Foxtrot Delta N°1

N°1 NOV 2022


AIR MAURITIUS An OCC on the Pearl of the Indian Ocean


Osprey:Sentinel, Keeping you on the right flight path

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AVIATION SECURITY P.9 Osprey:Sentinel, Keeping you on the right flight path



Sanctions Lists Made Easy!







Forge Flight Efficiency, Save Fuel and Shrink Your Carbon Footprint

An OCC on the Pearl of the Indian Ocean

Fifa World Cup 2022







Dawit Lemma

Actively Supporting the Global Flight Dispatchers Community

The Importance of a Just and Learning Culture






Implementation of Free Route Airspace in France


EASA Fuel/Energy Scheme Regulations - What a change!

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Foxtrot Delta magazine Chief Executive Officer at the Internationel Flight Operations Academy & Creator of Foxtrot Delta Magazine Vincent Incammicia


elcome to the fabulous first edition of the Foxtrot Delta magazine, the first and unique magazine dedicated to these essential professionals who contribute actively to the safety of the aviation industry behind the

show a lack of interest in aviation, creating a challenging gap to fill. This situation demonstrates that the industry has not been vaccinated against the inertia of The Great Resignation. It is urgent to address the shortage of skilled Operational Control personnel through strategic solutions and cooperation among concerned international and national organizations. Air organizations shall adopt new flexible best practices aligned with the current and next-generation Operational Control professionals’ expectations. Offering continuous adapted and more responsive learning, better work-life balance, and boosting salaries are critical ingredients to success to avoid seeing skilled people turning towards alternate industries with better working conditions. Clearly, attracting and retaining the next generation of aviation professionals will take time and effort. Advocating for and raising awareness by the “next generation” about this great profession through proper communication across all levels is required to reap the benefits of appealing to the younger talents of tomorrow needed to cope with the traffic demand.

scenes, the OPERATIONAL CONTROL people. Global air traffic continues to grow; in September 2022, it was 73.8% of September 2019 (IATA press release N°51 - Nov 7, 2022). Although the pandemic seems to be behind us, the consequences of the numerous furloughs and offered, early retirements have left the industry struggling to find experienced and skilled personnel to support the strong demand for flights. Globally, approximately 2.3 million fewer professionals are now working in the aviation industry. Aside from the pilots, the operational control community is also highly represented. However, the current skills shortage is not only due to Flight Dispatchers, Operations Controllers, Crew Controllers, etc., not returning to their jobs in the post- pandemic world. Indeed, while the older generation is workforce slowly leaving, younger talent pools seem to





Osprey Flight Solutions:Sentinel, keeping you on the right flight path




Chief Executive Officer Andrew Nicholson

Chief Intelligence Officer Matthew Borie

After graduating with a degree in engineering, Andrew spent 12 years in the Royal Navy, 6 with UK Special Forces, which included operational tours in all major conflict regions. Leaving the military at the height of the Somali Piracy phenomenon, for 3 years Andrew led the maritime and oil and gas divisions for the largest provider of maritime security in the industry. At the same time, he was a member of the steering committee and subsequent Board of Directors for the only international human rights-focused initiative for the security risk management industry. Andrew moved to International SOS and Control Risks in July 2014 to head up the aviation security team. Realising that the industry’s requirement for risk management support had changed in the wake of the MH17 disaster, Andrew founded Osprey Flight Solutions with the aim of driving a quantum shift in the capabilities available to the industry for security risk management, enabled by a focus on cutting edge computing techniques and data-led risk management. Osprey is now recognised across the industry as the leader in open-source risk management data, developing innovative tools to support all operators, no matter their size or resource, in conducting comprehensive and accurate risk management.

As Chief Intelligence Officer, Matt provides strategic direction for Osprey’s data collection and analytical output, as well as expert analysis on a wide range of aviation-related issues, with a focus on conflict zone activity. He has 14 years of aviation security and intelligence experience in the public and private sectors. Previously, Matt worked as an intelligence analyst at the MedAire & Control Risks Aviation Security Center. Prior to that, he completed an eight-year enlistment in the US Air Force, serving as an Operations Intelligence Craftsman. During his Air Force career, Matt provided intelligence support to fighter aircraft operations, including a deployment to a location in Southeast Asia; he also completed deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Matt holds an Associate’s and Bachelor’s Degrees in Intelligence Studies from American Military University (AMU) and, in August 2015, completed a Master’s Degree in National Security Studies from AMU, followed by a Graduate Certificate in Terrorism Studies in December 2017.


Osprey: Sentinel

Sentinel The problem with Prohibitions


Regulatory aviation operations over or near conflict zones is almost exclusively left to national bodies to define and implement. With historical risk management capabilities being limited to purely human based teams, it oversight of

political aims as they are with the specific aim of ensuring safety of flight. The international regulatory response to the forced diversion of a Ryanair flight in May 2021 is a clear example of this. However, this does not change the fact that prohibitions exist and that the regulatory bodies that implement them may have the right to impose significant fines or other regulatory consequences for any breach. To compound the problem, in a complex system like the aviation industry, the effectiveness of such blunt regulatory instruments is also undermined by the legal and diplomatic wordplay that can (and does) make understanding the specific requirements difficult for operators. This is further exacerbated by international codeshares, as demonstrated by several recent breaches of prohibitions on code-share flights, which have resulted in massive fines. However, that these prohibitions are difficult to interpret and give an inaccurate and inconsistent picture of airspace risk does not change the requirement for adherence by

has been impossible to regulate and audit an operator’s risk management function beyond generalities, so it has fallen to national bodies to support their industries directly in the understanding of overflight risk. This has been and continues to be done through the publication of NOTAMs and other civil aviation notices that provide recommendations for operations or prohibit flight operations through specific airspace. Whilst the reasons and intention for the existence of this system were absolutely right, with the now obvious politicisation of this mechanism, its utility has been dramatically undermined. Overflight prohibitions (or the lack of them) are now used as much as a proxy way of imposing sanctions against a nation state or to otherwise further



operators or the risk that a breach poses. Notwithstanding the above challenges to comprehension, the practicalities of adherence also pose quite a problem for operators, who must continuously monitor the publication mechanisms (themselves unnecessarily obfuscated) for all the relevant authorities, all of whom regularly remove or update existing notices and publish new ones with little or no warning. Add to this the variety of formats in which they are published (NOTAM, AIP, AIC, CZIB etc.) and it is difficult to see how compliance exists at all, let alone is widespread. What is clear, however, is that it places a significant resource demand on operators, but remains a significant risk, particularly during a time when the financial position of the industry is suffering so badly. The fact is that anything that diverts attention away from, or confuses the true, objective understanding of aviation risk increases the chances of a serious failure of risk management, which, sadly, usually has tragic consequences. The good news is that this kind of requirement is where AI capabilities can excel and bring enormous benefits to users. The ability to actively monitor websites for change, identify the details of that change and translate it into a data and visual output is bread and butter for machine learning algorithms, with neural networks bringing extremely high levels of accuracy. This is why Osprey built Osprey:Sentinel. :Sentinel is a web-based platform, part of the Osprey suite of capabilities, that consists of two main functions. Firstly, the automatic monitoring, gathering and visualisation of any changes to notices published by the 6 most prominent regulatory authorities; EASA, UK DfT/ CAA, US FAA, German LBA, French DGAC and Transport Canada. The publication mechanisms for these are monitored and checked for changes every few minutes. If a change is detected, the AI algorithms extract all the required data; publication date, validity period, status (prohibition or advisory), geospatial region of application including altitude. This data is then used to provide the most up to date, comprehensive and accurate feed of extant notices in the industry as well as to visualise prohibitions and advisories geospatially on a map. Secondly, through the simple addition of an additional AMHS address when filing flight plans, every flight that an operator conducts can be checked for compliance against all extant or newly published notices, be they advisories or prohibitions. The operator can then be «Anything that diverts attention away from, or confuses the true, objective understanding of aviation risk increases the chances of a serious failure of risk management»



immediately notified of any breach, the second either the flight plan is filed, or a new notice is published. :Sentinel is therefore an automated compliance tool, ensuring that operators do not miss changes in regulatory notices and that they are immediately notified of any potential breach, allowing them to make timely and accurate decisions to avoid the breach if needed. This reduces risk, saves time, and increases efficiency. There is the additional benefit that :Sentinel is a single interface through which the notices from the most prominent authorities can be viewed and compared. Unfortunately, this clearly shows that inconsistency is far more usual than agreement amongst these organisations. This inconsistency is another symptom of the underlying problem with the current application of the notices system. Applying sanctions through overflight prohibitions is a valid tool to use in a geopolitical context, but when it is conflated and confused with a mechanism specifically created, understood, and described as being for the safety of flight operations, it forces airlines to make operational decisions that put their aircraft at greater risk. To solve this, the industry and governments and regulatory bodies need to be honest about the utility of overflight advisories and prohibitions, what they are actually used for and the accuracy of the picture of the risk environment that they portray. Until that happens, operators need a system to accurately monitor compliance with these notices, enabling them to focus their resources and efforts on understanding the actual risk to their operations. :Sentinel does just that.


Osprey Flight Solutions was founded in 2017 with the goal of providing the most advanced aviation risk analysis available for enabling safer and more secure aviation. Our data-driven approach fuses broad- spectrum open-source data, AI technology and world-leading analysis to deliver instant situational intelligence. This approach allows our clients to make dynamic, well-informed decisions about their risks as they emerge and change. We believe this is the future of aviation safety and security. We are constantly innovating and expanding our capabilities to stay ahead of the curve in a fast-moving, turbulent world. We are here to help you stay safe in an ever-changing world.

Top:Automatic monitoring, gathering Bottom:Visualisation of any changes to notices published b 6 regulatory authorities EASA, UK DfT/CAA, US FAA, German LBA, French DGAC and Transport Canada.



FIFA World Cup 2022 By

Click Aviation Network is a global service provider offering a wide range of trip support & travel services to operators and brokers worldwide through partnerships with luxury FBOs globally. The company has its current operations centers in Dubai, Miami and Shanghai, and continue to support its clients daily demand on 24/7 basis.


Chief sailes & Marketing Officer Mariya Vynohradova

Mariya Vynohradova is an industry professional with nearly two decades of experience in aviation services provision, sales & marketing activities, clients’ contracting & acquisition and communication, and staff supervision. Joined Click Aviation Network as its Chief Sales & Marketing Officer since 2016, she brought her knowledge acting as motivational instructor with superior ability to engage & motivate personnel, together with the team growing Click Aviation Network to become one of the biggest trip support providers known in the market just in a short time period. Her career in aviation services provision get started in Dubai early 2003, joining UAS in its newly established Administration department. Mariya has experience of working as HR Manager and Administration Manager at UAS (2003-2006) and Business Development Manager, and later Head of Sales - Europe at Jetex (2006 – 2016). Joined Click Aviation Network, she kept working between Click Aviation Network Kiev hub and Dubai HDQ. Mariya holds Bachelor degree in Business Administration, and works on MBA to be achieved in 2023.



November 20-December 18 FIFA World Cup 2022

Click Aviation Network is a global service provider offering a wide range of high- end trip support & travel services to operators and brokers worldwide through partnerships with luxury FBOs. Our mission is to provide exclusive, comprehensive, and technologically-advanced aviation services to our valued members around the world. Click Aviation Network Today: 200+ employees & on-ground supervisors worldwide 10 international offices 1200+ loyal clients enjoying our services We run OCC centers in Dubai, Kiev, Miami, and Shanghai Connectivity and cooperation are at the center of our philosophy and creating strategic partnerships between industry players to integrate and connect paths together is a vital key for success. We direct our efforts to build “one on one” relations with all our partners and loyal clients globally while also integrating our tech-immersed solutions throughout every operation. Our strategic partners internationally also perform a significant role, helping us expand our reach, effectiveness, and preparation. This autumn, in November 2022, together with our strategic partners, we are bringing you appealing and economical offers tailored for the FIFA World Cup in Qatar. In previous years of the competition, 1000 private jets landed in Brazil during the 2014 FWC and 1200 private jets in Russia during the 2018 FWC. According to the 2022 FIFA World Cup organizers, around 1,5 million people are expected to attend Qatar’s upcoming 2022 World Cup event. C

Full ground handling service packages in Doha (slot booking deposit number, ground handling clearance number, slot clearance request, landing/traffic rights request, as well as fueling and catering arrangements and everything else on a Client`s demand). Hotel accommodation and VIP transportation arrangements. Alternative airport solutions for overnight stays and long- term parking. One-day-trip charter options to attend FWC 2022 matches. While the schedule for jets arriving in Doha during the FWC event is extremely tight, Dubai remains the closest and most convenient airport for aircraft parking. We are delighted to offer all football fans the best services through our strategic partner DC Aviation Al Futtaim (DCAF), a unique and luxurious FBO located in Al Maktoum International Airport OMDW/DWC. Football fans landing at DCAF will experience the highest levels of comfort and privacy in a 1,300 sqm exclusive lounge area offering spacious conference rooms, shower areas, and many more facilities. DCAF offers fans immediate access from limousine drop off to the aircraft which is parked directly in front of the FBO thereby providing a seamless experience like no other. From customs and immigration to security check performed within the comforts of the FBO; fans can board their flight within minutes thereby giving them more time to enjoy the moment. You are welcome to contact our team for arrangements at Address: Office 1506, Jumeirah Bay X2, Jumeirah Lakes Towers, Dubai, UAE 24/7 phone number: +971 4 27 66 209 Website:

While only 130,000 rooms are provided by hotels and cruise liners anchored off Doha and desert campsites, other GCC destinations will be a tempting alternative for fans making one-day trips for matches. What We Are Offering:

«While the schedule for jets arriving in Doha during the FWC event is extremely tight, Dubai remains the closest and most convenient airport for aircraft parking.»

Please remember the earlier you apply, the more likely you are to get the right slot time, as FWC 2022 slot requests will be handled on a “first- come, first-serve” basis.


«Click Aviation Network is delighted to offer all football fans the best services through our strategic partner DC viation Al Futtaim (DCAF), a unique and luxurious FBO located in Al Maktoum International Airport OMDW/DWC»



©DG Jones

Ground Handling Requirements

FIFA World Cup Qarta 2022

«FWC 2022 slot requests will be handled on a “firstcome, first-serve” basis»



3. API REQUIREMENTS Please provide arrival crew & PAX API details in attached separate sheets as this mandatory requirement for QCAA for GH confirmation. Also advise receiving party contact details and diplomatic clearance number if you have. All the private aircraft operating to Qatar should provide the PAX / crew details (separate excel sheet for PAX & Crew ) in the attached template by each Airline Operators / Charterers or Trip Planners and note the below procedure for updating the details in the Excel format (attached APIS Template) Direction column should be I for inbound and O for outbound. (refer table page 22) Ensure all the PAX / crew details should be mentioned between the ***Start and ***End Row of the excel sheet as after uploading the excel sheet by our team in the Qatar APP Portal the API system will capture the PAX / crew details which are in between the Start & End Row only of the Excel “API details to be provided to us at least 8 to 10 hours prior to departure of their aircrafts from the origin as to upload in the system and to get the approval and once its approved then we will inform them, and General Aviation services – QAS will not be responsible for any INAD (inadmissible PAX) and the concerned PAX will be deported on the same aircraft and all the charges pertaining to INAD PAX’s will be charged to the operator or collected from the crew “


The operators should apply for: Slot booking deposit number and ground handling confirmation number before applying for slot. Please check process of slot approval at Qatar slot coordination web page: Click here under

2. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Please provide us QE/QR Maintenance support confirmation for each flight in order to Issue GHCN.

Qatar Airways

Qatar Executive




P or C I or O


( P for Pax and C for Crew ) ( I is Inbound and O is outbound ) Flight number Departure from which airport ( origin ) Departure date Departure time of origin in Local time only Arrival airport ( DIA or HIA ) / Destination Arrival Date Arrival time in Local at Destination

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ENTRY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAX AND CREW Please refer below links for: «Operating crew members are permitted to enter the Stateof Qatar for a maximum period of 96 hours»

Latest information on travel policy to State of Qatar and for information on approved vaccinations accepted.

Link 1 Link 2 Link 3

For updated NOTAM

Latest information on VISA

Operating crew members are permitted to enter the State of Qatar for a maximum period of 96 hours provided that they are: 1. Fully vaccinated with approved vaccine by MOPH, the crew members MUST present a valid vaccination certificate in Arabic or English, 2. Valid negative PCR test within 72 hours of arrival, 3. In case the vaccine is conditionally approved by MOPH, the crew members MUST present a positive serology antibody test upon arrival. GENDEC IS MUST. Please note that unvaccinated crew members are NOT allowed to enter the country.



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International Federation of Airline Dispatchers Associations



Actively Supporting the Global Flight Dispatchers Community


IFALDA President Russ Williams


of the ICAO Flight Dispatch Training Manual in 1975. This was updated as Document 7192 in 1998. The most recent version of the ICAO Flight Dispatch training manual, the ICAO Doc 10106 Manual on Flight Operations Officers/Flight Dispatchers Competency-based Training and Assessment was developed in 2019 as an ongoing online document. IFALDA is very proud to have been significantly involved with all three of the ICAO Training manuals. IFALDA remains involved with updates on the current manual. In 1990, IFALDA branched out to include two other groups. The Airline Dispatcher Federation (ADF), who are focused on FAA Flight Dispatcher issues and the European Federation of Airline Dispatchers (EUFALDA), who are focused on European Flight Dispatch issues. IFALDA remains focused on international issues. IFALDA appreciates and welcome the opportunity to provided Flight Dispatch material for Foxtrot Delta Magazine. In future articles, there will be specific reports on IFALDA working groups and activities. In the meantime, the AGM in Paris in May 2023,

IFALDA (The International Federation of Airline Dispatchers Association) was formed in 1961 as CALDA (Canadian Airline Dispatchers Association and ALDA (the former American Airline Dispatchers Association) teamed up to establish the group. Although CALDA and ALDA were Flight Dispatch Trade Unions, IFALDA was formed solely for the purpose of advancing the interest of Flight Dispatchers on a worldwide basis. IFALDA is therefore not a Union, but a Professional Association. Since 1961, IFALDA has conducted their AGM (Annual General Meeting) at different locations worldwide. Most recently, the AGM was held in Toronto, Canada in May of 2022. The AGM includes a complete review of IFALDA’s activities throughout the year. This event also features industry speakers and is a gathering for Flight Dispatchers to connect and observe the proceedings as members. Membership is open to Flight Dispatch Associations as well as on an individual basis. The next AGM will be held in Paris, France in May of 2023. IFALDA has recognized Observer status with ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization). IFALDA

participates in many ICAO work groups including North Atlantic Operations, Search and Rescue and various Task groups. IFALDA notably participated in an Aircraft Tracking group that was formed following the loss of flight MH370. Perhaps IFALDA’s most significant accomplishment was the development

promises to be a well-attended event with several keynote speakers and vendors participating. All Flight Dispatchers are welcome to join IFALDA and be part of our network. Visit our webage:

«IFALDA’s most significant accomplishment was the development of the ICAO Flight Dispatch Training Manuals»


Top: Russ Williams, IFALDA President Bottom left: AGM in Toronto May 2022 Bottom right: from left to right, Tiago Ludgero, Bernard Gonsalves, Russ Williams at the ICAO 41st General Assembly in September 2022 in Montreal




EASA Fuel/Energy Scheme Regulations- What a change!

Co-founder & Chief Operating Officer of the International Flight Operations Academy Kenneth Kronborg

«There is now a real incentive to train your operations control personnel such as Flight Operations Officers and Flight Dispatchers to save money and fly greener.. »


n 30th October 2022, EASA introduced a NEW FUEL/ENERGY Scheme allowing air operators to reduce the amount of fuel carried during operations, lowering fuel loads, and consequently burning less fuel and reducing the CO2 emissions for

or allow for the implementation of mitigating measures for the absence of ground infrastructure with advanced onboard systems that provide a similar or even better overall safety level. The new AWO policy will foster the safety and efficiency benefits of new technologies and operational concepts. Indeed, the use of operational credits allows the use of lower weather minima within the same operation classification, for example, the special authorization (SA) Category I/II approach operations or the use of Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS). This article will mainly focus on the new EASA fuel/energy scheme and briefly introduce the associated aerodrome selection policy. The magazine’s next edition will discuss the new All-Weather Operations policy.

an overall flight and environmental impact of the flight. At the same time, the new All-Weather Operations (AWO) policy will be introduced too. The concept of all-weather operations refers to the ability of aircraft to take off and land in an airport under low visibility conditions. The current approach does not enable the use of the full potential of certified products and systems



policy must be integrated with aerodrome selection and the in-flight fuel management policy. • Individual fuel/Energy scheme - Voluntary In addition to the Basic Fuel/Energy scheme with Variations needs, Air Operators must meet a string of requirements and need to focus on Safety Performance Management and the associated Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) While more fuel planning flexibility is given to air operators through introducing the ‘fuel schemes’ concept, air operators need to fulfill specific criteria and demonstrate the implementation of procedures, enhanced data-gathering, risk assessment, decision- making, and TRAINING OF THE OPERATIONAL CONTROL personnel . • Financial and Ecological Benefits of the different Basic Fuel/Energy Schemes Let us look at these two «simple» flight/fuel calculations: Long Haul Operations - A330-300 FRA-JFK / ZFW 159000kg (Table 1) Let us assume that you have an average of ten flights a day / 360 days per year.

• New EASA Fuel/Energy Scheme

EASA recognizes that the fuel planning requirements set years ago became too conservative with the recent technological improvements such as aircraft and engine reliability, information on actual aircraft fuel consumption, airspace and traffic, and weather information accuracy. This conservative method has catered to compensate for unforeseen factors that could influence the fuel consumption to the destination airport (compensated for by the contingency fuel). However, the carriage of this extra fuel adds weight to the aircraft, increasing the fuel consumption and total emissions from the flight. As each air operator has diverse needs and available resources, EASA established different fuel schemes: • Basic Fuel/Energy scheme - Mandatory Standard 5% contingency fuel, 30 minutes of final reserve fuel/energy, and NO fuel monitoring program required. • Basic Fuel/Energy scheme with Variations - Voluntary 3% contingency fuel, Statistical Contingency Fuel options under EASA fuel planning, and the Reduced Contingency Fuel (RCF). A fuel consumption monitoring program is required. Flight monitoring and flight watch as essential tasks. Flight Planning and fuel/energy planning



Basic Fuel/Energy Sheme 300 47,921 2396

Basic Fuel/Energy Scheme with Variation

Table 1: Long Haul Operations - A330-300 FRA-JFK / ZFW 159000kg Fuel in Kilos Assumed Fuel price 1.30 USD/ Kg

Taxi Fuel Trip fuel Contingency Fuel Alternate Fuel Final Reserve Ramp Fuel Trip Fuel Costs Fuel Difference Cost Difference CO2 Reduction Taxi Fuel Trip fuel Contingency Fuel Alternate Fuel Final Reserve Ramp Fuel Trip Fuel Costs Fuel Difference Cost Difference CO2 Reduction

225 47,606 1428

225 47,423 540

3,000 2,100 54,359 61,888 USD

3,000 2,100 53,332 61,650 USD 498 kg 647 USD 1573.68 kg

3,000 2,100 55,717 62,297 USD

315 kg 409 USD 995.4 kg

Table 2: Medium Haul Operations – B737-800 CPH-TFS / ZFW 58000kg Fuel in Kilos Assumed Fuel price 1.38 USD/ Kg

Basic Fuel/Energy Sheme 200 12,659

Basic Fuel/Energy Scheme with Variation

200 12,630

200 12,595

379 784 1,100 15,093 17,429 USD

142 783 1,100 14,819 17,381 USD 64 kg 88 USD 202.24 kg

633 786 1,100 15,378 17,469 USD

29 kg 40 USD 91.64 kg

1. 3% contingency fuel SAVINGS: COSTS: 409 USD x 10 flights x 360 days = 1,472,400 USD per Year CO2: 995.4 kg x 10 flights x 360 days = 3,583,440 kg per Year 2. RCF planning or Statistical Contingency Fuel SAVING: COSTS: 64 7 USD x 10 flights x 360 days = 2,329,200 USD per Year CO2: 1,573.68 kg x 10 flights x 360 days = 5,665,248 kg per Year Medium Haul Operations – B737- 800 CPH-TFS / ZFW 58000kg (Table 2) Let us assume that you have 6000 similar flights per year on average. 1. 3% contingency fuel SAVINGS: COSTS: 40 USD x 6000 flights = 240,000 USD per Year CO2: 91.64 kg x 6000 flights = 549,840 kg per Year

APPLICABLE. Today EASA has introduced a more complex planning minima concept directly associated with the different Fuel/Energy schemes. An air operator operating under the Basic Fuel/Energy Scheme will not only be penalized on the contingency fuel (5%) to be carried but also on the planning minima applicable for the alternate aerodrome, isolated destination aerodrome, fuel ERA, and ERA aerodrome. Before discussing the different Fuel/ Energy Schemes Planning Minima, let’s look at some new definitions. Instrument approach operations: an approach and landing using instruments for navigation guidance based on an instrument approach procedure. There are two methods for executing an instrument approach operations: a) A two-dimensional (2D)

2. RCF planning or Statistical Contingency Fuel SAVING: COSTS: 64 USD x 6000 flights = 384,000 USD per Year CO2: 202.24 kg x 6000 flights = 1,213,440 kg per Year And the Individual Fuel/Energy Scheme allows for the reduction of further fuel consumption and CO2 emissions! • NEW Fuel/Energy Scheme Planning Minima for IFR Flights Many generations of experienced flight dispatchers have been educated and trained to consider the planning minima for the alternate destination aerodrome, isolated destination aerodrome, fuel ERA, and ERA aerodrome according to the table 3 (CAT.OP.MPA.185) Since 30th October 2022, this table has been NO LONGER





be considered for planning minima. • Basic Fuel/Energy scheme with Variations – Planning Minima The Basic Fuel/Energy scheme with variation allows air operators to select alternate aerodromes or fuel ERA aerodromes with lower planning minima than the Basic Fuel/Energy scheme. The meteorological margins may be reduced if the air operator uses a suitable computerized flight- planning system and has established an operational control system that includes flight monitoring. If the duration of the planned flight from take-off to landing does not exceed 6 hours or, in the event of in- flight re-planning, or if the remaining flying time to destination does not exceed 4 hours: (Table 6) Flight Dispatchers may select the most convenient planning minima row. For example, an aerodrome with two Type A approaches, one ILS CAT I (DA 350 ft/DH250 ft/550 m) and another VOR/DME (MDA 650 ft/1 500 m). The operator may use Row 2 instead of Row 3. If, in addition, the air operator holds approval for limited-visibility approach operations for that fleet, the planning minima for an alternate aerodrome, fuel ERA, and isolated

Table 3:

Type of approach CAT II and III CAT I NPA Circling

Planning minima CAT I RVR NPA RVR/ VIS Ceiling shall be at or above MDH NPA RVR/VIS + 1000 m Ceiling shall be at or above MDH + 200 ft Circling

instrument approach operation using lateral navigation guidance only. b) A three-dimensional (3D) instrument approach operation using both lateral and vertical navigation guidance. Remark: Lateral and vertical guidance refers to guidance provided either by ground-based radio navigation aids, or by computer-generated navigation data from ground-based, space-based, self-contained navigation aids or a combination of these Type A instrument approach operation: an operation with a Minimum Descent Height (MDH) or a Decision Height (DH) at or above 250 feet. It is important to note that the DH of the specific instrument approach procedure determines the Type A or B, not the system minimum. Therefore, an ILS with a DH higher or equal to 250 feet remains a Type A operation (meaning higher planning minima). Type B instrument approach operation: an operation with a DH below 250 feet. The table 4 provides an overall summary of the Type A and B instrument approach operations: • Basic Fuel/Energy scheme – Planning Minima The Basic Fuel/Energy Scheme introduces the notion of Safety Margin.

The safety margins are planning minima for the planned approach regarding weather variations (weather suitability and time window) and flight duration. Safety margins aim to mitigate weather deviations from the initially forecasted ones and possible failures of the equipment used to fly the approach. An air operator should select an aerodrome as an alternate aerodrome or fuel ERA aerodrome only when the appropriate weather reports and/or forecasts indicate that the weather conditions will be at or above the planning minima of the table 5: Flight Dispatchers may select the most convenient planning minima row. For example, an aerodrome with two types A approaches, one ILS CAT I (DA 350 ft/DH250 ft/550 m) and another VOR/DME (MDA 650 ft/1 500 m). Row 2 instead of Row 3 may

Table 4:


>=250ft >=600m Type A

Type B 100ft >=300m

100ft >=300m

200ft >=550m




Ai r Operations




Instrum ent Approach Procedure Design



Non Instrument RWY NPA RWY








Navigation Systems




Table 5:

Type of approach operation Type B instrument approach operations Type A instrument approach operations Circling approach operations

Aerodrome ceilling (cloud base or vertical visibility) DA/H + 200 ft DA/H or MDA/H + 400 ft MDA/H + 400 ft

RVR/VIS RVR/VIS + 800 m RVR/VIS + 1 500 m VIS + 1500 m

Table 6:

Aerodrome ceilling (cloud base or vertical visibility) DA/H + 200 ft

Row 1 2 3 4 5

Type of approach operation Type B instrument approach operations Type A instrument approach operations, based on a facility with a system minimum of 200ft or less Tow or more usable type A instrument approach operations***,each based on a separate navigation aid Other type A instrument approach operations Circling approach operations

RVR/VIS RVR/VIS + 550 m RVR/VIS** + 800 m RVR/VIS** + 1000 m RVR/VIS + 1500 m VIS + 1500 m

DA/H or MDA/H* + 200 ft DA/H or MDA/H* + 200 ft DA/H or MDA/H + 400 ft MDA/H + 400 ft

aerodrome can be reduced as per the table 7 . Flight Dispatchers may select the most convenient planning minima row. For example, an aerodrome with two type B approaches, one CAT3 (0 ft/75 m) and another CAT1 (200 ft/550 m). The Flight Dispatcher may use Row 2 and use CAT3 (0 + 150 ft/75 + 450 m) instead of Row 1 CAT1 (200 + 100 ft/550 + 300 m). The EASA AMC 8 CAT.OP.MPA.182 and EASA AMC 9 CAT.OP.MPA.182 tables are also applicable to the Individual Fuel/Energy scheme. IMPORTANT: Gust should now is fully applied, taking into account the runway condition (dry, wet, contaminated) for all airports (until 29th October, it could be disregarded).

Now, operational control personnel shall often calculate the Crosswind component (remember Magnetic Variation!). • Do the air operators need to train their operational personnel, Flight Operations Officers, and Flight Dispatchers? There is now a real incentive to train your operations control personnel (Flight Operations Officers and Flight Dispatchers). They are vital personnel that will contribute actively to improving fuel/energy planning and efficiency while maintaining high safety levels and giving your flight operations more flexibility with the introduction of the NEW EASA «fuel/ energy schemes» concept in any organization. It is not required with the Basic Fuel/Energy scheme, but YES, it is necessary with ‘with Variations’ and the other ‘Individual’ Fuel/Energy.

According to AMC1 ORO.GEN.110 Flight Operations Officers and Flight Dispatchers need the following: 1. An adequate training program for Operational Control Personnel for flight monitoring or flight watch, 2. An Initial Training 3. Operator-specific Training (OJT) 4. Recurrent Training (36 months) 5. Retaining knowledge, skills, and qualifications for instructors of operational control personnel, This article only highlights a few of the new EASA Fuel/Energy Schemes regulations. There is much more to discuss and to learn for the operational control personnel. So, if you want to know more, then contact IFOA at Talent without Training is nothing!

Table 7:

Aerodrome ceilling (cloud base or vertical VIS)

Row 1 2 3 4 5 6

Type of approach Two or more usable type B instrument approach operations to two separate runways*** One usable type B instrument approach operation 3D Type A instrument approach operations, based on a facility with a system minimum of 200 ft or less Two or more usable type A instrument approach operations***, each based on a separate navigation aid One usable type A instrument approach operation Circling approach operations

RVR/VIS RVR** + 300 m RVR + 450 m RVR/VIS** + 800 m RVR/VIS** + 1000 m RVR/VIS + 1500 m VIS + 1500 m

DA/H* + 100 ft DA/H + 150 ft

DA/H or MDA/H* + 200 ft DA/H or MDA/H* + 200 ft DA/H or MDA/H + 400 ft MDA/H + 400 ft






An OCC on the Pearl of the Indian Ocean

Cover story

Air Mauritius was conceived first in the minds of two visionaries who entertained solid and friendly relations. Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, then Premier of the autonomous government of Mauritius steering the country towards independence, and on Amédée Maingard Hugnin de la Ville- ès-Offrans, a fellow Mauritian, World War II hero, holder of the highest British and French military awards. Air Mauritius was incorporated as the National Airline of Mauritius on June 14, 1967. On December 5, 1967, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) allocated the ‘MK’ abbreviation to Air Mauritius. It was only in 1972 that the company took to the air for the first time to operate Mauritius to Rodrigues by leasing from Air Madagascar a small 6-passenger, two-engine Piper Navajo painted in the distinctive red and white colors of Air Mauritius. Air Mauritius purchased its first aircraft in January 1975, an 18-seater de Havilland Twin Otter. Since its creation, Air Mauritius has been based at the main international airport in Mauritius, located at Plaisance (Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport) - IATA: MRU and ICAO: FIMP. A Air Mauritius – The Genesis


A Modern Fleet History

From 1978 to the 80s, Air Mauritius operated long-haul routes with Boeing 707s and Boeing 747 SPs. The fleet was further transformed and modernized at the turn of the 1980s and during the 1990s. Air Mauritius acquired two Boeing 767- 200ERs. In 1994, the airline became the first in the Southern Hemisphere to fly the Airbus A340-300. In 2007, Air Mauritius retrofitted all other Airbus A340-300s in its fleet. In March 2007, the company became the first airline in the Southern African region that flew an all-Airbus fleet for long- and medium-haul routes. In the

same year, an Airbus A330-200 was added to the fleet. Medium-haul routes linking Mauritius to Africa started with the Airbus A319 following its delivery in 2001 and 2003. All the aircraft mentioned hereabove belong to the history of Air Mauritius. Air Mauritius has come a long way over the last 50 years as the national airline from its humble beginning with the Piper Navajo. Today, Air Mauritius is the first operator of a combination of new generation wide-bodied four Airbus A350-900 XWB and two A330-900neo aircraft and is among

the airlines with the youngest wide- bodied fleet in the world. For the island services, ATR 42s were introduced in 1987 and replaced f by ATR 72s in 2002 and 2006. Today, Air Mauritius’s regional fleet consists of three ATR 72-500 aircraft.



Technical Data of the Air Mauritius Fleet

A330-900neo (New Engine Option): Length: 63.66m / Height: 16.79m / Wing Span 64m MZFW: 181t / MTOW: 251t / MLDW: 191t Fuel capacity: 139,090 liters Range: 13,334km / 7200NM Max Passenger: 288 (Economy – 260 / Business 28) Engine: RR Trent 7000 – 72,000lb A350-900 XWB (Extra Wide Body): Length: 66.80m / Height: 17.05m / Wing Span 64.75m MZFW: 195.7t / MTOW: 283t / MLDW: 207t Fuel capacity: 166,488 liters Range: 15,372km / 8300NM Max Passenger: 326 (Economy – 298 / Business 28) Engine: RR Trent XWB – 83,000lb

ATR-72-500: Length: 27.16m / Height: 7.65m / Wing Span 27.05m MZFW: 12.950t / MTOW: 22.5t / MLDW: 22.350t

Fuel capacity: 6250 liters Range: 1,650km / 890NM Max Passenger: 72 (Economy – 72) Engine: PW-127F

A330-200 3B-NBL The Nenuphar in 2009


Top left: A340-300 in 1994 Top right: B747-SP in 1984 Bottom left: A319-112 in 2003 Bottom right: A350-900XWB in 2018



B767 world record 1988

A world Records airline In 1984, Air Mauritius operated a non-stop flight to Zurich which took 11 hours and 45 minutes to cover the distance of 5,594 statute miles. That was the longest scheduled non-stop service operated by any airline worldwide with a Boeing 707. The delivery flight of the ‘City of Port-Louis,’ a Boeing 767-200ER, set a record-breaking distance for commercial twin-jets on April 18, 1988, when it flew non-stop from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Mauritius, covering a distance of almost 8,727 miles (about 14,000 km) in 16 hours 25 minutes, and 25 seconds. With this flight, the Boeing 767-200ER held two world records: the longest and the fastest twin-engined flight ever performed at that time.



Sarita Dhununjoy

Shumugum Moonesamy

An OCC on the Pearl of the Indian Ocean Flight Dispatcher & Head of the Operations Control Center (OCC) Sarita Dhununjoy & Shumugum Moonesamy

Let’s meet some of these essential operational people working behind the scenes who actively contribute to the safety and efficiency of Air Mauritius operations. We had the opportunity to discuss with a flight dispatcher and the head of the Operations Control Center (OCC) manager to make you discover their daily working practices. We interviewed Mrs. Sarita Dhununjoy (SD), an experienced flight dispatcher for 12 years. Sarita has been working with Air Mauritius for 22 years. Before working as a flight dispatcher, she fulfilled the functions of check-in agent for eight years and crew tracking officer for two years. We also met with Mr. Shumugum Moonesamy (SM), the acting head of OCC for the last two years. Shumugum

has extensive expertise with Air Mauritius as he joined the airline in 1988, 34 years ago, as a check-in officer before building a massive experience in different roles. Load controller, customer services supervisor at the Air Mauritius Lounge, duty manager OCC, duty manager of ground operations, passenger service manager, and manager of Premium passenger handling Services.

Before starting, Shumugum, what is your recipe to ensure a world-class Air Mauritius OCC? Air Mauritius OCC’s mission is to overview the operational integrity MK customers expect and deserve and to achieve the highest neutrality level for operational coordination across our network. Our OCC is the focal point to receive all information on an H24 basis about an aircraft schedule disruption or an anticipated disruption with a significant impact on our customers. However, it also responds rapidly to changes in the operational and commercial environment and minimizes disruptions to our schedule.



must be taken concerning safety, flight regulations, and the economy of operations. How many types of aircraft have you dispatched since you started? (SD) I have dispatched many types of aircraft: A319, A320, A340, A330 classic, A330 neo, B737, B747, A350, ATR 42, ATR 72 What was your preferred aircraft and why? (SD) the A340, there are no ETOPS limitations (with a big smile) As there are no ETOPS restrictions on A340, it has a higher margin with respect to en-route weather minima than an ETOPS flight, especially for the Mauritius – Perth flight. (SM) the A350 for dispatch reliability, passenger comfort (mood lighting, low cabin altitude, low cabin noise levels), economical fuel consumption, highly automated, efficient, and spacious cockpit. What are the requirement and skills to become a flight dispatcher at Air Mauritius? (SM) The flight dispatcher must have the following qualifications: • A higher education (Advanced level / O Levels) plus 8 or 11 years of service in the company. • Able to read, write and speak English fluently

• Successfully the initial on-the-job training under the supervision of a qualified dispatcher • Successfully undergo the complete Operations Officer’s course and the post-course assessment by the qualified trainer • Successfully completed the recurrent and refresher training program for dispatchers. Could you elaborate on your flight dispatch training program? (SD) Before starting as flight dispatchers, we must attend an initial on-the-job training program and a flight dispatch course with an external training provider. We also received on-the-job (OJT) training on the systems and tools used in the OCC. (SM) Every six months, the flight dispatch team must attend recurrent training. We use Internal instructors with classroom training, computer- based training (CBT), and sometimes self-study. And yearly, they perform familiarization flights and attend the CRM/SMS/ETOPS/EDTO/DGR training. Have you attended specific conversion training when the new A350 and A300Neo were introduced? (SM) Not really. Due to the same

Why have you chosen to become a Flight Dispatcher? (SD) As I was at crew tracking, I became interested in the other functions on the OCC platform. It was also an internal promotional position. My work experience and several site visits at flight Dispatch inspired me to join the team. What does motivate you to be a flight dispatcher at Air Mauritius? (SD) Every day is different. It’s not a routine job as there are many variable situations daily. A day on the job is sure to be filled with action and essential decision- making. Furthermore, the OCC is an enjoyable workplace, and I have lovely colleagues. How do you perceive the contribution of the role in the daily operations of Air Mauritius? (SD) We ensure that all flight operations are carried out safely, legally, and in a cost-effective manner We are responsible for evaluating the weather, route, and other factors before taking off. With in-flight monitoring, we also make sure that the flight runs smoothly. Ensure compliance with all procedures. Rapid decisions

«The OCC is an enjoyable workplace, and I have lovely colleagues»


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