed a significant advantage over stone in terms of its load-bearing capacity. These new developments meant that, by the early 20th century in the United States, bridges were stronger and cheaper than ever before. Coupled with the invention and growing popularity of automobiles, these circumstances led to an explosion of bridge construction projects throughout the United States. Particularly amongst rural farming communities throughout states like Missouri, Kansas, and Ohio these early 20th construction projects were vital to the growing mobility of the population and a reliance on vehicular travel. From the 1940s to the 1960s, rural American communities experienced their largest period of infrastructure expansion. As the nation experienced significant economic growth following World War II, rural communities benefited. In addition, programs enacted by Franklin D. Roosevelt’s government as a response to the Great Depression also came to fruition through numerous rural construction projects. In light of the challenges the United States will face in coming years such as climate change, economic uncertainty, and aging infrastructure, the history of rural bridge construction in the United States is given a new context. Following the Revolutionary War, an investment in rural infrastructure laid the groundwork for expansion West. When the world was in the grips of the Great Depression followed closely by World War II, a large part of the American response was investment in rural infrastructure. Now, as we face new challenges and scramble for solutions, there is evidence to suggest that at least some part of the solution can be found in rural infrastructure investment.

Luke Carothers

such as the Brooklyn and Golden Gate Bridges –fill the pages of our engineering histories. However, solely focusing on the grandiose undermines the full measure of their impact on American society. When Europeans first colonized North America, many of their villages and settlements were scattered along the bays and inlets of the East Coast. As a result, these waterways served as early highways for European settlers who later became the first American citizens. When American settlers expanded Westward they relied more and more on newly laid roads as well as natural waterways. These early American roads, linking growing cities and settlements, struggled to navigate the dense wilderness in many places, and, in other places, had to contend with crossing wide, strong rivers. In some places, such as Philadelphia, these early Americans built bridges in stone, although this was not the preferred method. Due to the expense and expertise necessary to construct a stone arch bridge, builders often opted for wooden structures using timber felled at the crossing site. Most of these early American bridges were simple wooden truss structures. However, because of their importance to the local militias, many of these early wooden truss bridges were destroyed during the RevolutionaryWar. This sparked an intense period of bridge building in the United States as they began to lay the infrastructure that would support a burgeoning population. From the early to mid 19th century, the covered bridge was one of the most popular designs for rural bridge construction. These early covered bridges were timber truss bridges with a roof, deck, and siding. These simple structures were almost always single-lane. As the population grew, it soon became clear that these single lane bridges were not capable of supporting a mobile population. Farmers who were using covered bridges to transport their crops to market were frequently frustrated by having to wait their turn to use the bridge, giving rise to the modern headache of traffic jams. This issue, coupled with improvements in bridge design and cheaper wrought and cast iron, led to the covered bridge falling out of favor. Whereas timber bridges, particularly covered bridges, require significant upkeep of exposed materials, cast and wrought iron are better suited to being exposed to elements. In addition, these stronger materials were better able to support two-lane bridges. In 1839, the first cast iron bridge was constructed in Brownsville, Pennsylvania. Constructed after the original timber bridge was washed away in a flood in 1808, the Dunlap’s Creek Bridge was a



October 2021

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events + virtual Events

October 2021

America’s UAS proving grounds. http://theuassummit.com/ema/DisplayPage.aspx?pageId=Home

elevateaec virtual conference & elevateher symposium september 13 - october 7 – virtual Over 40 speakers. Up to 30 credit hours. All free and accessible from the comfort of your own home or office over the course of 4 weeks. The incredibly popular and value-packed Virtual ElevateAEC Conference & ElevateHER Symposium returns this September. https://virtual-elevate-aec-conference.heysummit.com/ Drone LiDAR survey -How to Achieve the Best Data Results webinar october 5 As LiDAR has become more accessible than ever, more businesses are able to benefit from this technology. Join us on October, 5th, 7 pm (GMT+3) for the free live webinar on how to build a successful drone LiDAR workflow and improve LiDAR data collection. https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/1716321240361/WN_ J8yMGW49QvOjxCMJVajLzA The UAV Innovation Expo is UK's largest Event dedicated to UAV products, parts, accessories and services. Designed to inspire, inform and connect. A new show for new technologies that focus on commercial, emergency services, humanitarian aid, disaster relief, and military fields. Choose from over 100 seminars, where key individuals and experts in their fields will share their knowledge, stories, and advice, covering a whole multitude of UAV Topics. Over the course of 2 days; Source ideas, information and advice from like-minded individuals, to get your next UAV venture fully equipped! https://www.dronexpo.co.uk/ drone x trade show and conferece october 5-6 – London, england Helitech Expo is UK's largest Event dedicated to vertical products, parts, accessories and services. The show brings together leading manufacturers, suppliers, buyers and engineers to share their expertise in the Rotorcraft Industry. The event will empower you to reimagine the possibilities and get the edge in technological advancement, by connecting with the products, people and ideas that will transform your Rotorcraft Business. https://www.helitech.co.uk/ The UAS Summit & Expo started as a small gathering of regional stakeholders. The UAS Summit & Expo started as a small gathering of regional stakeholders. Now, 15 years later, the event in the Northern Plains of North Dakota has become a yearly major event for UAS experts from around the world. It’s the original epicenter of drone research, earned its place as the Silicon Valley of Drones and as you’ll see from the commercial, government and military flight activity filling the sky of the Northern Plains and beyond every day, it has truly become uas summit & expo ocotber 13-14– grand forks, nd helitech expo october 5-6 – London, england

DigiMarCon EMEA october 20-21 – virtual

DigiMarCon EMEA 2021 Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference will be held Online from November October 20th to 21st, 2021, available live stream and on-demand. It is the largest Digital Marketing Event in the World and will be attended by over 10,000 Digital Marketing Professionals. DigiMarCon EMEA 2021 showcases the most audacious and thought provoking speakers in the digital marketing industry, providing attendees with emerging strategies, the latest innovative technologies, best practices, and insights from successful digital marketing campaigns. https://digimarconemea.com/ Cloud Architecture Summit features 6-10 vendors who will show how to make the cloud a core pillar of a modern end-to-end enterprise architecture. https://www.idevnews.com/registration?event_id=521 November 2021 Cloud Architecture Summit october 21 AUVSI and SAE have teamed up to host the Business of Automated Mobility Forum: Flight Path to UAM with a very clear purpose: helping companies that are building the future of mobility create an actionable roadmap to success. In support of this evolution, SAE and AUVSI are partnering to host the Business of Automated Mobility: Flight Path to UAM, November 2–3, 2021. This virtual event will equip attendees with the most current regulatory and operational updates about UAM. Topics facing industry and government leaders include vehicle development and production, vehicle management and operations, Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM), safety and security, as well as remote pilot technology and autonomy. https://bam-forum.org/home Zweig Group has decided that the annual in-person ElevateAEC Awards Gala will return in 2021. Due to recent guidance from the CDC as well as loosening guidelines from the State of Colorado, the 2021 ElevateAEC Conference and Awards Gala is opening up registrations and restoring the full agenda for the annual in-person conference in Denver, November 3-5. This includes bringing back the iconic black-tie awards gala celebrating the 2021 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures, and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards. https://www.zweiggroup.com/2021-inperson-elevate-aec-conf-gala/ business of automated mobility forum november 2-3 ElevateAEC Conference & Awards Gala november 3-5 – denver, co



October 2021

january 2022 Commercial UAV Expo Europe january 18-20 – amsterdam

b2b marketing expo November 16-17– london

Welcome to Europe’s leading marketing event, connecting the most proactive marketing professionals with the tools, techniques and innovations they need to be at the forefront of the ever-evolving world of marketing. Research the market, learn about new innovations and discover the latest strategies and trends to progress and develop your marketing in our unique educational programme, consisting of expert- led seminars and panel debates, live demos of the latest technology, as well as industry leading companies equipped with the industry’s finest solution led products and services. https://www.b2bmarketingexpo.co.uk/welcome December 2021 ENGINEER is the newest trade exhibition presented by C.I.S jointly organised with Malaysia’s official professional organisation for the engineering fraternity – The Institution of Engineers (IEM). This industry trade event is aimed towards providing engineering professionals in Malaysia and the region with an exciting and unique platform to gain an insight into cutting-edge solutions and advanced engineering technologies by international leading manufacturers. ENGINEER offers invaluable opportunities to network, collaborate and exchange ideas over the four-day event. https://engineermalaysia.com.my/ ENGINEER 2021 december 1-4 – malaysia At Tech Leader Summit you'll learn about the latest technologies, hiring methodologies and organizational practices that can help earn a competitive advantage for both you and your organization. Tech Leader Summit is an educational event for Engineering Management and Technical Leaders. Presented to you by No Fluff Just Stuff. Topics Include: Software Engineering Management, Leadership, Talent Acquisition and Training, Agile Methods. https://techleadersummit.io/app/ticket/event/514 ArchConf 2021 is a one of a kind education event for software architects and technical leads/developers. Presented to you by the No Fluff Just Stuff Software Symposium Series. Topics Include: Software Architecture, Domain Driven Design, Kubernetes, Containers, Microservices, Cloud Native Architecture, AWS, Machine Learning, Big Data, Enterprise Security, Soft Skills, Measuring and Profiling, Distributed Teams. https://archconf.com/ TECHLEADER SUMMIT 2021 december 8-10 – Clearwater, fl archconf software architecture conference december 13-16 – Clearwater, fl

As drones move from being optional extras to essential tools, benchmarking the value associated with creating and maintaining a commercial drone program is critical. Professionals need to understand how drones have proven to enable countless tasks to be performed in faster, cheaper and safer ways that can sometimes vary from region to region all across Europe. At Commercial UAV Expo Europe, we carefully develop conference topics in cooperation with an Advisory Board of esteemed professionals to focus on these kinds of real-world results. We thoroughly vet prospective presenters to ensure they are the best in their topic area and region. The goal: to provide outstanding, actionable information on the critical issues industrial users face integrating or operating UAS to showcase what innovations are making a bottom-line difference today while also providing a glimpse at what’s coming next for UAS across the entire continent and beyond. https://www.expouav.com/europe/ Amsterdam Drone Week is the global platform for sharing knowledge on current air solutions, potential innovations and vital regulations. A top-level meeting point where all key players, big and small, commercial and non-commercial, from various industries, knowledge institutes and authorities, gather to co-create and co-operate. Creating urban air solutions together. https://www.amsterdamdroneweek.com/ february 2022 Amsterdam Drone Week january 18-20 – amsterdam We’re excited to define the next iteration of Geo Week: the coming together of the SPAR 3D Expo & Conference, AEC Next and the International Lidar Mapping Forum (ILMF), as an integrated event covering the intersection of geospatial and the built world. From digital twin technologies to automation, the technologies that allow us to better understand our world are helping professionals across a wide variety of industries to get better and more actionable data quicker than ever before. While Geo Week will explore how these markets, technologies and solutions overlap, anyone seeking updates on the latest AEC technologies will still find them within our event and digital offerings. In a combined conference, you can explore content specific to the AEC industry and its evolution towards digitization, and also look ahead to where overlap exists. https://www.geo-week.com/ geo week february 6-8 – denver, co


October 2021


Spanning the Mississippi River with a distinctive profile, the Hernando de Soto bridge not only carries Interstate 40 (I-40) across the Mississippi River between Memphis, Tennessee and West Memphis, Arkansas, but also serves as an iconic landmark for the region. As one of only two crossings of the Mississippi River in the Memphis area, the steel-tied arch bridge is a vital transportation, commerce, and defense link. On May 11, 2021, inspectors from Michael Baker International were conducting a routine inspection of the upper portions of the Hernando de Soto Bridge (areas of the bridge below the deck are the respon - sibility of Arkansas Department of Transportation (ARDOT) inspec - tors and outside of Michael Baker’s scope of work) when a fracture was observed in the tie girder of the arch over the primary navigation channel. Initial shock and disbelief quickly turned into swift action to ensure the safety of the traveling public and the 18 rope access inspec- tors climbing the upper portions of the bridge. The team confirmed the critical finding and from there, moved quickly, focusing on doing the next right thing at each step. ARDOT, Tennessee Department of Trans- portation (TDOT), and 9-1-1 were immediately contacted by Michael Baker staff to alert them of the situation and request support to close the bridge to both automobile traffic moving across the bridge and river traffic on the Mississippi River below. The next few minutes were critical. Michael Baker’s rope access in - spectors were called down and as the team awaited support from local authorities to close the bridge, they moved off the structure down each of the westbound and eastbound lanes dressed in neon colors, waving their hands and stopping traffic. With the assistance of the Memphis police, the bridge was quickly evacuated. As I-40 stood empty, much was unknown, but one thing was certain: the team’s #1 objective at all times was safety. Initial Assessment The fracture critical tie girder, the main tension element in the tied- arch bridge, left the structure in a precarious state. Both vehicular and barge traffic were immediately halted. With nautical traffic paused for three days, initial physical and analytical assessments were completed. Once the structure was deemed stable, the U.S. Coast Guard decided to reopen the river for navigation. Vehicular traffic across the structure remained halted for the duration of the repairs. The Michael Baker team first leveraged their considerable experience with unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) – or drones – to fly the fracture location to inform ARDOT and TDOT of the apparent extent of the damage. The initial UAS video confirmed that the fracture included the Hernando de Soto Bridge Emergency Repairs: Critical, Complex, Collaborative By Aaron Stover, P.E., S.E., Ted Kniazewycz, P.E., and Rick Ellis, P.E.,

Hernando de Soto Bridge. Photo: Michael Baker International

complete loss of one of the two web plates, one of the two flanges, and partial fracture of the second flange. More than 50 percent of the member cross-section was lost in the fracture. Within hours, engineers fromAR- DOT, TDOT, and Michael Baker were working toward the ultimate goal of safely repairing the fractured tie girder. At this time, Michael Baker was contracted for design of an emergency repair by TDOT. Thorough analysis and evaluation of the bridge began immediately. Within a single day, Michael Baker assembled teams across numerous offices to gather data, perform calculations, and increase the team’s understanding in order to better evaluate the bridge’s condition. En- gineers generated detailed finite element models of the bridge and the local fracture to begin to shed light on the criticality of the bridge’s condition. Field inspection teams assisted with obtaining critical infor- mation to support early investigative efforts obtained by UAS. Michael Baker, alongside ARDOT’s UAS pilots, monitored the fracture to track any changes during those first critical hours. To support the initial temporary repairs, additional measurements of the crack, tie distortion, and other critical field measurements were needed. This information was gathered by a Michael Baker rope access inspec - tor on the bridge. During the inspection, Michael Baker established a live feed via UAS video linked to a web meeting. This allowed design engineers in multiple locations to communicate in real-time with the inspector while he took measurements and allowed them to request additional information and clarifications as needed. This creative use of technology gave designers real time results and a first person un - derstanding of the implications of the distortion that would need to be considered in the repair design. A Collaborative Process The team recognized that collaboration and efficiency in design and schedule would be important to repairing the fracture and reopening the bridge as quickly as could be properly accomplished. TDOT se- lected the Construction Manager/General Contractor (CM/GC) project delivery method, recognizing the benefit to the project as it allowed owners, engineers, and contractor to collaborate on repairs. As lead designer for all phases of repair, Michael Baker called on more than 60



october 2021

Initial Find. Photo: Michael Baker International

engineers from 20 of the firm’s offices around the country to contribute to the project in design and review/oversight roles to ensure that timely and prudent decisions were made at all phases of the work and that multiple phases could be advanced in parallel to minimize the overall project schedule. Within a week of the fracture being discovered, Gen- eral Contractor Kiewit Infrastructure South Co. had also been brought onboard. All partners on the project proceeded in lockstep as repairs commenced, with daily working meetings to resolve challenges and frequent status meetings held throughout the entirety of the project. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) was also a key partner throughout the project, aiding with the repair plans. Three-Phase Design With the team in place, ARDOT and TDOT collaborated on a three- phase repair plan – created and executed in collaboration with Michael Baker and Kiewit – with design and construction overlapping between the phases. The plan included: Phase 1: Stabilization The team took a “do no harm” approach to the initial repairs as there was concern that the bridge was severely compromised. The initial evaluations found the remaining section was dangerously close to yielding. The team found no evidence from the structure that the load had not found an alternate path beyond the opposing web and remaining flange. Stabilizing the member was not a long-term fix, but it was the first step toward the repair, ensuring the safety of subsequent phases of work. The Michael Baker team established safe working load levels for construction crews and equipment staged on the bridge. Within the first week of the closure, a stabilization splice was designed to temporarily restore the capacity of the fractured section of the tie and the fabrica- tion of roughly 30,000 lbs. of structural steel plates began by Stupp Bridge. To install the splice, Kiewit assembled a suspension platform and secured the plating with nearly 450 temporary bolts. The splice provided additional redundancy to the partly severed member without applying any corrective twist or loading to the damaged tie. The sus- pended platform allowed the contractor greater access to establish a more permanent repair in Phase 2. Phase 2: Member Repair Knowing that time was of the essence to get this vital transportation link re-opened, analysis and design of the longer-term fix began im - mediately with Michael Baker engineers evaluating ways to repair this

Inspection. Photo: Michael Baker International

Michael Baker rope access and UAS bridge inspectors. Photo: Michael Baker International

bridge. Faced with a range of potential repairs from reconstruction of the bridge to temporarily supporting the structure for the repair, the project participants found a creative solution to repair the structure in place and collectively cut significant cost and schedule impacts out of the project timeline. Advancements in the understanding and applica- tion of concepts in fracture mechanics and redundancy allowed for the fractured member to be repaired rather than completely replaced. The last solution consisted of using external post-tensioning to reduce tension in the existing tie, lessening its level of stress and possibility for further damage. Eight 3” diameter high-strength steel bars were connected to steel weldments at either end of the fractured tie. High- pressure rams were utilized to deliver the required force to partially de- tension the tie. Extensive real-time monitoring of the post-tensioning operations was implemented to ensure success. While the tie was partly unloaded, the temporary Phase 1 stabilization plates were removed and new strengthening plates were installed that have nearly the capacity of a completely intact tie by themselves. These new plates, acting in tandem with the existing steel, provided a redundant load path in the unlikely event of future fracture. The team


october 2021 csengineermag.com

worked closely with Kiewit and fabricators W&W/AFCO and G&G Steel to design the repair around readily available HPS70Wmaterial. During the completion of the work, an 18” section of the tie containing the fractured web and flange plates was removed for further forensic examination. Once the strengthening plates were installed and fully bolted, the post tensioning was removed, signifying successful repair of the damaged tie girder. Phase 3: Overall Tie Girder Repair While Phase 2 repairs were going on, extensive nondestructive test- ing (NDT) of all similar welds in the tie girders was completed and provided information leading to what became the Phase 3 repairs of the tie. NDT discovered indications ranging from very small to very large. The remedy for many of these smaller indications was to either core or grind them out, thereby removing the potential flaw. Larger indications were plated over to provide a redundant solution. The details used in Phase 2 were readily adaptable for Phase 3 and Kiewit worked with supplier AFCO/W&W Steel to obtain the necessary HPS70W plate. Tests were conducted on a portion of the damaged member that was removed as part of the Phase 2 repairs. The removed portion is cur- rently undergoing forensic examination at the labs of Wiss Janney Elstner Associates Inc. (WJE) in Northbrook, Illinois. The WJE team is conducting various tests on the material to document its properties, as well as microscopically examining the weld and the fractured surfaces to determine where and how the fracture began. By having the frac- tured component in their possession, the engineers at WJE were able to provide guidance for field-testing of other welds that were completed as part of the inspection in Phase 3. All Eyes on Memphis The emergency closure quickly gained attention across the country from the public, media outlets, and politicians alike. Tennessee Governor Bill Lee, Arkansas Governor Asa Hutchinson, and U.S. Secretary of Trans- portation Pete Buttigieg all visited the bridge in the days following the closure, with Secretary Buttigieg noting “We want to make sure that national attention and resources are available to help the state and local authorities who are resolving this and working toward a safe reopening of the bridge…Even for people outside this region, it is important that we restore this connection quickly because like so much about the Mem - phis region, it is an area of national logistical importance.” The impact of the shutdown of the Hernando de Soto Bridge on the economy was felt almost immediately. River traffic below the bridge had resumed by May 14, 2021, but all automobile traffic had to be diverted to the nearest crossing on Interstate 55 (I-55). The added traffic resulted in bottlenecks and delays, with the Arkansas Trucking Association estimat- ing that the additional travel time attributed to the closure was costing the trucking industry more than $2.4 million each day that the bridge was not in operation. This further reinforced that the timely, proper, and safe completion of the repairs was critically important. As the team moved through the initial find and into inspection, design and repair, it was of the utmost importance to maintain transparency and communication with the public impacted by the closure. A public awareness campaign was carried out in conjunction with the bridge’s repair activities. Project information and updates were shared via

UAS Inspection 3. Photo: Michael Baker International

media efforts (press releases and press conferences), as well as daily across the TDOT and ARDOT websites and social media channels. To support this, Michael Baker developed a 3D visualization of the repairs as they were being developed. Reopening the Hernando de Soto Bridge For several weeks, activities progressed 24-hours a day, supported by extended shifts. Initially, the eastbound and westbound lanes of I-40 crossing the bridge were initially scheduled to open on August 2 and August 6, 2021 respectively, but the eastbound lanes were opened ahead of this date on July 31, 2021, while the westbound lanes opened on August 2, 2021 – traffic was again flowing 83 days after the fracture was discovered. The project highlighted the importance of transparency, accountability and collaboration and exemplifies how two DOTs can work together to accomplish a common goal. All agencies and firms involved in the project brought a deep understanding of structural engineering to the work, and the commitment and partnership amongst them facilitated the analysis, design and construction needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently repair the fracture.

AARON STOVER, P.E., S.E. is Vice President and Great Lakes Regional Practice Lead – Bridge at Michael Baker International. TED KNIAZEWYCZ, P.E., S.E., is Structures Division Director at Tennessee Depart- ment of Transportation (TDOT). RICK ELLIS, P.E. is Division Head-Bridge Division at Arkansas Department of Transportation (ARDOT).



october 2021

Addressing Ecological and Coastal Protection in the Gulf Region By Luke Carothers

When it comes to planning for climate change and protecting our com- munities, there are a few regions that are more vulnerable than the rest. As evidenced by several massive hurricanes in recent decades, the Gulf Region of the United States is paramount within these vulnerable regions. Over the course of geologic history, the Mississippi River has served an important purpose for the region, transporting sediment and debris from up-river and depositing it downstream to form new marsh lands. It is this process that formed what we know as the Mississippi Delta. Now, with the river unable to move in a natural course due to human infrastructure such as levees, floodwalls, and guidewalls, this process is being interrupted and no new marshland is being created. In addition, these processes are causing what land is created to settle, which is then pushed under water by rising sea levels, which is known as subsidence. Several projects are currently underway to help curb these issues in- cluding an interesting project in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana where WSP is designing a massive intake structure for the Mid-Barataria Sediment Diversion Project; the goal of this project is to divert sedi- ment-laden water from the Mississippi River during high flow times. The sediment-laden water from the Mississippi River will travel miles through a series of gates and channels before being deposited in the Delta marsh to create new land. By re-establishing this crucial link between the Mississippi River and the Mid-Barataria Basin, the team at WSP is hoping to solve the chronic loss of Mississippi Delta land stemming from hydrologic alteration, sediment deprivation, subsid- ence, sea-level rise, and saltwater intrusion. According to Ian Chaney, Project Manager for WSP, there have been discussions about the Mid-Barataria Project for nearly a decade; he notes that one of the driving factors behind this project was the forma- tion of a government agency called the Louisiana Coastal Preservation and RestorationAuthority (Louisiana CPRA). This agency was crucial in securing funding for the project, which remained a looming question in the early days of planning. However, funding was procured as a result of a man-made natural catastrophe when BP oil rig Deepwater Horizon spilled over 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting fines from BP are being put to good use and are funding the Mid-Barataria Sediment Diversion Project. The resulting cash-in- hand means there is at least enough funding to support two similar sediment diversion facilities along the Mississippi River. For the Mid-Barataria Sediment Diversion Project, WSP is working alongside AECOM and the FTA as well as CPRA and contractor Archer Western. According to Cheney, the project is currently in a value-engineering phase, meaning the team is working to lower the

Franklin-98 staff at shoreline.

budget constraint while also being mindful of the hydrologic goals of the project. When it comes to protecting the coastline in the Gulf Region, the teams at WSP are also getting creative in using what they call “nature-based solutions”. According to Jennifer Brunton, National Practice Lead for Ecosystem Restoration at WSP, these solutions not only serve some sort of structural purpose within a project, but also have a secondary function through environmental or ecological impact. Brunton also manages a team of engineers who focus on areas such as coastal marsh restoration, improving national park visitor centers, dam rehabilitation, and coastal protection. This team is currently working to employ some of these nature-based solutions on a project in the Florida Panhandle’s Apalachicola Bay where 12 miles of living shoreline support a road that serves as a crucial hurricane evacuation route. According to Brunton, up until now, millions of dollars have been spent applying “band-aids” to the shoreline through traditional methods such as adding rock. WSP’s solution was innovative, developing reef balls to solve the problem of an eroding shoreline. From an engineering perspective, these reef balls are essential in that they attenuate wave energy, re- ducing the impact of their force on the coastline. From an ecological perspective, these reef balls also provide a habitat for the local oyster population. Additionally, these structures also provide protection to the marshland between them and the shoreline. In order to determine the optimal shape for the reef balls, the team at WSP used a model called Computational Flow Dynamic (CFD) to develop 31 different versions, testing how the energy dissipates on each structure. While many of these nature-based solutions are innovative and are generally beneficial, Brunton believes that the only way to increase their adoption is to continue to educate clients on their benefits. With the success of these projects, however, more attention can be given to developing solutions that not only benefit the human population of a given environment, but also benefit the area environmentally. LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.


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New funding is available for upcoming projects related to parks and outdoor activities. The Great American Outdoors Act (GAOA) , a pro- gram overseen by the Department of the Interior, has $900 million to be used for projects at government facilities on public lands and tribal schools. The objective is to begin to address the Interior’s deferred maintenance backlog of over $22 billion for recreation facilities, dams, water and utility infrastructure, schools, and other historic structures. For fiscal year 2022, the department has selected 63 specific projects and the funding is now available. Some of the upcoming projects are outlined below: Wyoming Yellowstone National Park will have funding for the following projects: • $71 million will go to replacing the structurally deficient Yel - lowstone River Bridge. The new bridge project will include the reconstruction of approach roads as well. • $52 million will be spent to replace wastewater treatment plants serving the Canyon and Grant Village developed areas. Work will include rehabilitation of wastewater collection and treatment systems. • $20 million is earmarked for rehabilitation and upgrades to the Old Faithful water treatment system in addition to the demoli- tion of an abandoned wastewater treatment plant. • $9 million will be used to replace the Mammoth Wastewater Collection System. California The Golden Gate National Recreation Area will spend $36 million to repair a concrete wharf in the Alcatraz Island National Historic Land - mark District. The project includes repair of existing concrete piles, beams, and slabs. At Yosemite National Park, about $19 million will be used to rehabilitate The Ahwahnee hotel. Texas At Big Bend National Park, approximately $22 million is available to rehabilitate the Chisos Mountain Lodge. Another $54 million will be spent to upgrade park water systems and replace water distribution lines. At the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historic Park, approximately $9 million is available to upgrade the home of the former president. Indiana Indiana’s state parks and preserves will receive $57 million for im- Interior Department commits funds to $22B parks maintenance backlog By Mary Scott Nabers

provements statewide. The Legislature released $5 million to start the design process for an inn at Potato Creek State Park. The initial work will provide cost projections. The inn is scheduled to be completed by 2023, and it will include more than 100 rooms, an indoor aquatics center, a banquet, and meeting space. Another $52 million has been released for improvements at multiple Department of Natural Resources properties. These projects include resurfacing trails in 20 locations, renovating rooms and HVAC systems in all seven state parks, and upgrading playgrounds at 40 sites. Pennsylvania Pennsylvania has 121 state parks and plans to use $500 million for projects related to an effort called “Penn’s Parks for All.” A report outlining upcoming projects lists the demolition of buildings and aging facilities that have no historical significance. Another initiative aims to link state parks trails to nearby communities through greenways and ecological corridors. New types of overnight facilities and possibly a nature lodge at Kinzua Bridge State Park may be addressed as well. Missouri Attendance at parks in Missouri rebounded last year. As a result, the governor injected $68 million into the state’s park system. The De- partment of Natural Resources will spend $9.9 million to renovate the existing 12-room lodge at the Shannon County Park and add six cabins on property north of Eminence. At the Edmund Babler State Park, 35 campsites will be upgraded with new sewer, electricity, and water con- nections. Plans call for the $3.1 million renovation of a park lodge. Johnson’s Shut-Ins State Park will get two new four-bedroom cabins and four, two-bedroom cabins at a cost of $3.5 million. The state also plans to spend $2 million to upgrade the electrical system at Onondaga Cave State Park. Michigan Michigan’s governor has proposed using $250 million in American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) funding for state park expansions, trail improvements and to address a maintenance backlog. Approximately $26.2 million is earmarked for a new Michigan state park in the city of Flint. The governor has suggested that the early phases could include non-motorized trails, unique playscapes, fishing platforms, canoe and kayak launches into the river, and accessible open spaces. The new state park would extend along the Flint River. The construction time- line and funding require legislative approval. Utah The legislature has allocated $120 million for the construction of two new state parks – Utahraptor State Park and Lost Creek State Park. The legislature also announced that $83 million is available for the expansion of existing state parks and creation of 500 new campsites and 1,000 new parking spaces. Construction projects at Utahraptor will include two new modern campgrounds, restroom facilities, trailheads for off-highway access, and a mountain bike trail system. West Virginia The governor has approved $42 million in spending for state park



october 2021

expansion and renovation. The West Virginia Division of Natural Re - sources will use the funds for the construction of 230 new campsites, 25 new treehouse cabins, 20 new cabins, and new bathhouses for every state park. New Hampshire Various funding sources will be tapped for the rehabilitation or replace- ment of the Cannon Mountain Aerial Tramway in the Franconia Notch State Park. Rehabilitation costs are estimated at $10 million to $15 million, while a total replacement cost would cost somewhere between $20 million to $30 million. The tramway needs a “new primary sys - tem” which includes tram cars, hanger arms, carriage trolleys, electro- mechanical components, and the motor and braking systems.

It is imperative that these firms do so on the basis of solid information. With better information and more accurate data, firms are in a better position to make decisions that positively impact the residents of an area for decades and centuries to come. According to Lance, there are a number of issues involved in the current processes that result in inaccurate information that negatively impacts the decision mak- ing process. Many firms are still relying on manual, labor-intensive processes involving spreadsheets as well as paper documents. Lance believes that such a system is inevitably “error-prone”; he believes that the key to solving these inefficiencies is to create a real- time link between the workers in the field and in the office. This idea is central to the long-term goals of Ecobot. By connecting data and knowledge creation, engineers will be able to make smarter decisions. However, as the environmental regulatory industry begins the process of digitization, firms must be mindful to not simply transfer offline inefficiencies to online ones. Some solutions, while solving a major issue in the present moment, become extra work and unwanted ac- countability for the end-users, thus simply transferring the inefficiency down the line to another worker. This means that the process of digiti- zation should not only benefit the business, but also the end-user. As the industry inches towards digitization, Lance notes that we should be moving towards understanding how the trajectory and patterns of our natural resources as well as the trajectory and patterns of our eco- nomic development overlap with one another. Such an approach will not only allow us to see how these patterns interact and impact one another, but also tell us where the industry is headed. Although the new funding is a huge incentive, states that were not selected for the new program funding are using other revenue sources to begin work on the huge backlog of deferred maintenance of public parks and outside assets. There will be an abundance of upcoming contracting opportunities throughout the country. MARY SCOTT NABERS is president and CEO of Strategic Partnerships Inc., a business development company specializing in government contracting and procurement consulting throughout the U.S. Her recently released book, Inside the Infrastructure Revolution: A Roadmap for Building America , is a handbook for contractors, investors and the public at large seeking to explore how public-private partnerships or joint ventures can help finance their infrastructure projects.

Digization for the Environment

By Luke Carothers

With the recent addition of a new infrastructure bill as well as a country-wide problem of aging and crumbling infrastructure, firms are looking to prepare for the coming boom. This problem is further compounded with the looming impact of climate change, which has and will continue to impact regulations surrounding the construction of new bridges, roads, and highways. With a recent environmental regulatory shift favoring quicker, cheaper projects. One issue facing these firms, as well as the AEC industry at large, is a slow adoption of digitized processes. According to Lee Lance, CEO and co-founder of Ecobot, the environmental regulatory industry in particular “desperately [needs] to catch up” in terms of digitization. This digitization will certainly solve issues for individual workers in the field and make their jobs easier in the long run, but from a wider perspective, digitization will help us solve some of the most daunting challenges coming our way. This wide-ranging ability to help us face the coming challenges of climate change begins with protecting our natural resources, some- thing that is becoming increasingly important; according to Lance, digitization helps these firms “look at natural features to help offset the effects of climate change.” On the other hand, digitization will also help firms in their decision-making processes. As many of these firms are responsible for making decisions that have not only a wide-ranging environmental impact, but also a significant economic impact. These critical decisions are often land-use decisions, meaning they will im- pact not only the natural environment, but the people who live there.

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.


october 2021 csengineermag.com

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