Gambone Law February 2019

Gambone Law

Licensed in Pennsylvania and New Jersey


February 2019

10 Things Parents Must Know The Dangers of Vaping

Vaping has become increasingly popular over the past few years. With vape pens and electronic cigarettes — or e-cigarettes — being used more frequently, cigarette use has begun to diminish dramatically. However, vaping still raises concerns, especially among parents of teenagers in middle school or high school who have started using vape pens.

Here are ten facts parents need to know about these electronic alternatives to smoking:

1. Vaping, which is also known as “juuling,” is a widespread practice among many high school and middle school students.

2. Vaping isn’t a better alternative, nor is it “healthier,” than traditional cigarettes. It can increase the possibility of addiction to other substances like nicotine and marijuana. 3. E-cigarettes use a liquid cartridge containing flavored vape juice, which can hold up to 16 milligrams of nicotine. Vape juices come in a variety of brands carrying flavors such as peppermint, fruit, or coffee. 4. New Jersey and Pennsylvania prohibit the sale of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and vape pens to minors. In New Jersey, a minor is defined as anyone under the age of 21, and in Pennsylvania, a minor is anyone under 18. 5. In a survey of approximately 35 schools (about 3,600 students), almost 10 percent of students in grades 9–12 admitted to using e-cigarettes at least once. According to the National Institute of Drug

Abuse, approximately 30 percent of e-cigarette users begin smoking within six months, while only 8.1 percent of non-users start smoking.

6. Almost 14 percent of vapers don’t know what’s in the liquid they’re inhaling, while 66 percent believe it’s just flavoring.

7. A joint University of Pennsylvania and University of Southern California study found that teenagers who vape are four times more likely to use marijuana in the next two years. 8. Some vape liquids contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is concentrated marijuana extracted from the buds and processed into a liquid form that can be inhaled or vaped. 9. Inhaling THC-laced vape liquids can not only cause a euphoric “high,” but can also distort time, increase drowsiness, cause impairment, and substantially diminish reaction time while driving. 10. Some studies indicate that the substances in many vape products, such as propylene glycol, can trigger asthma and allergies. There are also studies the show these substances break down into carcinogens within the body. One vape pod equals approximately 200 puffs — about one pack of cigarettes. If you have any questions or concerns about vaping, e-cigarettes, or liquid forms of THC, you can visit my blog at for more information. –Alfonso Gambone

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Breaking Through the TV Terminology

4K, HDR, and OLED Defined

When you shop for a newTV these days, you’re greeted with a bevy of acronyms and numbers —marketing terms you can’t make sense of. These are terms like 4K, HDR, and OLED, just to name a few. TV makers leave it up to you to figure out what these terms mean. Well, look no further. We’re going to cut through the marketing speak and get to the point. Here’s what today’s popular TV marketing terms really mean. 4K The TV buzzword “4K” has replaced “HDTV” and “1080p” as the go-to marketing term. In short, it’s a reference to the number of pixels on the screen. Standard high-definition TVs (1080p) have a vertical resolution of 1,080 pixels and a horizontal resolution of 1,920. Here’s where it gets weird. 4K TVs have a vertical resolution of 2,160 pixels with a horizontal resolution of 3,840. Marketers decided to swap the vertical resolution as their reference point with the horizontal resolution, because higher numbers are more impressive, right? But 4K TVs seem to fall short of the moniker. Regardless, these TVs have improved color and image quality over standard HD, but you have to have devices — such as the PlayStation 4 Pro or a Blu-ray player — or services that output in 4K to take advantage of the boost in pixels. HDR High Dynamic Range, or HDR, is a type of image processing. When an image is processed, HDR is used to increase or decrease the luminosity of the image. It means bright whites, deeper blacks, and improved colors overall. It’s been used in photography for decades and in video since the 1990s. Most 4K TVs have built-in HDR processing, resulting in better color quality, which translates to better image quality overall.

OLED Short for organic light-emitting diode, OLED TVs feature a microscopically thin layer of an organic compound that emits light when an electric current is introduced. Typical LED TVs rely on a backlight in order to produce a lit, visible image. These backlights take up space, resulting in a thicker TV. The major advantage of OLED TVs is they are incredibly thin and light, and they produce deeper blacks for an improved color and image quality.

Couples Who Sweat Together Stay Together Each Valentine’s Day, people all over the world rush to the store to buy chocolates and all the ingredients necessary to whip up a romantic dinner for two. Unfortunately, these calorie-laden holiday traditions can undermine the fitness resolutions you made just six weeks before. Instead of throwing your goals by the wayside this February, why not make fitness a couples activity? Social Psychology. Scientists claimed that partners who exercised together reported higher levels of happiness and satisfaction in their relationship. If you and your sweetheart are looking for a romantic way to burn some calories this month, here are some great workout ideas for two. Play Catch! could even make a couples playlist to listen to as you run. If the cold temperatures are preventing you from enjoying the great outdoors, head to the gym and challenge each other on side-by-side treadmills. Try Some Rock Climbing! WHY YOU SHOULD EXERCISE WITH YOUR SIGNIFICANT OTHER

This is a great way to get a good workout while simultaneously building trust with your partner. Most rock-climbing gyms offer classes in belaying, and staff members can give you tips to improve your form. Sign up to work with an instructor and test your personal limits together.

Grab a medicine ball and do some overhead passes, feet-to-feet situp passes, and back-to- back twists with each other. All of these easy at-home workouts help build a solid core. Go for a Run! If the weather is nice, the two of you can lace up and hit the pavement together. You

The National Library of Medicine published a study showing that couples who focused on their health together went to the gym more often and reported feeling more connected in their relationship. These findings were corroborated by a study published in the Journal of Personality and

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THE 5-SECOND RULE WILL MAKE YOU SICK 3 Health Myths You Probably Believe

Of course, if the tap water in your area has been contaminated, bottled water is a safer alternative. However, in most circumstances, bottled water is no healthier than tap water. Cracking Your Knuckles Causes Arthritis The connection between knuckle-cracking and arthritis came from studies where participants self-reported their habits. Modern medical research has shown these results to be false. The official stance from the John Hopkins Arthritis Center states, “There is no evidence that cracking knuckles causes any damage such as arthritis

We live in the golden age of information. The answers to many of life’s questions are just an internet search away. Despite this readily available wisdom, we still have a bad habit of believing health-related myths. Here are three popular health “facts” that are total works of fiction. The 5-Second Rule Keeps Food Safe Obviously germs and bacteria don’t really wait five seconds to pounce, but snatching your chip off the floor fast keeps most of the germs away, right? Not according to a 2006 study published by Dr. Paul Dawson. He found conclusive evidence that when food comes into contact with a contaminated surface, bacteria are transferred immediately. Even one second spent on tile, wood, or carpet is enough to infest your food with salmonella or another serious contaminant. BottledWater Is Safer Than TapWater People seeking out safer water alternatives increases the sales of bottled “spring water” each year. However, bottled water is more expensive, bad for the environment, and, as Dr. Morton Tavel of the Indiana University School of Medicine pointed out, over 50 percent of bottled water is just filtered tap water. The same effect can be achieved with a home filtration system.

in the joints.” Still, chronic knuckle-cracking can lead to reduced grip strength, so you might want to break the habit anyway. You’ve probably heard these myths for years, but just because something is common knowledge doesn’t mean it is true. With information so easily available, always take the time to research the facts, especially when it comes to your health.

The Weight of a PWID Charge Under Pennsylvania’s Controlled Substance, Drug, Device, and Cosmetic Act (35 P.S. Section 780-101) Possession with the Intent to Deliver (PWID-35 P.S. Section 780- 113(30)) is a felony offense in Pennsylvania. Therefore, PWID is far more serious than illegal possession for personal use. Unlike a simple possession charge, when an individual is taken to court for a PWID, the prosecution must prove 100 percent guilt. Proof of actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance, narcotic, or drug must be presented, along with an intent to manufacture, deliver, or distribute it. The weight of the drug, narcotic, or controlled substance is essential — it will determine the span of time a personmight spend in jail following a conviction. A PWID charge for over 1,000 grams of heroin, cocaine, or any Schedule I or Schedule II controlled substance has an offense gravity score (OGS) of 13. A PWID for these same substances with a weight of 100 – 1,000 grams has an OGS of 11, while 50 – 100 grams has an OGS of 10. Different weights result in different criminal penalties, even if the person charged has no prior criminal history in Pennsylvania. The following chart shows the sentence severity per OGS. Drug OGS Sentence Guideline Cocaine, Heroin Schedule I, II 13 60-78 Months 36-54 Months 11

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Cocaine, Heroin Schedule I, II Cocaine, Heroin Schedule I, II


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The Dangers of Vaping

3 Terms You Need to Know Before Buying a New TV Couples Who Sweat Together Stay Together


Let’s Retire These Health Myths How the PWID Affects Charges


Why Do We Need A Leap Year?


Why Do We Need a Leap Year? The Calculations That Leave Us in Need of an Extra Day

A Leap Day Birthday The odds of being born on Feb. 29 are about 1 in 1,500, which leaves approximately 187,000 people in the U.S. and 4 million people around the world celebrating their birthdays on Feb. 28 or March 1. People born on a Leap Day are faced with dilemmas such as which date they should receive their driver’s license. Although it varies from state to state, most consider March 1 the appropriate day for leap-year 16-year- olds —who are celebrating their fourth “official” birthday — to receive their license. With all the changes the calendar has undergone, it still isn’t quite perfect. Experts say that in about 10,000 years, it will need to be changed yet again.

followed a lunar model, which needed an entire month added to retain consistency. The leap year wasn’t introduced into Europe until the reign of Julius Caesar. With the help of astronomer Sosigenes, Caesar created the Julian Calendar, which included 12 months and 365 days, with a single day added every fourth year. However, the Julian Calendar wasn’t perfect, because 0.2421 of a day can’t be rounded to a multiple of five, so it caused the calendar to have an extra 11 minutes every four years. Pope Gregory XIII fixed the problem in 1582 by creating the Gregorian Calendar. Now, a leap year occurs every four years except for the years that are evenly divisible by 100 and not 400. For instance, 1800 and 1900 were not leap years because they were divisible by 100.

Every four years, February gains an extra day at the end of the month. But what does this contribute to the year as a whole? You might be surprised by what this one day does for us! The 365 days in each year represent the time it takes for the Earth to circle the sun. However, the orbit actually takes nearly a quarter of a day longer than that. The additional 0.2421 of a day might not seem like it would make a significant impact, but after a few decades, it adds up. To ensure the calendar and seasons stay on the right timeline, the leap day was created. The Start of the Leap Year The Egyptians were the first to officially calculate how many days it takes to orbit the sun, revealing the need for a leap year. Europeans at the time used a calendar that

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