C+S June 2022 Vol. 8 Issue 6 (web)

continuous movement. Because every square inch of the material in coil form spends the same amount of time in each part of the process, consistency of color and texture is ensured. Most sustainable option Lastly, the anodized aluminum was chosen not only for its distinctive and long lasting appearance but also for environmental sustainability. Anodized aluminum reduces solar energy absorption. It typically has a higher SRI (solar reflectance index), meaning more of the sun’s heat energy is reflected away from the building, compared to coated

or painted surfaces and thereby keeps buildings cooler, mitigates the urban heat island effect and reduces energy consumption costs. After oxygen and silicon, aluminum is the third most plentiful element on earth and anodized aluminum is also a 100 percent recyclable prod - uct with higher dollar value than scrap painted aluminum. In a city that takes pride in the architecture and historic symbolism of the iconic Gateway Arch, 100 Above the Park stands as a vibrant, optimistic symbolism of the future.

Safety is non-negotiable, which is the reason why engineers histori- cally have taken a “belt and suspenders” approach to developing sys - tem designs for exacting operating conditions. Traditionally, designing for the anticipated stresses, strains, and loads over the service life of an asset or installation has meant going big in terms of secondary reinforcements, pipe wall thickness, valve, and fitting selection, and buried depth, all of which are predicated on boundary conditions such as pressure and temperature. This approach unarguably produces safe and reliable structures, but it also often results in higher costs, a larger footprint, and a longer and more complicated installation process. For example, it is typical for high-temperature requirements to be ap - plied across an entire aeration system. The whole system is designed for 300°F requirements even though some areas, like the blower room, may only see a maximum temperature of 250°F, and the branches may only see 200°F. Designing to a higher standard impacts valve material selection, expansion joint selection, and material selection, all of which impact the bottom line. Similarly, following AWWA M11 to design fully restrained mechanical joints that accommodate thrust for buried pipelines requires the installation of many large rods and gussets, which drives up both capital costs and installation time. Without a deeper understanding of the stresses and loads of a piping system, the safest approach is to design to recognized standards even Lifecycle Efficiency Begins with Better Designs By Luke Prinsloo

if that means designing well beyond the conditions the system will experience over its working life. Optimized designs deliver value by substantially mitigating the direct costs of construction which include the equipment needed to man - age components on site, the materials used, and the labor required for installation. The challenge engineers face is that developing an optimal design is difficult when the designer is working with limited information, and in the interest of safety, is developing a design based on worst-case scenarios. Stress analysis can change that paradigm by enabling a mathemati - cally based understanding of a system’s performance while in use to provide insight that allows the development of safe alternative designs. In simple terms, stress analysis is an early investment that reduces potential risks and reduces costs through optimization. Making this investment at the front end of a project is a long-term investment because it not only enables better system design, but it delivers value over the life of the asset through simplified operation and maintenance. Benefitting from stress analysis In most cases, designs are determined by customer specifications that are dictated by performance needs, site conditions, regulatory require - ments and guidelines, and industry standards. Unfortunately, a design that is appropriate, safe, and executable may also include design constraints that can lead to unnecessarily high construction and main- tenance costs. And once a design is developed and approved, the last thing engineers and contractors want to see are changes because every alteration to the approved plan means more time and more money. Stress analysis allows designers to uncover the limitations or short -


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