SUCB_History_1946-1972_complete

STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AT BUFFALO

A HISTORY, 1946-1972

By Marvin J. LaHood

.

Professor of English State University College at Buffalo

STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AT BUFFALO

A HISTORY, 1946-1972

By Marvin J. LaHood Professor of English State University College at Buffalo

for John

Melissa and Mark

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

CHAPTER I - Foundations and Visions: Dr. Harry W. Rockwell, 1946-1951 ................ . 75th Anniversary Celebration ........................................... . The First 75 Years ............................................ ·....... . Dr. Rockwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Dr. Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Degree Programs, 1946-1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Faculty.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Curriculum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Student Life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SUNY............................................................ 5 CHAPTER 11 - Campus Democracy and Community Relations: Dr. Harvey M. Rice, 1951-1958 . . . . 6 Dr. Rice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Faculty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Curriculum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Faculty and Student Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The Council ......... .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Dr. and Mrs. Rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 CHAPTER Ill - Educational and Aesthetic Outreach: Dr. Paul G. Bulger, 1959-1967............ 11 President's 1959 Report ...................... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Presidential Search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Dr. Bulger ...........................· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SUNY ............................................................ 12 Curriculum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 International Education ..· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Campus School .... .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Great Lakes Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Planetarium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Burchfield Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Building Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Faculty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1958-1959. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1965-1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

iii

CHAPTER IV - Urban Commitment and World Concern: Dr. E. K. Fretwell Jr., 1967-1971 . . . . . . . 24 Dr. Robison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Presidential Search.......................................... .' . . . . . . . . . 24 Dr. Fretwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Inauguration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Curriculum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 SEEK............................................................ 28 Teacher Corps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Creative Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Building Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1967-1968 ......................................................... 32 1968-1969.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 1969-1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1970-1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1971-1972......................................................... 36 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 APPENDICES..........................· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix A - Council Members, 1946-1972. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Appendix B - Chief Executive Officers, 1971-1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Appendix C · Faculty and Staff Who Completed Twenty Years of Service at the College at Some Time Between 1946 and 1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix D · College Award Recipients, 1946-1972 ......................... , . . . 48 Appendix E - Evolution of Name (According to Commencement Programs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Appendix F - Tables of Organization, 1948, 1953, 1966, 1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 1948 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Appendix G · Legislative Appropriations, 1957-1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Appendix H · Enrollment, 1946-1972. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Appendix I · Degrees Granted, 1946-1972. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Appendix J - Degree Programs 1946-1972. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Appendix K - Buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Appendix L - Oral History Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Appendix M · Campus Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This book would not have been possible without the help of the following persons: Joyce E. Fink, for her faith in my ability to write it; Barbara R. Frey, for giving me the opportunity to try; Sister Martin Joseph Jones, for her work in the college archives since 1975 which made this book possible, for her joyous hard work in helping me research the manuscript, for her diligent help in compiling data for the appendices, and for her thoughtful companionship that helped sustain me through the completion of this project; Fraser B. Drew and Walter B. Greenwood, for many hours of guidance from fonts of sharp memory and good sense, and for many additional hours of careful editing; Rhoda Y. Greenwood and Katheryne T. Whittemore, for their interest and information; Mary Elizabeth Myers, for painstakingly going over the manuscript; Anna Tiberia, for making available many informative documents;

Gay E. Harbody and Constance B. Newman, for helping me to find the answers to many questions; Marilyn Krasinski, for her help in typing the draft; David B. Walch and his staff, for making me feel at home in the library; the faculty, staff, and others who have made tape recordings of their recollections for the college archives' oral history project (listed in Appendix L); all of those at the college through whom I have come to know the real history of the institution; all of the following for graciously helping me when I needed . them: James M. Caputi, Richard C. Diedrich, Gerhard Falk, Steven Gittler, Paul V. Hale, Richard N. Hall, Marilyn Jones, Allan L. Korn, Charles P. LaMorte, William Licata, Horace Mann, Glenn R. Nellis,. Charles S. Olton, Harold F. Peterson, Howard G. Sengbusch, J. Stephen Sherwin, Edward 0. Smith, Jr., H. Gene Steffen, Norman G. Walker.

V

INTRODUCTION

The State University College at Buffalo has had a long and distinguished history. It came into existence on September 13, 1871, when 86 students began classes at the Buffalo Normal School under Principal Henry B. Buckham. From that moment on, the college has been intimately connected with the educational life of Buffalo and the surrounding area, providing an excellent edu– cation for thousands of students who through their dedication have made a lasting contribution to the quality of life of this area in the teaching profession and, from 1963 on, in a great number of other professions as well. The college's growth from 1871 to 1972 was stunning. The enrollment rose from an original class of 86 to a head count of just under 11,000, the faculty and staff from sixteen to over a thousand, the number of graduates from 23 in 1873 to 2,565 in 1972, the build– ings from one to 33, the programs from one to 70, and the budget from less than $100,000 to $18,290,000. The college's first 75 years are described in New York State Teachers College at Buffalo, A History, 7871-7946, by Andrew W. Grabau, Charles A. Messner, Harry W. Rockwell, and Kate W. Woffo~d. This volume will attempt to bring that history up through the college's centennial year, 1971-72. This book, like the first, is representative, not exhaustive. There are several histories of the college that could be written. This is only one of them. In order to give a sense of the life of the college from the start of classes on September 8, 1946, until its centennial commencement on May 21, 1972, in a reasonably limited number of pages, a selection of representative persons and events was necessary. lri that selective process, after some basic choices about what should be included were made, those items were chosen that seemed to be most likely to give some sense of what the college was like at the time. The process of selection was difficult and certainly imperfect.

Every attempt was made to give an objective account and to avoid opinions. While this may have resulted in a less exciting narrative, it was necessary because early on in the project it became obvious that the range of opinions on important persons and events was very wide. The writing style is as straightforward as possible, with the hope that it is also lucid and succinct. The style is also somewhat formal, avoiding anecdotes, stories, and quotations from interviews. Sources used include the many documents available in the archives and in other offices of the college, and the College Bulletin, the Record, the Buffalo Evening News, the Courier-Express, the Elms, tape recordings made for the college archives' oral history project, and conversations with persons who were a part of the history of those years. In reference to the college name, the narrative, rather than use the five names by which the colJege has been officially known since 1946, has kept to the name used since 1962, State University College at Buffalo, and occ2sionally the name most often used by students, Buffalo State. The evolution of the college's name is treated in Appendix E. The life of a college is an elusive commodity. It means something different to each person who is a part of it. No writer can hope to completely capture the spirit, 9epth, and substance of it. What can be given are the details of its observable surface from which the movement below the surface can sometimes be surmised. State University College is a highly complex institu– tion. Even those who have been at the college throughout this time period cannot see it whole. It is greater than the sum of its parts, but even a complete cataloging of the parts is impossible. From the bits and pieces here assembled perhaps hints of its people, programs, growth, vitality, contributions, highs, and lows can be gleaned. If that happens, it was well worth the effort.

vii

STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AT BUFFALO: 1946-1971

Chapter I Foundations and Visions: Dr. Harry W. Rockwell 1946-1951

The anniversary celebration resulted in a great deal of publicity for the college. The Buffalo Evening News and the Courier-Express both carried several articles about the college and its history. Following is a brief recapitulation of that history as it appeared in the press. The cornerstone for the first college building was laid on April 15, 1869, and the building completed in 1870 on the property that is the present site of Grover Cleveland High School. The Rev. Henry B. Buckham of Vermont was the first principal. There were 15 on the ·faculty and 11 men and 75 women in the student body when the school was opened in September 1871. Mr. Buckham was succeeded in 1886 by Dr. James M. Cassety, who was followed by Daniel Upton in 1909. Dr. Rockwell was installed as principal in 1919, and it was not until 1927 that his title was changed to president. A science building and gymnasium were added in 1887 and a principal's residence was built in 1893. By 1881 the number of students had risen to 278. That figure was more than doubled a decade later with an enroll– ment of 700. By 1901 the student body numbered 828. Under the leadership of Edward H. Butler, Sr., who became president of the Board of Local Managers in 1902, a new and larger building was sought. The Legislature appropriated $400,000 for this purpose in 1910, and the building was completed in September 1914. Academic progress went hand in hand with expan– sion. In 1919 the State Board of Regents authorized a four-year curriculum and the degree of bachelor of science in home economics. A year later, the Industrial Arts Department was organized and enlarged by addi– tions from the Industrial Arts Department of the New York State College for Teachers at Albany. In June 1921, the first degrees in home economics were granted, and in September of that year the Home Economics Practice House was leased and furnished. The positions of registrar and dean of women were established in 1925 and 1926. Also in 1925, the State Board of Regents approved a four-year general elementary curriculum and a year later authorized the degree of bachelor of The First 75 Years

State University College at Buffalo began its 76th year on September 8, 1946. In its first 75 years it grew from a student body of 86 students (September 13, 1871) to 1,388 students (September 8, 1946). In the next 26 years, the period covered in this history, it grew to a total enrollment of 10,895. The first 75 years constituted a firm foundation for the spectacular growth of the next 26. The connection between the two periods in the college's life is ably described in the closing paragraph of the history of the first period: New York State College for Teachers at Buffalo - A History 7877 - 7946 put together by the committee on the college history: Andrew W. Grabau, Charles A. Messner, Harry W. Rock– well, ex-officio, and Kate V. Wofford, chairman. The State Teachers College at Buffalo has every reason to rejoice on its 75th birthday. It enjoys an excellent record of achievement. Under the wise and able leadership of President Rockwell, plans are under way for the creation of instructional and social facilities that will make possible the realization of goals and objectives in teacher education needed in the years ahead. In an unsettled world caused by two world catastrophes, America must turn to its teachers to safeguard _its way of life. The beliefs, convictions, and ideals held by tomor– row's teachers must be transmitted to the youth if they are to become the protectors of our progressive democratic society. The challenge to the teachers college is that all of its facilities and talents be devoted to these ends. The Seventy-fifth Anniversary celebration was held on October 10, 1946, at 8 p.m. in the college auditorium. After a welcome by President Rockwell, a play, "Teach– ing Teachers to Teach," was performed, followed by an address, "Years Ahead," by Dr. Hermann Cooper, assistant commissioner for teacher education, and a performance by the A Capella Choir. It concluded with an address by Dr. Ernest C. Hartwell, president emeritus of the College at Brockport, titled "Teacher Preparation-A Fundamental Responsibility." 75th Anniversary Celebration

science in education. In 1926 the school was advanced to collegiate rank, becoming the State Teachers College at Buffalo. By an Act of March 31, 1927, the state conveyed to the city 90 acres of land on Scajaquada Creek previously attached to the State Hospital and gave the city the old Normal School property. The city shared in the cost of buildings on the new site and set aside 20 of the 90 acres as a campus. The college that year was given an A rating by the American Association of Teachers Colleges. The cornerstone of the new main building, one of a group of five, was laid in 1929 on the present campus site by Edward H. Butler, Jr., president of the Local Board of Managers. The new buildings represented, at the time of their completion in December 1930, a value of about $2,000,000. The formal opening was January 12, 1931. In 1930 Dr. Rockwell was named president of the American Association of Teachers Colleges, the Art Department was established, leading to the degree of bachelor of science in art education, and a professorship of elementary administration was created. The Division of Rural Education, which extended practice-teaching facilities into rural areas, and the College Health Service, with a college nurse and part-time physician, were established in 1932. In 1937 the Art Education Depart– ment was affiliated with the Albright Art School, and the position of dean of the college was established. In 1939 the college was granted membership in the American Association of University Women. A Department of Special Education for the training of teachers of the physically handicapped was established in January 1944, and in 1945 the Board of Regents granted the college the right to offer the fifth graduate year in summer session and Saturday courses, leading to the degree of master of education. The college was officially named New York State College for Teachers at Buffalo in January of 1946 and in March received a state allotment of $1,020,000, consisting of $355,000 for a library, $445,000 for an industrial arts building, and $220,000 for a science · building. Approval later was granted for enlargement of the gymnasium and other extensive improvements. A Graduate Department, leading to the degree of master of education, was opened in July 1946 with 70 students. From 1919 to 1946, 4,664 bachelor's degrees were awarded and the total number of graduates of the old Normal School and the Teachers College up to 1946 was approximately 12,500.

1919 until 1951. As he began the last five years of his long tenure, Dr. Rockwell, .then 65, was still vigorous. He was of medium height and build, and he ruled his college decisively. In the words of one faculty member, "he ran a good school and he had a good faculty." Dr. Rockwell was born on June 23, 1881, in Rock– well's Mills, New York, a town named for his family, operators of a woolen mill there for many years. He was a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Brown University from which he received an A.B. in 1903, an A.M. in 1922, and an honorary Doctor of Laws degree in 1951. He received an A.M. from Columbia University in 1917 and an honorary doctorate from Albany State Teachers College in 1922. Before becoming principal of the college in 1919, he had been principal of the high schools of Gilbertsville, Oneonta, and White Plains, superintendent of the Oneonta schools, and supervising principal of the schools of Pelham Township in Westchester County. He married Marjorie Delano of Ithaca in 1922. They had two daughters. By all accounts Mrs. Rockwell was a warm and gracious person, but she seldom was seen at college functions. Upon her death in 1959 the college council passed the following resolution: "With deep sorrow the Council has learned of the death of Marjorie D. Rockwell, wife of the beloved former president of this College. For a period of more than thirty-two years, Mrs. Rockwell, with her husband, gave devoted service and warm-hearted interest to the stu– dents, the faculty, and the governing body of this College. The rewarding experience of her friendship will long be remembered by all those who knew her." To some faculty Dr. Rockwell seemed a benevolent father figure, urging them on to further advanced study, excellence in teaching, and personal fulfillment. To others he was an autocrat, and they felt that by the end of his presidency the college and the faculty had to some extent outgrown him. There is little disagreement, however, about other aspects of his personality. He was, by most accounts, a fine person and a real gentleman, cultured and well– mannered. He carried himself with dignity, even with elegance. Although he seemed to some aloof and even austere, those who got to know him well found him a warm, real, and kind human being. He knew the campus intimately, listened to its members, and then made up his mind. One could always get a direct yes or no from him. Dr. Rockwell was a man of culture with an interest in literature and travel. He made nine trips to Europe and the Near East while president, sometimes giving an account of his travels at college assemblies. His greatest

Dr. Rockwell

The driving force behind much of what happened and was about to happen at the college was the president, Dr. Harry W. Rockwell. He served as president from

2

interest was in the performing arts. He loved plays and music and his years as president were marked by many campus cultural events in those areas. It is appropriate that the former administration building, currently housing the Burchfield Center on its second floor, and scheduled to become the campus center for the perform– ing arts, is named in his honor. Dr. Rockwell was also very active in the community. Among numerous important positions held by him were the presidency of the Buffalo Rotary Club and governorship of the 169th International District of Rotary. The second most important figure on campus during the 1946-1951 era was Dr. Ralph G. Horn, first dean of the college (1937-1959) and twice (1951 and 1958) acting president. He was born on a farm in St. Joseph's County, Indiana, in 1899. Dr. Horn became a teacher in the rural schools of St. Joseph's County in 1917, the same year he was graduated from high school in North Liberty, Indiana. He remained there until 1923 when he became teacher and principal of a grade school in Mack, Colorado. The next year he held a similar position in Ashland, Ohio. He received his bachelor's degree in 1928 from Ashland College, Ashland, Ohio. He earned master's and doctor's degrees from Ohio State University in 1930 and 1932. After four years as an instructor in education and director of research and extension at the State Univer– sity College at Geneseo, he was appointed professor of education and director of extension work by Dr. Rockwell. A year later he was appointed the first dean of the college. He was quiet and efficient, overshadowed during his years as dean first by the dominant personality of Dr. Rockwell and then by the vigorous and out-going Dr. Harvey M. Rice, who became president December 1, 1951. Dr. Horn ended his professional career as professor of education and director of teacher education at Adrian College in Adrian, Michigan. In 1946 the college offered degree programs in general elementary education, home economics, in– dustrial arts, and art education, and degree programs for elementary school principals and supervisors and teachers of physically handicapped children. The follow– ing year a graduate degree program was added "for experienced elementary teachers interested in a master of education degree for teaching, supervision, or admini– stration." These seven programs represent the college's offerings up to the end of Dr. Rockwell's presidency in 1951. Dr. Horn Degree Programs, 1946-1951

In September 1946, 1,388 students were in atten– dance. By the end of the Rockwell era in 1951, annual enrollment stood at 2,022. The 1946-1947 College Catalog lists 80 faculty members, 19 holding the doc– torate. Buffalo was a city graced with beautiful elms and many examples of fine architecture. Its park system, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, ended right at the college's front door. The campus was still small, con– sisting of the five buildings opened in 1931, the Main building with an auditorium, library, classrooms, and offices, the Vocational Building housing home economics and industrial arts, the Gymnasium with its swimming pool, and the School of Practice, these four forming a quadrangle, with the fifth, the_ president's house being just to the north of it. The faculty was small and tightly knit, according to a faculty member of the time, "a little family" that gathered for a reception at the beginning of each year and a retirement dinner at the end. They shared offices and ate together in Mabel Gilbert's cafeteria in the · basement of Rockwell Hall. Cultural programs were frequent and well-attended, due in part to President Rockwell's interest in the performing arts. Much of the cohesion of the faculty resulted from an esprit de corps born of working together toward the single goal of educating teachers well. Some of the faculty were actively involved in the American Association of University Professors, which met off campus, and in an organization known as the Association of New York State Teachers College Facul– ties. Started in the late thirties, it attempted to bring the faculties of the 11 state teachers colleges together at ar)nual conferences for the purpose of improving the quality of instruction. As in so many other organized endeavors of the state colleges from the middle thirties on, Dr. Hermann Cooper, assistant commissioner of education_ from 1933-1948, and executive dean for teacher education for SUNY from 1948-1962, was involved. He was the most powerful person in teacher education in New York State for 30 years. After the birth of the State University of New York in 1948, many of the activities of the State Teachers College Faculty Association were carried on by the Faculty Association of the State University of New York (FASUNY) and at the college by the so-called "Branch Association," organized in the spring of 1948. The Branch Association was open to all members of the college faculty and staff, including secretaries and maintenance personnel. The state organization was petitioned and the Branch Association was approved. Faculty

3

Dr. Chester A. Pugsley was principal of the School of Practice, a position he had held since 1935 and was to hold until 1952. The School of Practice played, and continued to play, an essential part in the college's education of teachers. Student Life Student life was active and enjoyable. Catherine Reed, dean of women (1926-1955), and Raymond Fretz, dean of men (1946-1952), were readily available and students often consulted with them on a wide variety of matters. Students participated in many extracurricular activi– ties. The A Capella Choir, under the direction of Silas Boyd, and Casting Hall, headed by Mina Goossen, had excellent reputations both on campus and off. During the 1946-1947 school year, Casting Hall presented movies, such as "As You Like It," with Lawrence Olivier, and the classic Victor McLaglen film, "The Informer," and performed the play "I Remember Mama." The Senior Women's Glee Club, the Men's Glee Club, and the Freshmen Women's Glee Club offered many opportunities for students who liked to sing, while the Orchestra and the Band offered similar opportunities to student musicians. Three student religious organizations were in existence: Akiba (from 1948, Hillel) for students of the Jewish faith, the Newman Club for Catholics, and the Student Christian Association. Moving Up Day, an important college tradition, included the crowning of a queen, the presentation of gifts to the college, the introduction ofnew class officers, the exchanging of flowers, and the famous student-faculty softball game. Holly Hanging, a practice begun in 1930, took the form of artistic competition among the four classes with the winning group being awarded the honor of hanging a large wreath on the front door of the administration building. It also included a holiday dinner, carol singing, and a play performed in the auditorium. Students wrote for Record and Elms, and, from May 1949, for Elm Leaves, a literary magazine. Each fall student writers could participate in a short story contest. The College Co-Op was operated by Charlotte Fetterman. The library, on the second floor of Rockwell Hall, contained 30,000 volumes and subscribed to over 200 periodicals. Frances G. Hepinstall was the head librarian. Henry J. Steel chaired the faculty committee on placement and Mrs. Jean Kleppman Rupp was the placement secretary. In 1947 the positions of placement secretary and permanent alumni secretary were combined and the position held by Mrs. June Halton Truesdale. Ruth Houston was professor of health education and head of the department and Hubert Coyer the athletic

Dr. John Urban was elected the first chairman. FASUNY and the Branch Association lasted into the early sixties, by which time the Faculty Senate of SUNY, which held its first meeting on December 15, 1953, had gradually taken over FASUNY's functions.

Curriculum

The student body was made up primarily of women, although World War 11 veterans were beginning to attend the college. The students were serious and industrious, eager to make the best of an opportunity to attend college. The general elementary curriculum enrolled 607 :.i.udents in 1946-1947. Allen T. Bradley was the director of elementary education, Harry J. Steel was director of training, and Oscar E. Hertzberg was chairman of the Education Department. Included in the first year of study were two semes– ters of English composition and speech, the history of civilization, child development, essentials of art, and essentials of music and one semester each of introduction to mathematics and physical science, with language study (Latin, French, Spanish) being optional. It represented a substantial year of study, followed by three more just as demanding. All curricula in the college were rigorous. Students were assigned to a section of about 25 students when they arrived, often remaining in the same section for four years. Dr. Rockwell was a serious educator who demanded seriousness of those around him. He was held in awe by the students and by most administrators and faculty. The tone of the college was not frivolous; smoking was prohibited, and class attendance was expected, as was attendance at biweekly assembly programs, also obliga– tory for faculty, some of whom were asked to take attendance. The college had an excellent reputation as a teacher education institution. Students who attended at this time were expected to enhance that reputation upon graduation. The Industrial Arts Department, with 302 students enrolled in 1946, was growing in size and importance · and was headed by Irving Perkins, who was its director from its inception in 1920 until his retirement in 1953. The program for preparing teachers of the physically handicapped, later to become of such great importance at the college, was just beginning, first under the leader– ship of Opal Risinger and from 1947-1951 under the leadership of Maurice Fouracre. Mildred Sipp headed the Home Economics Department which enrolled 280 students in 1946. The Art Education Department was begun in 1930 with thirty students. Charles Bradley was the chairman. By 1946 there were 203 students, and in 1947 Dr. Stanley Czurles became the director. The department was by then the largest Art Education Department in the United States.

4

coach. Buffalo State had excellent teams in many inter– collegiate sports, soccer and basketball being the most prominent. The soccer team of 1946 played the follow– ing fall schedule: Slippery Rock, Allegheny, Brockport, the University of Rochester, Oswego, the University of Western Ontario, McMaster University, and Colgate. The basketball team that year was the highest scoring team in the college's history, attaining an 11-5 record. Six games were played in the Memorial Auditorium, six on campus, and four away. Honorary organizations included the Alpha Society, which promoted extracurricular activities; Kappa Delta Pi, Gamma Mu chapter of the national honor society in education; Nu Lambda Sigma, the women's honorary literary society; Phi Upsilon Omicron, an honorary professional organization for home economics students ' and Sigma Upsilon for male students in the field of composition and literatu're. Sororities and fraternities played an important part in campus life. The annual Panhellenic Day, held each spring, was a great success. Sororities at the college included Alpha Sigma Alpha, Alpha Sigma Tau, Delta Sigma Epsilon, Pi Kappa Sigma, Sigma Sigma Sigma, and Theta Sigma Upsilon. The fraternities were Delta Kappa, Psi Phi, and Sigma Tau Gamma. National sororities and fraternities were prohibited on State University of New York campuses from 1953 until 1977. An important dimension of student life was added in the fall of 1948 when the first dormitory, Pioneer Hall, housing 120 students, was constructed near the present site of Moot Hall. On December 6, 1948 ground– breaking ceremonies were held for C_assety Hall, the first permanent dormitory in the state system. The cornerstone was laid on May 5, 1948, and it was dedi– cated as North Hall on October 27, 1950; its name was changed to Cassety Hall in .1963 to honor Louise M. Cassety, a teacher at the college from 1898 to 1926. A twin dormitory, South Hall, followed the same building

schedule, and its name was changed in 1963 to Chase Hall in honor of Dr. Susan F. Chase, a teacher at the college from 1899 to 1926.

. SUNY

Probably the most important event in the history of State University College at Buffalo took place on July 1, 1948, when, under Governor Thomas E. Dewey, the State University of New York was established. It consisted initially of 11 teachers colleges, six agricultural and technical schools, and five two-year institutions. In 1948 it was housed in a single room in the State Education Department, but by 1953, just five years later, it had become the second largest state university in the United States. Its impact on the college initially was one of gene– rating hopefulness. Those on campus felt that SUNY would help to unify the efforts of the 11 state teachers colleges included in it and give them more visibility. Some even thought that it would result in the college having nationally recognized athletic teams. There is even said to be a button proclaiming "Football at State in '48." Though that dream never materialized, many · others did as Buffalo State and SUNY grew together. On July 31, 1951, Dr. Harry W. Rockwell retired after 32 years as president of the college. As he left, Buffalo State was the largest teachers college in the state, the largest unit in SUNY, had the lowest per capita cost of the 11 teachers colleges ($502), _and had the highest number of placements (98%). Dr. Rockwell was a dreamer and a doer, largely responsible for the growth and development of the college from a one-building normal school in 1919 to a striking Georgian-style campus and the largest unit of SUNY in 1951. He left behind six strong undergraduate departments and a graduate program, staffed by the excellent faculty he had recruited with great intelligence and foresight.

5

CHAPTER 11

Campus Democracy and Community Relations: Dr. Harvey M. Rice: 1951-1958

Oswego, a post he held until December 1, 1951, when he assumed his duties in Buffalo. In the fall of 1951, President Truman was beginning his last year in office, the Korean War was in progress, and McCarthyism was beginning. However, the campus was quiet, reacting only slightly to national and international affairs. Male students did have to take a draft-deferment exam to determine their status, and those who scored under 80 were subject to' the draft Dr. Rice brought a new kind of administrative posture to the college. Dr. Rockwell had ruled in a manner that some would have described as autocratic. Faculty and students had little to say about how the college was run. Dr. Rice, realizing.what the situation had been, set out to change it. One attempt to give the various constituencies more input took the form of the College Cabinet. It had 19 members: the president, the dean of the college, the dean of students, the directors of the six divisions, the principal of the campus school, the chairmen of six councils, the coordinator of field services, and two elected members of the faculty. Meeting weekly, the Cabinet discussed issues of importance as they occurred. The 1955 Elms describes its functions as follows: "The Cabinet determines and enforces basic administrative policy. It receives recommendations from councils, committees, and agencies. The Cabinet may invest councils with authority to make and to carry out policies within specified areas." Dr. Rice was interested in faculty and student governance and encouraged participation. He created a Faculty Salary and Promotions Committee which con– sisted of the division directors, the dean, the president, and elected faculty members. According to Dr. Rice, the recommendations of this committee were the ones he forwarded to Albany for action. Dr. Rice also recruited Dr. Gordon J. Klopf as the first dean of students in September 1952. This position combined the two positions of dean of women and dean of men, and the holders of those positions, Catherine Governance

Dr. Ralph Horn, dean of the college, was named acting president upon the retirement of Dr. Rockwell. Dr. Horn was a quiet, gentle man, efficient without being officious. He served as acting president from August 1 until December 1, 1951. On January 2, 1952, the Local Board passed the following resolution: "Be it resolved, that the Local Board hereby extends to Dr. Horn its appreciation for his efficient services as Acting President from the time of the retirement of Dr. Rock– well until the assumption of duties by Dr. Rice." While Dr. Horn was acting president, Dr. George R. Sherrie, coordinator and director of public relations, acted as dean. On March 29, 1951, the Local Board set up a presi– dential selection committee consisting of three Board appointees and three elected faculty members, Dean Horn, Mildred L. Sipp, director of home economics, and Dr. Frederick J. Hollister, president of the Branch Association. Their search ended with the selection of Dr. Harvey M. Rice, president of Oswego State, 1947- 1951, as the new president of the college. Dr. Rice was then 44 years old, dynamic, ambitious and an extremely hard worker. He and his wife Dorothy were a striking couple: lively, attractive, personable, and friendly. According to several accounts, upon accepting the presidency at the college, and before arriving, the . Rices painstakingly went through photographs of the faculty so that at their reception they could greet each faculty member by name, a feat Dr. Rice repeated shortly afterward at his first faculty meeting. Dr. Rice was born in Mora, West Virginia, on January 10, 1907. He received an A. B. degree from Concord College in 1929, an M.A. from West Virginia University in 1933, and a Ph.D. in history from the Ohio State University in 1938. He taught in high schools from 1929-1934 and as a student assistant and instructor at Ohio State from 1936-1943. From 1943-1947 he was a professor of history at Albany State, also serving as chairman of the Department of Social Studies his last year there. In 1947 he accepted the presidency at Dr. Rice

6

Reed and Raymond Fretz, were each named associate dean of students. Dr. Klopf worked with the students for 18 months in the development of a new governance structure for the Student Council which had been operative on campus since 1937. When the proposed constitution was finally hammered out, it was presented in its entirety in the October 15, 1953, issue of the Record. It included guidelines for the use of student funds and the financing and regulation of student organizations. The Student Council became the College Student Association with a deliberative body called the Student Congress. Faculty On the faculty side, there were two active organi– zati_ons concerned with faculty welfare and faculty participation in the governance of the college, the Branch Association of FASUNY, and the Buffalo State Chapter of the American Association of University Professors. The AAUP served the faculty within the constitution and philosophy of the national organization. According to a faculty handbook of the early fifties, "its functions in relation to the College are broader and more philo– sophical than those of the Branch Association." It was the Branch Association that led the move– ment for faculty rights at this time. It grew out of the Association of New York State Teachers College Facul– ties founded in 1933 by Hermann Cooper and others interested in the improvement of teaching at the 11 colleges. This organization became the Faculty Associ– ation of State University of New York in 1948. The faculty at Buffalo, frustrated by what they considered Dr. Rockwell's dim view of the local AAUP chapter, decided to form a local "Branch Association" of FASUNY, theorizing that, since FASUNY was an official organization, Dr. Rockwell would not object to its existence. The faculty quickly drew up a constitution and on February 11, 1948, held a general faculty meeting, chaired by Dr. Harold F. Peterson, to discuss the consti– tution. In March the amended constitution was passed and on September 22, 1948, the faculty proposed an amendment to FASUNY to allow for local branch organizations. The amendment was approved and Dr. John Urban became the first chairman of the local branch. Ruth Buddenhagen was the first treasurer and Ruth Sugarman, the first secretary. The Branch Association addressed itself to profes– sional matters and faculty concerns over general welfare. Several committees were organized with over 40 faculty members serving on them. On October 10, 11, and 12, 1948, the Branch Association presented 18 resolutions at the FASUNY meeting at Lake Placid, one calling for unobtrusive administrative leadership and another for increased inter-unit cooperation among the colleges.

Some in attendance felt that Dr. Rockwell and Dr. Cooper were rather perturbed about the proceedings, but the Branch Association was born and established. During Dr. Rice's term as president the Branch Association was the mo.st important forum for faculty discussion of issues of concern to them. He was suppor– tive of the organization, even encouraging an extensive revision of its constitution and bylaws by a faculty committee chaired by Katheryne Whittemore. Through the fifties the Branch Association was headed by Pro– fessors Fouracre, Hollister, A. Bradley, Burrell, W. Greenwood, Russell; Whittemore, Cook, E. Brown, and Rodney. The Branch Association existed at a time when the faculty was relatively small and close-knit and a measure of collegiality was still_ to be found on college campuses. Administration In the mid-fifties, at the mid-point of Dr. Rice's presidency, Dr. Ralph Horn continued as dean. Gordon Klopf served as dean of students, with Catherine Reed and Robert Redden serving !)-S associates. Robert Mac– Vittie had become principal of the campus school, ·George Sherrie coordinator of field services, and Walter Greenwood, director of summer session. The division directors were Stanley Czurles, art education; Harry Steel, education; Horace Mann, education for exceptional children; Allan Bradley, elementary education; Robert Albright, graduate and extension education; Margaret Grant, home economics education; and Kenneth Brown, industrial arts education. The departments and chairmen were: education, Oscar Hertzberg; English, Arthur Bradford; foreign .languages, Charles Messner; geography,· Katheryne Whittemore; health and physical education, Artnoll Wegner; mathematics, Reuben Ebert; music, Silas Boyd; science, John Urban; and social studies, Harold Peterson. Near the end of Dr. Rice's presidency two important administrative appointments were made. lri the fall of 1957, Dr. Katheryne Whittemore was named the first director of arts and sciences, a position that would grow in importance as the years passed. Dr. William Baker was named director of general education, signaling perhaps the most important curricular development at the college in many years. He came to the college from a position as assistant professor of communications skills at Michigan State University.

Curriculum

The General Education Program is described in the College Catalogs of 1957-58, 1958, 1959, and 1959-61. In the last catalog it is called the General Studies Program. It was a short-lived but an ambitious and

7

interesting program. It started as a pilot program for 50 students in 1955-56 and for 100 students in 1956-57. It was described as follows: "The basic philosophy of the General Studies Program is that it should enrich the social, physical, emotional, mental, and moral lives of all the students. To achieve this enrichment, the following concepts are postulated: (1) the primacy of human values; (2) the dignity, worth, and integrity of the indi– vidual; (3) the opportunity for the fullest development of the individual; (4) individual responsibility for action in behalf of the common good, and (5) the consent of the people in all decisions governing general welfare." The General Studies Program attempted to achieve these goals by offering courses designed specifically for the program such as: G.S. 101-102, Man and His Insti– tutions: Social, Economic and Political; G.S. 1 o4, Ways of Knowing; G.S. 201, Family Living; G.S. 203-204, Man and His Natural Environment, and G.S. 301-302, Ideas of Man and His World in Literature. Dr. William Baker directed the program which included at its peak seven other full-time faculty members. Many other members of the faculty also participated. All students were required to take these courses providing a common subject matter they could share and discuss. The faculty involved met weekly to discuss the program. Although the General Studies Program encompassed several ideas dear to academicians, it passed out of existence at the college rather quickly. It left a residue of ideas, however, that would in time become, in a different format, the core curriculum required of all students from the middle sixties on. The curriculum of the college continued to expand through the fifties. At the beginning of the decade a specialization in early childhood education was offered; by the middle of the decade a similar specialization in early secondary education was begun. In 1953 Dr. Horace Mann was named director of the newly formed division for the education of exceptional children. Although small at the time, this division, under the leadership of Dr. Mann from 1953-1978, gained national and international renown for the college. Finally, in 1958, the college was granted the authority to offer a program in secondary education for teachers of mathe– matics and science, an important event that gave the college a new breadth of interest and activity. When Dr. Rice took office in 1951, the under– graduate enrollment stood at 2,033 full-time students. At the end of his term in 1958 that number stood at 2,881. The building program during his years as presi– dent began with the dedication of a new library building on May 16, 1952, the same day on which Dr. Rice was formally inaugurated as president. It was dedicated to Construction

Edward H. Butler, Sr., editor and publisher of the Buffalo Evening News and. a member of the Local Board of Managers of the college from 1894-1914, the last twelve years as president. Edward H. Butler, Jr., who replaced his father on the Board in 1914 and had served as president since 1915, was a featured speaker at the dedication. Also present was college librarian Frances Hepinstall, who had supervised the enormous job of transferring 40,000 books from the second floor of Rockwell Hall to the new library. About 2,000 students and faculty helped to move the books at a rate of about 5,000 per hour. During Dr. Rice's presidency in the late fifties it became evident that SUNY campuses would attract many more students and that dormitory facilities would be necessary. Ground was broken on campus for two dormitories, now Perry Hall and Bishop Hall. Perry Hall was ready for occupancy by women in 1958 and was called West Hall. It was dedicated in 1963 to Mary Louise Perry, an alumna, and former teacher of the college, and a distinguished citizen of Buffalo. Bishop Hall was ready for occupancy in September of 1959 and became the first men's dormitory on campus, housing 196 male students that fall. In 1963 it was dedicated to Irving Bishop, a science teacher at the college from 1888-1912. One of the important additions to the college's life was the college camp. The idea was born in 1950 when Dr. John Urban suggested it to Dr. Rockwell, who set up a committee to study the feasibility of the college acquiring a camp for its use. The search for a camp site continued from the period of Dr. Rockwell's retirement from the presidency through Dr. Rice's appointment. To determine how to pay for the land a convocation was called and attended by 1,400 students. Twelve hundred students voted for a $5 student fee to help defray the cost. By February of 1952, $9,000 had been collected, and the committee chaired by Dr. Urban finally found a suitable site near Franklinville at a reasonable price ($6,500 for 435 acres). During the winter of 1952-53 a firm was engaged to build the lodge, which still stands on the property. It was completed in 1953 under the supervision of Louis Callan. The $43,000 cost of the lodge was partially defrayed by an $18,000 gift from the College Student Association. A $25,000 mortgage was assumed. Just before Dr. Rice left the college, he was persuaded to pay off the mortgage with college funds so that the $5 student fee would no longer be necessary. The camp's first bunks came from Pioneer Hall, when it was demolished, and from Champlain College in Plattsburgh, when it closed. The first students to use the camp Faculty and Student Life

8

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60-61 Page 62-63 Page 64-65 Page 66-67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76-77 Page 78

Made with FlippingBook Annual report