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Teacher Guide Front Matter Page Style Comparison

TEACHER & STUDENT ACTIVITIES

HISTORY ® is the leading destination for revealing, award-winning, original non-fiction series and event-driven specials that connect history with viewers in an informative, immersive and entertaining manner across multiple platforms. HISTORY is part of A+E Networks, a global entertainment media company that includes, among others, A&E®, HISTORY®, Lifetime®, H2®, FYI™, and LMN®.

HISTORY programming greatly appeals to educators and young people who are drawn into the visual stories our documentaries tell. Our Education Department has a long-standing record in providing teachers and students with curriculum resources that bring the past to life in the classroom. Our content covers a diverse variety of subjects, including American and world history, government, economics, the natural and applied sciences, arts, literature and the humanities, health and guidance, and even pop culture. The HISTORY website, located at www.history.com , is the definitive historical online source that delivers entertaining and informative content featuring broadband video, interactive timelines, maps, games, podcasts and more.

“We strive to engage, inspire and encourage the love of learning...”

Since its founding in 1995, HISTORY has demonstrated a commitment to providing the highest quality resources for educators. We develop multimedia resources for K–12 schools, two- and four-year colleges, government agencies, and other organizations by drawing on the award-winning documentary programming of A&E Television Networks. We strive to engage, inspire and encourage the love of learning by connecting with students in an informative and compelling manner. To help achieve this goal, we have formed a partnership with Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

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In addition to premium video-based resources, HISTORY has extensive offerings for teachers, parents, and students to use in the classroom and in their in-home educational activities, including: The Idea Book for Educators is a biannual teacher’s magazine, featuring guides and info on the latest happenings in history education to help keep teachers on the cutting edge. HISTORY Classroom (www.history.com/classroom) is an interactive website that serves as a portal for history educators nationwide. Streaming videos on topics ranging from the Roman aqueducts to the civil rights movement connect with classroom curricula. HISTORY email newsletters feature updates and supplements to our award-winning programming relevant to the classroom with links to teaching guides and video clips on a variety of topics, special offers, and more.

The Idea Book for Educators

Classroom resources that bring the past to life

Live webcasts are featured each year as schools tune in via streaming video.

HISTORY Take a Veteran to School Day connects veterans with young people in our schools and communities nationwide.

In addition to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt , our partners include the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian Institution, National History Day, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, the Organization of American Historians , and many more. HISTORY video is also featured in museums throughout America and in over 70 other historic sites worldwide.

Live webcasts

HISTORY Take a Veteran to School Day

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Program Highlights Keeping the Story in History

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt delivers a powerful and personal narrative to captivate students’ curiosity and help them connect their learning to their lives and interests.

Essential Questions begin every Module in HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present to help spark students’ curiosity about the content.

HISTORY® Videos, introduced in Module openers, embedded within the narrative, and highlighted in Multimedia Connections, bring the content to life through primary source footage, dramatic storytelling, and expert testimonials.

image credit: computer monitor ©Yahia Loukkal/Fotolia

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Program Highlights

Flexible Assessment options appear at the Lesson, Module, and Benchmark levels. HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present includes a robust writing strand to allow students to demonstrate their learning through a variety of essay types, such as informative and argumentative. Online assessments offer quizzes and tests that are scored automatically.

Flexible Arrangement with HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present’s modular format allows schools to purchase exactly the content that they want. While the material can always be bought with its full, pre- set table of contents, customers now also have the option to order individual Modules to build and sequence a program that follows their exact curriculum.

image credit: computer monitor ©Yahia Loukkal/Fotolia

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How to Use This Program

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Instruction is presented at point of use for ease of navigation and discovery. Content extension, differentiated activities, instructor scaffolding, questions, answers, suggestions on engaging students, help with program features and more are all presented in sequence with student materials. The Teacher’s Guide bridges student digital and print editions, providing seamless instruction for both environments.

Online Student Edition

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Teacher’s Guide: Core Instruction

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majordamage to theJapanese targets,but it stillhad some significant effects.PullingoffaPearlHarbor-styleair raidoverJapan liftedAmerica’s sunken spirits.At the same time, itdampened spirits inJapan. BATTLEOF THECORAL SEA Closeon theheelsofDoolittle’s raid came anothermoralebooster for theAllies.Since thebeginningof thewar,Allied forces in thePacific,mainlyAmericansandAustralians,had seen little suc- cess in slowingJapanese conquests. InMay1942,however, theAllies finally turneda corner.They succeeded in stopping theJapanesedrive towardAus- tralia in the five-dayBattleof theCoralSea.During thisbattle, the fighting wasdonebyairplanes that tookoff fromenormousaircraft carriers.Nota single shotwas firedby surface ships. Itwasnotadecisivewin for theAllies. Both sides suffered lossesandboth, in fact, claimedvictory.But itwasa stra- tegic triumph.For the first time sincePearlHarbor,aJapanese invasionhad been stoppedand turnedback. THEBATTLEOFMIDWAY Japanese leadershadbeen troubledbyDoolittle’s raid.Theyweredetermined to stopany futureattackson theJapanesemain- land.Todo so, theyplanned to lure theAmericans intoa large seabattle with thegoalofdestroyingwhat remainedofU.S.naval forces.The first step in theirplanwouldbe toattackMidway Island,a strategic island that lies northwestofHawaii.TheJapanesehada largeadvantage in thenumberof shipsand carriers they couldbring to thebattle.However, theAmericans hadanadvantage thatJapandidnotknowabout.Naval intelligenceofficers hadbroken theJapanese codeandknew thatMidwaywas tobe theirnext target.Theyalsoknew thedateof theplannedattackand thedirection from which theJapanese shipswouldapproach.Hereagain theAllies succeeded in stopping theJapanese. Admiral ChesterNimitz , the commanderofAmericannaval forces in the Pacific,moved todefend the island, carefullyplacinghis forcesbasedon hisknowledgeof theJapanesemilitary’splans.OnJune3,1942,his scout planes found theJapanese fleet.TheAmericans sent torpedoplanesanddive bombers toattack.TheJapanesewere caughtwith theirplanes stillon the decksof their carriers.The resultsweredevastating.By theendof the Battle ofMidway , itwas clear theAllieshadwona tremendousvictory.TheJapa- nesehad lost4aircraft carriers,a cruiser,and250planes. In thewordsofa Japaneseofficial,atMidway theAmericanshad “avengedPearlHarbor.” The Allies Go on the Offensive TheBattleofMidwaywasa turningpoint in thePacificWar.With theJapa- nesenavy crippled, theAlliesdecided to take the fight toJapan. GUADALCANAL The firststep in thenewAlliedstrategywas towincontrol of territory in theSolomon Islands.TheJapanesehad taken these islands in1942,andanAlliedpresence therewouldhelpprotectnearbyAustralia. Akeygoal in theSolomonswas thecaptureofan islandcalledGuadalcanal. TheJapanesehadnearlycompletedanairfield there,making ita tempting

BIOGRAPHY

Objectives Youmaywish todiscuss the followingquestionswith students tohelp them frame thecontentas they read. • WhatAmericanactions surprised the Japanese? • Whatwas the importanceof theBattleofMidway? MoreAbout . . . JamesDoolittle JamesDoolittle leftcollege to join thearmywhen theUnitedStatesenteredWorldWar I.Hebecameanexpertpilotand flight instructor. After thewar,he testedand racedaircraft for the ArmyAirCorps.Doolittle left thearmy in1930 towork asanaviationconsultant,buthe returned toactive dutywhenWorldWar IIbegan.He ledairoperations throughout thewar, includingcourageousbombing attackson Japan in1942, immortalized in the famous movie ThirtySecondsOverTokyo .The raidwas the firstattackon the Japanesemainlandduring thewar. Doolittle latercommandedbombing raidsonGermany, whichhelped lead to theendof thewar inEurope.

DouglasMacArthur (1880–1964)

DouglasMacArthurwas tooarrogantand prickly tobe considereda“regularguy”by his troops.Buthewasarguably themost brilliantAllied strategistofWorldWar II. ForeveryAmerican soldierkilled inhis campaigns, the Japanese lost ten. Hewasconsidereda realheroof thewar, bothby themilitaryandby theprisonerson thePhilippines,whomhe freed.“MacArthur tookmore territorywith less lossof life,” observed journalist JohnGunther,“thanany militarycommander sinceDarius theGreat [kingofPersia,522–486BC].”

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MacArthurandhis forces foughtonbravely.Theyheldoutagainst the invadingJapanese troops for fourmonthson theBataanPeninsula.Hun- ger,disease,andbombardmentskilled14,000Allied troopsand left48,000 wounded.WhenAmericanandFilipino forces found themselveswith their backs to thewallonBataan,PresidentRooseveltorderedMacArthur to leave. OnMarch11,1942,MacArthur left thePhilippineswithhiswife,hisson,and hisstaff.Ashe left,hepledged to themany thousandsofmenwhodidnot make itout, “Ishallreturn.”Less thanamonth later,about10,000American and60,000Filipino troopsremainingonBataansurrendered. Although the fightingwasover, the sufferingof the soldiershad just begun.For fivedaysandnights, theJapanese forced the captured soldiers throughwhat came tobe called the BataanDeathMarch .Theprisoners had little foodorwater,and thosewhodroppedoutof linewerebeatenor shot.Thousandsperished.Thosewho completed this terrible journeydid not faremuchbetter. In theJapaneseprison camp, lackof foodandmedi- cine claimedhundredsmore lives. Fortunes Shift in the Pacific The lossof thePhilippineswasa lowpoint for theUnitedStates in the Pacificwar. In the springof1942,however, theAlliesbegan to turn the tideagainst theJapanese. In fact, justdaysafter the surrenderonBataan, Americans finallygot somegoodnews. DOOLITTLE’SRAID OnApril18,1942,ArmyLieutenantColonelJames Doolittle led16bombers inadaringraidonTokyoandseveralotherJapanese cities.Thenextday,Americansawoke toheadlines thatread “TokyoBombed! DoolittleDo’od It.”Doolittle’sraid,as theeventcame tobeknown,didnotdo

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ReadingCheck FindMain Ideas Whatwas the significanceof the Battleof theCoral Sea?

ReadingCheck AnalyzeCauses What factors contributed to Japan’s seriesof rapidmilitary victories following PearlHarbor?

ONLINE INTERACTIVETIMELINES

War in thePacificand inEurope,1941–1946 Have studentsexplore the timelineandanswer the associatedquestion. AnalyzeTimelines Which twoeventshappened in the samemonth? U.S.Marines landon Guadalcanal;Hitlerorders theattackonStalingrad .

ONLINEANALYZEVIDEOS

BattleofMidway Have studentswatch thevideo individually orasaclass.Youmaywish touse theassociated questionasadiscussionprompt. AnalyzeVideos Whatadvantagesdideach side havegoing into thebattle? TheJapanesehada larger fleet,with fouraircraftcarriers to theAllies’ three.TheAllieshadadvance intelligenceabout the plannedattack.

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ENGLISHLANGUAGELEARNERS

COLLABORATIVELEARNING

STRUGGLINGREADERS

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IdentifyTurningPoints 1. Have studentsgive thenamesanddates of theeventsandbattles thatactedas early turningpointsof thewar in the Pacific. 2. Organize theclass intogroups,and assigneachgroupabattleorevent. Haveeachgroupcreateachartabout itsassigned turningpoint, reporting the five“Ws”:Who,What,When,Where,and Why itwas significant. IntegratedAssessment,Rubric5:Writing Activities

CreateaCode 1. Togainanunderstandingofcryptology, divide students into smallgroups. 2. Ask them tocreateacodeusing numbersas indicators. 3. Have themwritea sentence in their code. 4. Thengiveeachgroupachance tocrack theother’scode. IntegratedAssessment,Rubric5:Writing Activities

MapReading 1. Readingamap involvesdifferent spatial andvisual skills than reading text. Studentsmayneedassistance reading acomplicatedmap, suchas the“World War II:TheWar in thePacific,1942–1945” map. 2. Have studentswork inpairs.Ask them to findeachmapkey itemon themap; listeachbattlediscussed in the text and find iton themap;anduse their list tocreatea timelineof thewar in the Pacific. 3. Studentsmaybenefit from seeinga chronology for thebattles shownon the map. B

Lesson3

America Moves Toward War

READINGCHECK AnalyzeCauses What factorscontributed to Japan’s seriesof rapidmilitaryvictories following PearlHarbor? damage to theU.S.PacificFleet; increasednationalpride;skilled,well trained troops; superiorweaponry

One American’s Story TwodaysafterHitler invadedPoland,PresidentRoosevelt spoke to Americansabout theoutbreakofwar inEurope.Roosevelt talked clearlyabouthow theUnitedStates shouldbeconsistent in seek- ingpeace forallpeople.Healsoannouncedanewproclamation declaringAmericanneutrality.

The Big Idea TheUnitedStateshesitated to become involved inanother global conflict.However, itdid provideeconomicandmilitary aid tohelp theAlliesachieve victory. Why ItMattersNow U.S.military capabilitybecame akey factor inWorldWar II,and ithasbeena consideration in worldaffairsever since. Key Terms and People NeutralityActs Axispowers SelectiveTrainingandService Act

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“Thisnationwill remaina neutralnation,but I can- notask that everyAmerican remainneutral in thought aswell. . . .Evenaneutral cannotbeasked to closehis mind orhis conscience. . . . I have saidnot once,butmany times, that Ihave seenwar and Ihatewar. . . .As long as it ismypower toprevent, therewillbenoblackout of peace in theU.S.”

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At lastRoosevelt seemed ready to takea standagainstaggression— until isolationistnewspapersexploded inprotest.Theyaccused thepresi- dentof leading thenation intowar.Rooseveltbackedoffasa resultof this criticism,buthis speechdidbegin to shift thedebate.For themoment the conflicts remained “over there.” Moving Away from Neutrality AsGerman tanks rolledacrossPoland,Roosevelt revised theNeutral- ityActof1935.At the same time,hebegan toprepare thenation for the strugglehe feared lay justahead. CAUTIOUS STEPS InSeptember1939RooseveltpersuadedCongress to pass a “cash-and-carry”provision. It allowedwarringnations tobuyU.S. arms as long as theypaid cash and transported them in theirown ships. Roosevelt argued thatproviding the armswouldhelpFrance andBrit- aindefeatHitler andkeep theUnitedStatesoutof thewar. Isolationists attackedRoosevelt forhis actions.However, after sixweeksofheated debate,Congresspassed theNeutralityActof1939, and a cash-and-carry policywent into effect. THEAXIS THREAT TheUnitedStates’s cash-and-carrypolicy seemed like too little, too late.By summer1940Francehad fallenandBritainwas under siege.Rooseveltworked toprovide theBritishwith “allaid shortof war.”ByJunehehad sentBritain500,000 riflesand80,000machineguns. InearlySeptember theUnitedStates traded50olddestroyers for leaseson Britishmilitarybases in theCaribbeanandNewfoundland.Britishprime ministerWinstonChurchillwould later recall thismovewithaffectionas “adecidedlyunneutralact.” OnSeptember27Americanswere startledby thenews thatGermany, Italy,andJapanhad signedamutualdefense treaty, theTripartitePact. The threenationsbecameknownas the Axispowers . TheTripartitePactwas intended tokeep theUnitedStatesoutof the war.Under the treatyeachAxisnationagreed todefend theothers in case ofattack.Thismeant that if theUnitedStatesdeclaredwaronanyoneof theAxispowers, itwouldhave to fighta two-oceanwar, inboth theAtlan- ticand thePacific. BUILDINGU.S.DEFENSES Meanwhile,RooseveltaskedCongress to increase spending fornationaldefense.DespiteyearsofU.S. isolationism, Nazivictories in1940 changedU.S. thinking.Congressboosteddefense spending.Congress alsopassed thenation’s firstpeacetimemilitary draft—the SelectiveTrainingandServiceAct .Under this law16million menbetween the agesof21 and35were registered.Of these,onemil- lionwouldbedrafted foroneyear.Theywere allowed to serveonly in the WesternHemisphere.Rooseveltdrew the firstdraftnumbers.He told a national radio audience, “This is amost solemn ceremony.” A

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ReadingCheck AnalyzeCauses What factorscontributed to Americans’growing isolationismafter WorldWar I?

Module, Lesson, and Segments A are synchronized in the digital and print student editions, so core instruction unpacking Big Ideas B serves both environments. Instruction for elements including visuals, maps, graphs, and Document-Based Investigations C is provided in the Teacher’s Guide, and all elements are identified as digital, print, or shared. Assessment items and answers D are presented at point of use, and differentiated individual and whole- class activities E are provided throughout.

Lend-LeaseAct AtlanticCharter Allies

—FranklinD.Roosevelt, froma radio speech,September3,1939

FranklinD.Roosevelt

Rooseveltknew thatAmericans stillwanted to stayoutofwar. However,healsobelieved that therecouldbenopeace inaworld controlledbydictators. “Whenpeacehasbeenbrokenanywhere,” he said, “thepeaceofallcountrieseverywhere is indanger.”

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How to Use This Program

Teacher’s Guide Content alignment allows instructors to use the print Teacher’s Guide to steer instruction whether students are using digital, print, or both.

Lesson Planner

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Module Planner

Lesson4Planner

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Planning is simplified through clean, at-a-glance planners detailing elements of Modules and Lessons. Color-coding visually identifies print-only components and organizes Module, Lesson, and Segment content.

The War Effort on the Home Front

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Timelineof Events 1930–1946

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EssentialQuestion Whydid theAllieswinWorldWar II? World War II Module 11

EssentialQuestionPreview Whydid theAllieswinWorldWar II? Have studentsconsider theEssentialQuestionand capture their initial responses. Explore theEssentialQuestion • Explain to studentshow totalitarian rulers rose to power inEuropeandAsia. • Pointout that twocompetingalliances, theAllied powersand theAxispowers,battledeachother in Europeand thePacific. Help studentsplan inquiriesanddevelop theirown supportingquestions suchas: Howdid the riseofdictatorscontribute to theoutbreak ofWorldWar II? Howdid theAllieswork together todefeat theirenemies? Youmaywant toassign students towritea short essay in response to theEssentialQuestionwhen they complete thismodule.Encourage students touse theirnotesand responses to inform theiressays. WorldWar II is sometimesknownas theageof the aircraftcarrier.TheattackonPearlHarbor,carried outbycarrier-basedplanes,clearlydemonstrated thevalueof thisnew styleofwarfare.Paul Sample’spainting illustratesa seriesofplanes ready foranearlymorningpatrolassignment.The paintingappeared inan issueof Life magazine. Ask studentswhy Life magazinemighthave chosen topublish thispainting. toshowpeople whatactiononanaircraftcarrierwas like. Explore theOnlineVideo ANALYZEVIDEOS Digging In Invite students towatch thevideo to learnwhat itwas like for soldierson the front linesof thewar. Geography Whydid the shovelbecomeanessential toolofmany infantry troops? Itallowedsoldiers to dig foxholes in theground thatwouldoffer themsome protection frombattle . INTERPRETTHEPAINTING

United States Events

World Events

1930

1931 JapanconquersManchuria innorthernChina.

BlackSoldiers inWorldWar II SavingFat Henry J.Kaiser

1932 FranklinDelanoRoosevelt iselectedpresident.

1933 Prohibitionends.

1933 AdolfHitler isappointedGermanchancellor.

Videos

Table: TheGovernmentTakes Controlof theEconomy,1942–1945 Graph: TheProductionMiracle Map: JapaneseRelocationCamps, 1942

1937 AmeliaEarhartdisappears attempting soloaround-the-world flight. WorldWar IIPropagandaPosters LibertyShipProduction WarWork

Maps, Graphs,and Charts

Visuals

LESSON4

1938 Kristallnacht —Nazis riot,destroying Jewishneighborhoods.

About thePainting: Thispainting, Dawn PatrolLaunching byPaulSample,depictsan aircraft carrier.Carrierswereusedextensively in thePacificTheaterofWorldWar II.

In thismoduleyouwill learnabout theevents that led to theoutbreak ofWorldWar II.Youwillalsodiscoverhowpoliticaldecisions,military campaigns,andhome front sacrifices led toanAlliedvictory.

Big Idea Following theattackonPearl Harbor, theUnitedStates mobilized forwar.

1939 Germany invadesPoland. BritainandFrancedeclarewar.

1941 A.PhilipRandolphdemands thatwar industries hireAfricanAmericans.

1941 TheUnitedStatesentersWorld War IIafter JapanbombsPearlHarbor.

11.3.3 Cite incidencesof religious intolerance in theUnitedStates (e.g.,persecutionofMormons, anti-Catholic sentiment,anti-Semitism). 11.4.6 Trace thedeclining roleofGreatBritainand theexpanding role of theUnitedStates inworldaffairsafterWorldWar II. 11.7.1 Examine theoriginsofAmerican involvement in thewar,withanemphasison theevents thatprecipitated theattackonPearlHarbor. 11.7.2 ExplainU.S.and Alliedwartime strategy, including themajorbattlesofMidway,Normandy, Iwo Jima,Okinawa,and theBattle of theBulge. 11.7.3 Identify the rolesand sacrificesof individualAmerican soldiers,aswellas theunique contributionsof the special fighting forces (e.g., theTuskegeeAirmen, the442ndRegimentalCombat team, theNavajoCodeTalkers). 11.7.4 AnalyzeRoosevelt’s foreignpolicyduringWorldWar II (e.g., Four Freedoms speech). 11.7.5 Discuss the constitutional issuesand impactofeventson theU.S.home front, including the internmentof JapaneseAmericans (e.g., FredKorematsu v. UnitedStatesofAmerica )and the restrictionson Germanand Italian residentaliens; the responseof theadministration toHitler’satrocitiesagainst Jewsand othergroups; the rolesofwomen inmilitaryproduction;and the rolesandgrowingpoliticaldemandsof AfricanAmericans. 11.7.6 Describemajordevelopments inaviation,weaponry, communication,andmedicine and thewar’s impacton the locationofAmerican industryanduseof resources. 11.7.7 Discuss thedecision todropatomicbombsand the consequencesof thedecision (HiroshimaandNagasaki). 11.8.5 Describe the increasedpowersof thepresidency in response to theGreatDepression,WorldWar II,and theColdWar. 11.9.1 Discuss theestablishmentof theUnitedNationsand InternationalDeclarationofHumanRights, International Monetary Fund,WorldBank,andGeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade (GATT)and their importance in shap- ingmodernEuropeandmaintainingpeaceand internationalorder. 11.10.1 ExplainhowdemandsofAfrican Americanshelpedproducea stimulus for civil rights, includingPresidentRoosevelt’sbanon racialdiscrimina- tion indefense industries in1941,andhowAfricanAmericans’service inWorldWar IIproduceda stimulus for PresidentTruman’sdecision toend segregation in thearmed forces in1948. 11.10.4 Examine the rolesof civil rightsadvocates (e.g.,A.PhilipRandolph,Martin LutherKing, Jr.,MalcolmX,ThurgoodMarshall, James Farmer, RosaParks), including the significanceofMartin LutherKing, Jr.’s“Letter fromBirmingham Jail”and“IHavea Dream”speech.

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VIDEOS, including...

1942 Roosevelt creates theWar ProductionBoard Biography: A.PhilipRandolph OvetaCulpHobby (1905–1995) Rationing Rosie theRiveter TheWarEffort inCalifornia tocoordinate mobilization. 1942 JapaneseAmericansare sent to relocationcenters. 1944 TheGIBillof Rights ispassed.

• Digging In • TheHolocaust • TheLend-LeaseAct • BlackSoldiers inWorldWar II

Document-Based Investigation: Women in theWorkplace

1943 Rommel’s forces surrender inNorthAfrica. 1942 ThousandsofFilipinoandAmerican soldiersdieduring theBataanDeathMarch. 1942 In thePacific, theBattleofMidway turns the tide in favorof theAllies. Extend andEnrich

Historical Sources

• Battleof theBulge • BattleofMidway •MourningFDR • TheManhattanProject

1944 On June6 theAllies launchamassive invasion ofEurope. 1945 Japan surrendersafter atomicbombingofHiroshima andNagasaki.

Document-Based Investigations GraphicOrganizers InteractiveGames Carousel:WorldWar IIPropaganda Posters ImagewithHotspots:D-Day, June6, 1944

1945 HarryS.Trumanbecomes presidentwhenRooseveltdies.

Assessment

1945 TheUnitedNations isestablished.

1946

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InCopyNotes 1. This isa list Lesson1Big Idea The riseof rulerswith totalpower inEuropeandAsia led toWorldWar II. Why ItMattersNow Dictatorsof the1930sand1940schanged the courseofhistorywhen theiractions started WorldWar II, servingasawarning tobe vigilantabout totalitariangovernment. Lesson2Big Idea During theHolocaust, theNazis systematically executed6million Jewsand5millionother non-Aryans.” Why ItMattersNow After theatrocitiesof theHolocaust,agencies formed topublicizehuman rights.These agenciescontinue to fight for social justice in today’sworld.

InDesignNotes 1. This isa list Le son3Big Idea TheUnitedStateshesitated tobecome involved inanotherglobalconflict.However, itdidprovide economicandmilitaryaid tohelp theAlliesachieve victory. Why ItMattersNow U.S.militarycapabilitybecameakey factor in WorldWar II,and ithasbeenaconsideration in worldaffairsever since. Lesson4Big Idea Following theattackonPearlHarbor, theUnited

Statesmobilized forwar. Why ItMattersNow

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Teach theBig Idea 1. WholeClassOpen/Introduction Ask students to imagine that theyarehigh school students in December1941.Howdo they thinknewsof the warwouldaffect them?Do they think itwould change their lives? If so,how? 2. DirectTeach Read students theBig Idea: Following theattackonPearlHarbor, theUnited Statesmobilized forwar .Review the following lessonobjectiveswith students toaid in their understandingof theBig Idea. • Explainhow theUnitedStatesexpanded its armed forces inWorldWar II. • Trace theeffortsof theU.S.government tocontrol theeconomyand inspireAmericansonthehomefront. • Describe thewartimemobilizationof industry, labor, scientists,and themedia. • Summarizeboth theopportunitiesand the discriminationAfricanAmericansandother minoritiesexperiencedduring thewar. • Explain thedecision toplace JapaneseAmericans andGermanand Italianenemyaliens in internmentcamps. 3. WholeGroupClose/Reflect Have students chooseoneof thegovernmentagenciesdiscussed in the lesson to research.Have themwritea paragraphexplaining itspurposeandwhether the agency succeeded incarrying itout. WorldWar II Women in theWorkplace is the fourthofseven document-based investigations thatstudents willanalyze in theWorldWar IImodule.After the bombingofPearlHarbor,manywomen,barred from serving in themilitary, took jobs tosupport thewar effort.Among thosewomenwereMaryCohenand hersister.Studentscanplay theaudio tohear the quote readaloud. ONLINEDOCUMENTBASED INVESTIGATION

The War Effort on the Home Front

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OneAmerican’s Story As soldiers lefthome to fight inEuropeand thePacific,manyAmeri- can familieswere separated.This letter fromMarine1stLt.Leonard Isacksexpresses theemotions thatmany soldiers feltwhen thinking of their lovedonesbackhome.

The Big Idea Following theattackonPearl Harbor, theUnitedStatesmobi- lized forwar. Why ItMattersNow Changeson thehome front reshapedAmerican societyas wellas theeconomy. Key Terms and People GeorgeMarshall Women’sAuxiliaryArmyCorps (WAAC) OfficeofPriceAdministration (OPA) WarProductionBoard (WPB) rationing ManhattanProject A.PhilipRandolph JamesFarmer CongressofRacialEquality (CORE) internment JapaneseAmericanCitizens League (JACL)

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“Mydear littleboys: Iamwriting toyou today, justaweekbeforeChristmas eve, in thehope thatyou willget this littlenoteat Christmas time.Allof this comingweekwillbeholidays, and I can just imagine the funyouwillbehaving . . . Iwon’tbeable to give youa

Timelineof Events 1930–1946

ExploreONLINE!

Module and Lesson Highlights provide overviews of integral Module and Lesson elements. Features detailing overarching Module themes, skills instruction, whole class collaborative activities, and review tools including flip cards, graphic organizers, sequencing activities, and more are included. ExploreONLINE! • Digging In • TheHolocaust • TheLend-LeaseAct • BlackSoldiers inWorldWar II • Battleof theBulge • BattleofMidway •MourningFDR • TheManhattanProject VIDEOS, including... In thismoduleyouwill learnabout theevents that led to theoutbreak ofWorldWar II.Youwillalsodiscoverhowpoliticaldecisions,military campaigns,andhome front sacrifices led toanAlliedvictory. About thePainting: Thispainting, Dawn PatrolLaunching byPaulSample,depictsan aircraft carrier.Carrierswereusedextensively in thePacificTheaterofWorldWar II. EssentialQuestion Whydid theAllieswinWorldWar II? World War II Module 11 11.3.3 Cite incidencesof religious intolerance in theUnitedStates (e.g.,persecutionofMormons, anti-Catholic sentiment,anti-Semitism). 11.4.6 Trace thedeclining roleofGreatBritainand theexpanding role of theUnitedStates inworldaffairsafterWorldWar II. 11.7.1 Examine theoriginsofAmerican involvement in thewar,withanemphasison theevents thatprecipitated theattackonPearlHarbor. 11.7.2 ExplainU.S.and Alliedwartime strategy, including themajorbattlesofMidway,Normandy, Iwo Jima,Okinawa,and theBattle of theBulge. 11.7.3 Identify the rolesand sacrificesof individualAmerican soldiers,aswellas theunique contributionsof the special fighting forces (e.g., theTuskegeeAirmen, the442ndRegimentalCombat team, theNavajoCodeTalkers). 11.7.4 AnalyzeRoosevelt’s foreignpolicyduringWorldWar II (e.g., Four Freedoms speech). 11.7.5 Discuss the constitutional issuesand impactofeventson theU.S.home front, including the internmentof JapaneseAmericans (e.g., FredKorematsu v. UnitedStatesofAmerica )and the restrictionson Germanand Italian residentaliens; the responseof theadministration toHitler’satrocitiesagainst Jewsand othergroups; the rolesofwomen inmilitaryproduction;and the rolesandgrowingpoliticaldemandsof AfricanAmericans. 11.7.6 Describemajordevelopments inaviation,weaponry, communication,andmedicine and thewar’s impacton the locationofAmerican industryanduseof resources. 11.7.7 Discuss thedecision todropatomicbombsand the consequencesof thedecision (HiroshimaandNagasaki). 11.8.5 Describe the increasedpowersof thepresidency in response to theGreatDepression,WorldWar II,and theColdWar. 11.9.1 Discuss theestablishmentof theUnitedNationsand InternationalDeclarationofHumanRights, International Monetary Fund,WorldBank,andGeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade (GATT)and their importance in shap- ingmodernEuropeandmaintainingpeaceand internationalorder. 11.10.1 ExplainhowdemandsofAfrican Americanshelpedproducea stimulus for civil rights, includingPresidentRoosevelt’sbanon racialdiscrimina- tion indefense industries in1941,andhowAfricanAmericans’service inWorldWar IIproduceda stimulus for PresidentTruman’sdecision toend segregation in thearmed forces in1948. 11.10.4 Examine the rolesof civil rightsadvocates (e.g.,A.PhilipRandolph,Martin LutherKing, Jr.,MalcolmX,ThurgoodMarshall, James Farmer, RosaParks), including the significanceofMartin LutherKing, Jr.’s“Letter fromBirmingham Jail”and“IHavea Dream”speech.

Explore theTimeline InterpretTimelines:WorldWar II,1930–1946 Have studentsexamine the timelineand then answer the followingquestion: History InwhatyeardidGerman forces inNorth Africa surrender? 1943 InterpretTimelineofEvents:WorldWar II, 1930–1946 To furtherexplore the timeline,have students discuss the followingquestions: 1. Inwhatyeardid JapanconquerManchuria? 1931 2. Whathappened to JapaneseAmericansand inwhatyear? JapaneseAmericansweresent to relocationcenters in1942 .

United States Events

World Events

1930

1931 JapanconquersManchuria innorthernChina.

Leonard Isacks’swifeand children

1932 FranklinDelanoRoosevelt iselectedpresident.

As theUnitedStatesbegan tomobilize forwar, the Isacks family, like mostAmericans,had few illusionsaboutwhat layahead. Itwould bea time filledwithhardwork,hope, sacrifice,and sorrow. Christmaspresentpersonally this year,but Idowant you toknow that I think of youall the time. . . . Iknow that you would like to givemeaXmaspresent too, so Iwill tell you what you cando,and thiswillbe yourXmaspresent tome. EverydayaskMummie if thereareany errands that you cando forher,andwhen thereare errands to run, say, ‘sure Mummie’and giveherabig smile; . . .” —Leonard Isacks, from“Letter fromMarine1stLt.Leonard Isacks ”

1933 Prohibitionends.

1933 AdolfHitler isappointedGermanchancellor.

1937 AmeliaEarhartdisappears attempting soloaround-the-world flight.

1938 Kristallnacht —Nazis riot,destroying Jewishneighborhoods.

1939 Germany invadesPoland. BritainandFrancedeclarewar.

11.6.5;11.7.3;11.7.5;11.7.6;11.8.5; 11.10.1;11.10.4;11.10.7;CST.1;CST.2;HREP.4

1941 A.PhilipRandolphdemands thatwar industries hireAfricanAmericans.

1941 TheUnitedStatesentersWorld War IIafter JapanbombsPearlHarbor.

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1942 Roosevelt creates theWar ProductionBoard

1943 Rommel’s forces surrender inNorthAfrica. 1942 ThousandsofFilipinoandAmerican soldiersdieduring theBataanDeathMarch. 1942 In thePacific, theBattleofMidway turns the tide in favorof theAllies.

tocoordinate mobilization. 1942 JapaneseAmericansare sent to relocationcenters.

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OnlineModuleFlipCards Use the flipcardsasawholeclassactivityor in studentpairs topreview themodule’sKeyTerms andPeople.Studentscanguess themeaningof eachword, then review itsdefinition,ordo the reverse,using the flipcard’s togglebutton to switch from“Term”to“Definition”mode.Studentscanalso use the flipcardsat theendof themoduleasa review toolbefore taking theModuleAssessment. OnlineSequencingActivity Studentscanuse this sequencingactivity to review thechronologyofevents in theWorldWar II module.Tocomplete,have studentsdrageach event to thecorrectyearon the timeline.

ONLINELESSONFLIPCARDS

1944 On June6 theAllies launchamassive invasion ofEurope. 1945 Japan surrendersafter atomicbombingofHiroshima andNagasaki.

1944 TheGIBillof Rights ispassed.

ReviewKeyTermsandPeople Studentscanuse the flipcards in theLesson Reviewatany time to review the lesson’skey termsandpeople: GeorgeMarshall,Women’s AuxiliaryArmyCorps (WAAC),OfficeofPrice Administration (OPA),WarProductionBoard (WPB), rationing,ManhattanProject,A. PhilipRandolph,JamesFarmer,Congressof RacialEquality (CORE), internment,Japanese AmericanCitizensLeague (JACL).

Document-Based Investigations GraphicOrganizers InteractiveGames Carousel:WorldWar IIPropaganda Posters ImagewithHotspots:D-Day, June6, 1944

1945 HarryS.Trumanbecomes presidentwhenRooseveltdies.

1945 TheUnitedNations isestablished.

1946

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Lesson5Big Idea Allied forces, ledby theUnitedStatesandGreat Britain,battledAxispowers forcontrolofEuropeand NorthAfrica. Why ItMattersNow DuringWorldWar II, theUnitedStatesassumed a leading role inworldaffairs thatcontinues today. Lesson6Big Idea Afterearlydefeats in thePacific, theUnitedStates gained theupperhandandbegan to fight itsway,

Lesson7Big Idea While theAlliescompleted thedefeatof theAxis powerson thebattlefield,Allied leaderswere makingplans for thepostwarworld. Why ItMattersNow Wartimedecisionsaffectedglobalaffairs for thenext severaldecades.

Year

Event

FranklinDelanoRoosevelt iselectedpresident. TheUnitedStatesentersWorldWar IIafter Japan bombsPearlHarbor. JapaneseAmericansaresent to relocation centers.

1932 1941

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1942

TheGIBillofRights ispassed.

1944 1945

islandby island, to Japan. Why ItMattersNow

HarryS.Trumanbecomespresidentwhen Rooseveltdies.

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Thesebattles in thePacificconvincedworld leaders thatapowerfulweaponwouldbe required towin thewar.

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Name _____________________________ Class________________________ Date_____________ The Cold War Lesson 1 The Origins of the Cold War Key Terms and People iron curtain The division of Europe between free and Communist countries Cold War State of hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States but without military action containment taking measures to prevent the spread of Communist rule to other countries Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Agency created to compile intelligence from the military and state department and to perform secret operations in foreign countries Truman Doctrine U.S. policy of sending aid to any nation trying to prevent a Communist takeover Marshall Plan Program under which the United States gave economic aid to rebuild postwar Western Europe Berlin Airlift Resupply of West Berlin by U.S. and British planes during Soviet blockade of 1948 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Defensive military alliance of the United States, Canada, and ten European nations Harry S. Truman 33rd president of the United States satellite nation Country dominated by the Soviet Union Before You Read In the last lesson you saw the social and economic changes that would reshape postwar America. In this lesson you will see how the Allied coalition that won the war fell apart and how the United States and the Soviet Union came into conflict. As You Read Use a diagram to take notes on U.S. actions and Soviet actions that contributed to the beginning of the Cold War. Current Events features trustworthy articles from today’s news that connect what students learn in class to the world around them.

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Unpacking the Oklahoma Academic Standards for Social Studies

As you read the following pages and work through the unpacking of the Oklahoma History–Social Science Content Standards for Grade 11 United States History and Geography, you will discover the big ideas and key concepts that your students are expected to learn and understand. You will see two things: 1. What the standard actually says 2. What does it mean?  an explanation to help you understand the big ideas within the standard UNITED STATES HISTORY CONTENT STANDARDS USH.2  The student will analyze the social, economic and political changes that occurred during the American Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, and significant reform movements from the 1870s to the 1920s. What does it mean? Examine similarities and differences between the present and the past. Study and assess the effects of past events and decisions to find the lessons learned. Go to the Skillbuilder Handbook in the Online Student Edition for help. USH.2.1  Evaluate the transformation of American society, economy and politics during the American Industrial Revolution. What does it mean? Explore how change may take place quickly or slowly and how some things can change while others stay the same. Understand that change is complex and affects technology, politics, values, and beliefs. Go to modules throughout the Student Edition for help. USH.2.1.A  Analyze the impact of capitalism, laissez- faire policy and the role of leading industrialists as “robber barons”, “captains of industry” and “philanthropists” including John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie and his Gospel of Wealth essay on American society. What does it mean? Use maps and documents to understand human movement, major patterns of migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, problems between population groups, and the spread of ideas, technology, and goods. Go to maps throughout the Student Edition and the Skillbuilder Handbook in the Online Student Edition for help. USH.2.1.B  Identify the impact of new inventions and industrial production methods including new technologies by Thomas Edison, Alexander G. Bell, Henry Ford, and the Bessemer process. What does it mean? Trace the history of the Constitution after 1787, with special attention to power given to the federal government versus state governments and to the increasing number of voters. Go to Modules 1, 5, 15, 16, and 19 for help. USH.2.1.C  Evaluate the contributions of muckrakers, including Ida Tarbell, Jacob Riis and Upton Sinclair, in changing government policies regarding child labor, working conditions and regulation of big business. What does it mean? Describe how the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the industrial revolution affected the United States, including changes in the population and the development of the nation into a world power. Go to Modules 1, 3, 4, and 6 for help. USH.2.1.D  Analyze major social reform movements including the Women’s Suffrage and Temperance Movement and the leadership of Susan B. Anthony, Alice Paul, and Jane Addams. What does it mean? Describe how the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the industrial revolution affected the United States, including changes

in the population and the development of the nation into a world power. Go to Modules 1, 3, 4, and 6 for help. USH.2.1.E  Evaluate the significance of the Labor Movement on the organization of workers including the impact of the Pullman strikes, the Haymarket Riot, and the leadership of Eugene V. Debs. What does it mean? Describe how the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the industrial revolution affected the United States, including changes in the population and the development of the nation into a world power. Go to Modules 1, 3, 4, and 6 for help. USH.2.1.F  Assess and summarize changing race relations as exemplified in the Plessy v. Ferguson case. What does it mean? Describe how the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the industrial revolution affected the United States, including changes in the population and the development of the nation into a world power. Go to Modules 1, 3, 4, and 6 for help. USH.2.1.G  Compare early civil rights leadership including the viewpoints of Booker T. Washington, andW.E.B. DuBois in response to rising racial tensions, the anti-lynching work of Ida B. Wells, and the use of poll taxes and literacy tests to disenfranchise blacks. What does it mean? Describe how the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the industrial revolution affected the United States, including changes in the population and the development of the nation into a world power. Go to Modules 1, 3, 4, and 6 for help. USH.2.2  Evaluate the rise and reforms of Populism and the Progressive Movement including: A. direct primary, initiative petition, referendum and recall intended to limit the corrupting influence of political machines B. impact of William Jennings Bryan and his “Cross of Gold” speech on the political landscape C. series of events leading to and the effects of the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, and 21st Amendments to the Constitution of the United States. What does it mean?  Explore how change may take place quickly or slowly and how some things can change while others stay the same. Understand that change is complex and affects technology, politics, values, and beliefs. Go to modules throughout the Student Edition for help. USH.2.3  Analyze and summarize the key personalities, actions and policies of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and WoodrowWilson by: A. comparing the policies of Roosevelt and Taft on environmental conservation and trust busting, B. evaluating the 1912 presidential election including the role of Roosevelt’s “Bull Moose Party” and Eugene V. Debs Socialist Party. C. describing the policies of Wilson on the issue of women’s right to vote. What does it mean?  Explore how change may take place quickly or slowly and how some things can change while others stay the same. Understand that change is complex and affects technology, politics, values, and beliefs. Go to modules throughout the Student Edition for help.

11.2  Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. What does it mean? Examine the connections among increased industrialization, huge migration from rural areas to cities, and

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