NOVEMBER, 1916 No. 11 The King’s Business
Published once a month by the BIBLE INSTITUTE OF LOS ANGELES LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A.
ONE D O L L A R A YEAR
(Tlu> SCtttg fi litfiüu'fifi MOTTO: *T the Lord do keep it, I will water it every moment lest any hurt it, I will keep it night and day.**—Isa. 27:3, R. A. TORREY, D. D., Editor T. C. HORTON, J. H. HUNTER^ WILLIAM EVANS, D. D., Associate Editors A. M. ROW, Managing Editor Published by the BIBLE INSTITUTE OF LOS ANGELES, Inc. Los Angeles, California, U. S. A. Entered as Second-Class Matter November 17, 1910, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Cal., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright by R. A. Torrey, D. D., and Bible Institute of Los Angeles, for the year 1916.
Lyman Stewart, president. William Thorn, secretary. T. C. Horton, superintendent.
R. A. Torrey, vice-president -Leon V. Shaw, treasurer.
H. A. Getz.
, J. M. Irvine.
DOCTRINAL STATEMENT We hold to the Historic Faith of the Church as expressed in the Common Creed of Evangelical Christendom and including: The Maintenance of Good Works. The Trinity of the Godhead. The Deity of the Christ.
The Second Coming of Christ. The Immortality of the Spirit. The Resurrection of the Body. The Life Everlasting of Believers. The Endless Punishment of the Im penitent. The Reality and Personality of Satan. (7 ) Bible Women. House-to-house visitation and neighborhood classes. (8 ) Oil Fields. A mission to men on the oil fields. (9 ) Books and Tracts. Sale and dis tribution of selected books and tracts. (10X Harbor Work. For seamen at Los Angeles harbor. (11) Yokefellows* Hall. Thoroughly manned. Our Mission for men with. Street Meetings, and Bootblacks and Newsboys Sunday School. (12) ’ Print Shop. For priiiting Testa ments, books, tracts, etc. A complete establishment, profits going to free dis tribution of religious literature.
The Personality of the Holy Ghost. The Supernatural and Plenary au thority of the Holy Scriptures. The Unity in Diversity of the Church, the Body and Bride of Christ. The Substitutionary Atonement. The Necessity of the New Birth. Purpose: The Institute trains, free of cbst, accredited men and women, in the knowledge and use of the Bible. n , , (1 ) The Institut* Departments: cia,se. held daily except on Saturdays and Sundays. (2 ) Extension work. Classes and conferences held in neighboring cities and to\yns. (3 ) Evangelistic. Meetings conducted by our evangelists. (4 ) Spanish Mission. Meetings every night. (5 ) Shop Work. Regular services in shops and factories. (6 ) Jewish Evangelism. Personal work among the Hebrews.
SCOPE OF THE WORK
THE KING’S BUSINESS Vol. VII. NOVEMBER, 1916 No. 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS Editorial: Increasing Interest— Whence Come Wars?— Bible Study with a Purpose— Even So, Come Lord Jesus .......... 963 E. A. K. Hackett (Portrait)'..................................................... 965 Change in Missionary Review......... .............. ........................... 966 The More Sure Word of Prophecy” By William Evans, Ph.D.,D.D......................................................... 967 Great Revivals and Evangelists.................................................. 975 Be Ever on Guard..................................... r_................................. 982 White Gifts for the King. By C. D. Meigs............................... 983 Historical Evidence Concerning Sunday. By Rev. D. M. Canright ....................... ._.............. ............. .I.......,.;...,....,. 985 Puzzling Passages and Problems.......................... 992 New Members of Faculty....................................j!........ ............ 994 Universal Week of Prayer........................................................... 995 Evangelistic Department. By Bible Institute Workers.......... 997 Through the Bible with Dr. Evans................................ ..........1002 Homiletical Helps. By William Evans,................................. 1009 Oufs in the Field..................................................... .1013 International Sunday School Lessons. By R. A. Torrey and T. C. Horton..-......... 1........................................................... 1015 Daily Devotional Studies in the New Testament for Indi vidual Meditation and Family Worship? By R. A. Torrey ......................................................... .1029 SUBSCRIPTION PRICE In the United States and its Possessions, Mexico, Canada and points in the Central American Postal Union, $ 1 per year. In all other foreign countries, $1.24 (5s. 2d.). Single copies, 10 "cents. Receipts sent on request. See date on address tag. “ Sept. 16” means Expires Sept. 1916, etc. ,
PUBLISHED BY THE BIBLE INSTITUTE OF LOS ANGELES 536-558 SOUTH HOPE STREET
LOS ANGELES, CAL.
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Our Correspondence School By the Faculty of the BIBLE INSTITUTE OF LOS ANGELES Instruction by correspondence long since ceased to be an experiment and took its well-earned place as a duly accredited method of education. If it lacks the personal touch of the class-room, it intensifies the originality, and determination of the individ ual student. A student may thus pursue his ordinary occupation while perfecting himself as a Christian worker.
Course 1.— Fundamental Doctrines of Christianity By R. A. TORREY, Dean oif the Institute
upon the doctrine under discussion and from them ascertain and formulate the teaching of the Bible. This is the true inductive method of study.
! This is a careful study of what the Bible teaches on the Christian faith. The method pursued is to bring together every statement of Scripture bearing
Course 2.— The Life and Teachings of Our Lord By R. A. TORREY, Dean of the Institute
tically every verse in the four Gospels. At the end of each twenty lessons^ a series of questions on the whole section is sent to the student to be answered.
This course presents a thorough study of the life and teachings of our Lord as recorded in the four Gospels, it consists of 140 studies. These studies cover prac-
Course 3.— Through the Bible by Books and Chapters By JOHN H. HUNTER, Secretary of the Faculty
each chapter in each book analyzed A special blank is furnished on which the student records the result of his own study.
This course carries the student through the Bible, from Genesis to Revelation, each book being studied as a whole, and
Course 4.— Personal Evangelism and Practical Work By T. C. HORTON, Superintendent of the Institute
The business of every believer is to be qualified for service. The work of every believer is soul saving, j It will therefore be the privilege of the instructor in this course: first, to put the student in touch with the Scripture best calculated to
equip for the work of dealing with believ ers and unbelievers; second, to direct the student in the best methods of doing per sonal work; third, to t give suggestions concerning the preparation for conduct of religious meetings.
Other Courses in Preparation TERMS : For Numbers 1, 2 and 3—$5.00 each. For Number 4—$3.00 SEND FOR PROSPECTUS
m THE KING 'S BU S INESS
¡I Voi 7
E D I T O R I A L There is increasing interest in the great truth of the Second Coming of Christ. The writer is closing a series of Bible Conferences that he has attended in Pennsylvania, Arkansas and Minnesota. At each of
these conferences he was not only asked but urged to speak of the Second Coming of Christ. At one of the conferences, which was largely under Metho dist Episcopal auspices, every teacher was asked by those in control to speak one day on this vital question. Dr. Davis, one of the most prominent Presby terian ministers of America, was asked to speak on this subject at the North- field Conference and gave a masterly address on the subject. At the Long Beach, Cal., Chatauqua, held in the First M. E. Church, Dr. Len Broughton, perhaps the most widely known of Southern Baptists, spoke again and again on this and related subjects. The collapse of our boasted twentieth century culture and civilization that was expected to bring in the millennium, but instead brought in the present orgie of ferocity and savagery and murder and devilishness, has made a good many people think. The old form of optimism is impossible to intelligent and candid people, and a new kind of optimism, Biblical optimism, founded upon God’s own promise of the glorious appearing of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ is taking its place. Heaven.” The invitation reads in part: “An earnest invitation is extended to all believers, everywhere—to those who ‘love his appearing’ and who are ‘looking for that blessed hope and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ’—to put aside other matters for these days, and come together to unite in supplication for the speedy return of the Lord Jesus. “ Reasons are multiplying daily that call for such a meeting. For many years now the Lord has been giving again to the Church the knowledge of the promise of his personal bodily return, with the result that increasing numbers are being enlightened, and with great joy are receiving this truth which sep arates them unto himself. Bible Schools and Conferences, magazines, books and leaflets in ever-increasing number are spreading the truth. Thousands of believers are daily praying, ‘Even so, come, Lord Jesus!’ and are earnestly seek ing to hasten his appearing by increasing their efforts in testifying to the gospel o f the grace of God, in order that men everywhere may be evangelized and his Just about the day that this number of T h e K ing ’ s B usiness comes from the press, October 3 and 4, a meeting is being held in Philadelphia to pray for “ The Speedy Return of Our Lord Jesus Christ from Even so, Come Lord Jesus.
964 THE KING’ S BUSINESS body, the Church, completed. The next step is to come together in such a meet ing as is proposed, and pray for his soon return. “ False teachings abound regarding ‘that blessed hope/ and false apostles are teaching it adulterated with dreadful heresies, by which meads the truth is discredited with many, and hosts of God’s people are blinded. Political and social upheavals, and the lawlessness, ambition, pride and greed of men have been manifested in the past few- years as never before in the history of the world. The apostasy in the professing Church, and the stirring among the dry bones of God’s ancient people Israel have kept pace with the other signs of the times. Surely, his coming greatly hasteneth, and therefore it is now the time of all times for believers to come together in prayer. When the return from the captivity drew nigh, Daniel prayed (Dan. 9 : 1 ) ; Simeon and Anna fre quented the house'of prayer before our Lord’s first advent (Lk. 2:25-38). Let us also— ‘and so much the Snore as ye see the day approaching’ (Heb. 10:19-25) (P-tell him, and tell one another, of our intense desire for that which he seems about to do.” It is well that we should pray for our Lord’s return. His coming and taking the reins of government is the only solution of the appalling problems that confront the nations of the earth. We may have peace without His com ing, but it will not be lasting peace. The cry of every intelligent Bible student and every really intelligent observer of current events, national and inter national, must be, “ Even so, Come Lord Jesus.” “ Come quickly.” Every war in human history has had itfe origin in the unbridled desire of some man or men to get something that did not belong to them. A large company of commercial adventurers and politicians have fomented revolution after revolution in Mexico, and sought by the most unscrupulous means to embroil our own land with that unfortunate country. It matters not to them that thousands of ignorant Mexicans lose their lives or even that thousands of the flower of our own young manhood perish in an ignoble and unnecessary war, so long as they coin the money that they lust after, or succeed in their political ambitions. , . , At the close of the second Torrey-Alexander Mission Bible Study in Liverpool in 1905, when for three months Dr. Tor- With a Purpose. rey had been preaching afternoons and nights at the great Tournament Hall, commonly reported to seat 20,000 persons, by actual count seating 12,500 persons, a great need was felt that the work be followed up, not merely by individual churches, some of which would do their duty and some of which would not, but also by an organized Christian Workers’ Training Class. It was expected that the work would con tinue a year. In fact it has continued eleven years, and promises to go on indefinitely. The class is conducted by J. Louis Fenn, district secretary of the Evangelization Society. We are just in receipt of the announcement of the twelfth session. It is so full of suggestion that we print parts of it. “ The Liverpool Christian Workers’ Bible Training Class was formed in “ Whence come wars?” asks the Holy Spirit through James, and then He answers His question by asking another: “ Come they not hence, even of your lusts that war in your members?” They certainly do. Whence Come Wars?
THE KING’ S BUSINESS 965 1905 at the close of the second of'the Great Missions conducted by Dr. R. A. Torrey and Mr. Chas. Alexander. .The object of the class is the better equip ment of Christian workers through a systematic study of the Word of God. The class teaching is thoroughly evangelical, seeking to apply the teaching of the Bible to modern life. Each evening is divided into two periods. The first study occupying about forty-five minutes, the second period being devoted to one of the, other subjects on the syllabus. : , ' “ First study—The Great Truths of the Bible: The greatest fact in Eter nity—God; The greatest fact in Time—God in Christ; The greatest ruin in the World—Fallen Man; The greatest wonder in the World—The Love of God; The greatest gift to the World—The Son of God; The greatest Transforma tion—From Death to Life; The greatest Science—The Knowledge of God; The greatest Leverage—The Power of God; The greatest Tragedy^—fThe Death of Christ; The greatest Triumph—The Resurrection of Christ; The'greatest Folly—The Rejection of-Christ; The greatest Hope—The Return of Christ. Followed by studies on The Holy Spirit in Christian Life and Service Today; The Preparation of Addresses; The use of the Bible in Personal Work.’ Prof. J. B. Trowbridge, for fourteen years teacher of Strengthening Voice and class-room work in music, in the Moody the Faculty. Bible Institute, Chicago, is now in charge of the music work of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, Mrs. Frances C. Allison, for some years in charge of the, practical work for women at the Moody Institute, is now our superintendent of women. Dr. F. J. Pur cell, for years a physician and medical missionary, has been engaged to deliver regular lectures on '“ Medical Knowledge Necessary for a Missionary.” These additions to the faculty and teaching staff mean much to the efficiency of its work for the students.
E. A. K. HACKETT Who Died August 28 ,1916. See page 974.
THE KING’S BUSINESS CHANGE IN MISSIONARY REVIEW
formed a stock company to continue the publication, with the following board of directors: Dr. Robert E. Speer, president; Frank L. Brown, vice-president; Walter McDougall, treasurer; Delavan L. Pierson, secretary; Prof. Harlan P. Beach, Yale School o f Practical Religion; Mrs. Henry W . Peabody, Federation o f Women’s For eign Missionary Societies; Fleming H. Revell, member Home Mission Board Presbyterian Church; Mrs. A. F. Schauff- ler, Schauffler Missionary Institute; Dr. Charles R. Watson, president-elect o f Cairo University;. Dickinson W . Richards, law yer. The Editorial management will continue in the hands 'o f Delavan L. Pierson, who has been for twenty-five years connected with the magazine and has been the editor- in-chief since the death o f his father, Dr. Arthur T. Pierson, in 1911. Extensive improvements are planned, but the general purpose and editorial policy o f the mag azine will remain unchanged. Its aim is to give, month by month, and to interpret, the most important missionary news gath ered from all parts o f the world and from all denominations. It furnishes valuable material for pastors and missionary speak ers and devotes a large amount o f space to best methods that have been discovered for use in Sunday schools, missionary societies and other organizations. Among the interesting articles in the October num ber may be mentioned the following: “What Christianity is doing for China,” by Hon. H. Wellington Koo, Chinese Ambas sador at Washington; What Christianity has done for Japan,” by Hon. T. Tanaka, Charge’d’Affairs o f the Japanese Legation at Washington; “Daughters o f the Night in Shanghai,” by Miss M. C. Morris o f the Door o f Hope in Shanghai, China;' “ Are the Turks worth Saving,” by Rev. Charles T. Riggs o f Constantinople; “A New Beginning,” editorial by Dr. Robert E. Speer. I
"D EGINNING with the October number, * The Missionary Review of the World passed into the hands of the new Mis sionary Review Publishing Company, of which Dr. Robert E. Speer is president, and Frank L. Brown, vice president. The offices are at No. 1S3 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ' The Review was founded in. 1878 by Rev. Royal G. Wilder, who had just returned from missionary service in India. Ten years later, the magazine came under the joint editorship o f Dr. Arthur T. Pierson and Dr. James M. Sherwood, by whom it was greatly enlarged and improved. Since then it has continued to make progress, keeping pace with the onward march of Christian Missions. On the death o f Dr. Sherwood in 1890, Dr. Pierson became editor-in-chief, and so continued until his death twenty-one years later. Under his management, it became very widely known and influential and brought the world field into vision. It was especially helpful to pastors and other Christian workers, not only as a storehouse o f missionary facts, but because o f its leadership in high spiritual standards and its interpretation of the signs o f the prog ress o f Christianity. The Review will continue as an inter denominational and international magazine, serving the whole missionary cause. In view o f the present prominence given to united effort, there is clearly greater need than ever for such a periodical. Dr. John R. Mott has said repeatedly that the service rendered by The Review makes it indis- pensible. The Home Mission Council, rep resenting the various denominational, boards, and the Foreign Mission Confer ence, which gathers annually at Garden City, have both expressed their apprecia tion o f its services, and have appointed committees to co-operate with the editor. A number o f missionary leaders have
THE “MORE SURE W O R D of PROPHECY”
An Exposition of II Peter 1:19-21
William Evans, Ph. D., D. D.
“We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye., take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: Knowing this» first, that no prophecy of the scripture is> of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” B j j a HE WORDS “more sure” are not used in thé sçnse o f firmer, or to confirm in the ■ sense o f confirmation, for then a different Greek word would have been used. The
Some to whom the Apostle Peter writes might object that, if personal intercourse be the ground o f certainty concerning Christ, Peter himself may well be certain but what of those who have had no such personal experience? The apostle deals with such a class in this passage. It might also be objected by unbelieving and-impious men that the transfiguration scene and inci dent may have been, or indeed was, a delu sion. To both these classes the apostle replies by claiming that while all may not have witnessed the transfiguration o f Christ as he had, yet they may have a definite experience of Christ through the written Word o f God—one even more sure and as satisfying; that while some may claim that the transfiguration experience and testi mony were an illusion, such may have a similar assured testimony by referring to the sacred Scriptures, the literal fulfilment o f whose prophecies, particularly regard-
word used in the text always indicates, in classical Greek, that which is firm, steady, sure, steadfast (1:10; Hebrews 2 :2 ; 6:14). The truth Peter is here emphasizing is not that there are different degrees o f cer tainty in the prophetic message itself ; on the contrary, he is contrasting the voice, sight, and testimony seen and heard on the transfiguration mount with the written Word o f Prophecy—particularly as regards Christ. He is appealing to a sec ond witness as to the truth o f Christ, and even a “more sure” witness, and that again with special reference to the second com ing, which is (or may be) the “ day star” which is to arise in our hearts.
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ing Christ, admit o f no such supposed or implied delusion or illusion. No such objec tion can be raised against the ’’prophetic word made sure.” , A “MORE SURE” PROPHECY The prophecy is “more sure” than the voice-testimony on the mount of trans figuration; not in itself absolutely, but with respect to the readers o f Peter’s epistle. “More sure,” scarcely so to Peter, but ^assuredly so to his readers (cf. “Ye do well to take heed;” also “we” and “ye,” v. 19). The prophecy is “more sure,” not more true; “more sure/’ not more clear. By “the voice” on the transfiguration mount the believer is confirmed; by the' “prophetic word made sure” the unbeliever is convinced. W e are here taught that the written W ord o f God has even a surer con firmation o f God’s truth than what Peter saw, heard, and felt on the transfiguration mount—that is tq say (the New Testament Scriptures not yet being existent, although he recognizes the writings of Paul as such, cf. 2 Peter 3:15, 16}, Peter declares that the long line o f prophetic Scriptures, ful filled in so many ways in the life of Jesus, constitute a mightier’ form o f evi dence than the narrative o f one single event (the transfiguration) o f which Peter was an eye-witness. In other words, far mightier than signs and wonders is the tes timony o f the prophetic Word o f God. “ If they hear not Moses and the prophets,' neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead” (Luke 16:31). May there not be a hint here as to the manner in which Peter himself found Christ: not by beholding Him as a great miracle worker, but as the fulfilment o f the Old Testament predictions regarding the Mes siah? “W e have, found him - o f whoni . . . . the prophets did write.” Is not this what led the first disciples to follow Christ? To the Apostle Peter the Old Testament is as much the voice o f Christ as the New Testament. The whole spirit o f prophecy is its testimony to Jesus. “ For the testimony o f Jesus is the spirit of prophecy” (Revelation 19:10). “ To him
give all the prophets witness” (Acts 10:43). The study o f the prophets will lead us, as it led Nathaniel, to Christ. How striking is the, unity o f the prophetic messages in their testimony to Christ: “Him o f whom . . . the prophets did write” (John 1 :45) ; “In all the prophets the things concerning himself’ (Luke 24 :27); “All things . . . fulfilled . . . . in the prophets concerning me” , ( Luke 24:44). TWO TESTIMONIES Two things are here similarly dealt with: the testimony o f the apostles- ( 1 :16-18), and the testimony o f the “ prophetic word” (1:19-21). The testimony o f the apostles was not a cunningly devised fable; it was not 'a myth; it was not self-originated any more than “the sure word o f prophecy.” The transfiguration was a vision, directly revealed from heaven, o f the power and coming o f our Lord Jesus Christ. It came (2 Peter 1:18), even as “the sure word of prophecy” by direct revelation from God. The testimony o f the prophetic word ( 1 :19- 21) is also “a sure word.” It is no delu sion, no human invention, no figment of man’s imagination. The proof o f its accu racy, inspiration, and infallibility lies in its fulfilled prophecies. I f the vision o f the second. Coming o f Christ is portrayed and typified by the transfiguration, the grand reality o f it is set forth in the “ sure word o f prophecy.” Can it be that the Old Testament and the New Testament are here contrasted as to their value and duration by the terms “lamp” and “ day” .—the Old Testament, a lamp; the New Testament, the day; both until Christ shall come again? God’s Rev elation is progressive. The Old Testament differs from the New Testament as the lamplight differs from the daylight. “ The dimness is past ; the true light now shineth” (cf. 1 John 2 :8). How emphatic is the word “until;” until the day breaks Jorth and the day star (which is Christ, Revelation 22:16) arise in your hearts ; until Christ shall come in the fulness o f His glory. What need will there be o f prophecies concerning Christ when we
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o f the word “private.” This word is used over one hundred times in the New Tes tament and is translated by such expres sion as “his own”—-e.g., “his own sheep,” “his own home,” “ his own country,” “his' own business.” What is “private” is “one’s own” and what is “one’s own” is “private.” Only once (and.that in this passage) is it translated “private.” This fact (once translated, “private” ) is sufficient to arrest our attention, if not our suspicion. Why should it be translated “private” in this single instance ? Let us examine Peter’s own use o f the word “private.” 1 Peter 3:1: “ Your own husbands;” 2 Pefefi 2:16: “ His own ^transgression;” 2 :22: “ Return to his own vomit again;” 3 :3 : “Walking after their own lusts;” 3:16: “Wrest to their own destruction;” 3:17: “ Fall from your own steadfastness.” These quota tions certainly determine the meaning of the word “private.” No other construction than one’s own, belonging to one’s self, can be placed upon the word. What we are here taught, then, is the truth that the Scriptures (particularly the prophetic Scriptures) did not arise from the private interpretation o f the prophets. Their words were no mere human exposi tion, no endeavor on man’s part to present a solution o f the difficulties which beset men’s minds in this life. The prophets were moved by a Spirit beyond themselves, and spake things deeper than they them selves understood (cf. 1 Peter 1 :10, 11 ; Baalam, Numbers cc. 22-24; Caiaphas, John 11:49-52). I f prophecy was the product of the mind o f any individual man, then the man himself who uttered it would be the proper man to give the interpreta tion. “For what man knoweth the things o f a man, save the spirit o f man which is in him ? even so the things o f God knoweth no man, but the Spirit o f God. Now we have received, not the spirit o f the world, but the spirit which is o f God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us o f God. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; com-
shall see Him face to face? What need of faith in the, gospel stbry when our faith shall be lost in sight? But until He comes we shall need both-Testaments. W e do well even yet, however, to take heed to this “ sure word of prophecy,’•*- for there are prophecies with regard to Christ’s second coming which are yet to be fulfilled. FIRST THINGS FIRST “Knowing this first.”'• In our approach to the W ord o f God this is the first thing to be, persuaded of, a truth o f primary importance, the first great fact to be admit ted before we begin the study o f the Bible —that it is indeed and in truth the very Word o f God; that it is not o f any mere human origin ; that “ holy men o f "God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” This faith in the Bible is fundamental to a true knowledge o f its contents. W e must believe this, first o f all. This is not call in g for any more faith in religion than in science: both must assume something on which to build. - W e are here told that “no prophecy of the scripture is o f any, private interpreta tion.” Two words, “private“ and “ inter pretation,” demand our attention. The scope o f the whole passage and context must be taken into consideration in the explanation o f these words. This verse is used by the Roman Catho lic church as the scriptural injunction pro hibiting the right o f private or individual interpretation o f the Scripture. Luther asserted the right of the individual Chris tian, illumined, of course, by the Holy Spirit, to pass judgment upon or interpret the W ord o f God for himself, without aid o f priest, pope or church. The Roman Catholic church maintained that the con sent o f the church must ’be secured with reference to any private expression bearing on the interpretation o f the Scriptures. The Roman Catholic, then, would say we, must have the consent o f the church ; the Protes tant, the enlightenment o f the Holy Spirit, in order to the proper understanding or, interpretation o f the Scriptures. Let us ascertain, first of all, the meaning
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paring spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit o f G od: for they are foolishness unto him : neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he that is spiritual, judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged o f no man. For who hath known the mind o f the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind o f Christ” (1 Corinthians 2:11-16). But such is not the case, as these scrip tural references show. The prophets were not masters o f themselves while uttering their prophecies. They are borne along by a higher power—not by any power or will o f “their own,” or by any “private” impulse or self-determining cause, but by the Spirit o f God, and so their prophecies are o f infi nite value. The “prophecy o f the Scrip ture,” therefore, is not something which man has himself, or for himself thought out, but something which the Holy Spirit has thought, planned, and,worked out for him and through him. The prophet did not proceed on his own, “private interpreta tion” o f things. The Scriptures did not 'originate in human determination. MEANING OF “INTERPRETAT ION ” “ No prophecy o f the Scripture is o f any private interpretätion.” The word “inter pretation” occurs only here in the entire New Testament. It means to loose, to lib erate, to untie anything bound or sealed up; to liberate as the chrysalis emerges or is loosed from its shell. The Germans explain it by the use o f the word “Auflö sung.” Calvin refers to it as “impulse” or “ incitation.” The word indicates the loos ing o f what is complicated. The corre sponding verb is found in Acts 19:39—“It shall be "determined,” or settled, and also in Mark 4 :34— “He expounded . . . . all things.” The question naturally arises, Do these words refer to the interpretation (better, the exposition), or to the origin and source o f the Scriptures? Light may be thrown upon the matter by considering the meaning o f the verb “ is” in this particular connection. “ No prophecy o f the Scrip
ture IS o f any private interpretation.” The word “is” (ginetai) means to come into being, to arise out of, to originate, to spring out of. T h e , word occurs in the following passages: John 1 :3 : “Without him did not anything come into being;’’ Hebrews 11:3—“ Things . . . were made,” or came into being ; James 3:9—“Made after the similitude o f G od;” Matthew 8:24— “There arose a great tempest;” John 8:58—“ Before Abraham was,’’ or came into being. It seems quite evident from the use o f the word “ is” in these passages that the idea o f origin or source is intended; this is the sense in which it is to be under stood in the passage before us. Again, the word “came” as used in vv. 17, 18—“ This voice which came from hea ven,” and in v. 21—“ For the prophecy came not,” is the same Greek word (phero), and means to bring or to be brought. The use o f “came” in the first instance,is to show the source o f the divine voice heard on*the transfiguration mount, and is the second to reveal the origin o f the “prophecy o f the scripture.” Thus, in each instance, it is the source, or origin, and not the exposi tion or interpretation o f either the “voice” or the “prophecy” that is under considera tion. The Apostolic Testimony as to the vision and the voice seen and heard on the mount was not a mere figment o f the human imagination, a cunningly devised fable, a self-originated myth. It was a fact; a vision and a voice borne upon them from above; something that had an exist ence above, outside, and altogether inde pendent o f themselves. It came not from within themselves, but from a source alto gether exterior: it came from God. Just so, the Apostle Peter claims, only more surely so, is it with the “prophecy o f the scripture.” It came not by “the will of man;” it was no creation o f man’s mind; it was no self-originated message; it is a message direct from God, and heavenly in its origin. It must be clear, then, from all this that the word “interpretation’ refers, not to the meaning, but to the origin, not to exposi tion, but to the source o f the sacred writ-
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words are closed up and sealed till the time o f the end.” This certainly looks as if Daniel was writing about things he under stood not, and therefore could not have himself guessed or invented. Again, Baalam, while under inspiration, tried again and again, to give expression ta his own words for the sake o f the reward (Jude 11), but found it an absolute impos sibility and was compelled to make this remarkable confession : “ Have I now any power at all to say anything? The word that God putteth in my mouthy that shall I speak” (Numbers 22:38). It was the “ Spirit o f God which was in them that did signify” (1 Peter 1:10-12). These “ holy men o f God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.” LIGHT IS FROM GOD O f course, there is a sense, a very real sense too, in which the meaning and expo sition o f the Scripture is from God. The Holy Spirit is the expositor o f the Word as He is its source. Study the prophets, but do not think you can study them any way you want to. There is a right way, and there is a wrong way. You may wrest the Scriptures, as did the false teachers, of whom the apostle speaks in 2 Peter 3 :16. The Holy Spirit is the interpreter, as Christ is the key to the understanding of the Scriptures. W e need yet to have the W ord opened unto us as Christ opened it unto the disciples on the way to Efnmaus. W e may err in the study o f the Bible. We need a guide, and that guide is the Holy Spirit. “ But God hath rqvealed them unto us by his Spirit ; for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things o f God. Fpr what man knoweth the things o f a man, save the spirit o f man which is in him? even so the things o f God knoweth no man, but the Spirit o f God. Now we have received, not the spirit o f the world, but the spirit which is o f God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us o f God. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost, teacheth com-
ings. That process by which the prophets revealed previously hidden or secret things is here called “ interpretation.” PROPHECY NOT HUMAN To sum up then: prophecy is not human in its origin, nor is it the word o f a pri vate individual, o f any one man or men at any time. It is a heavenly and supernat ural message made sure and certain by its fulfilments. The Scripture is, according to Peter, an illumination to which man could not have attained by any wisdom o f his own, nay, could not even have framed the Wish to attain unto. It lay hid among God’s mysteries, and could be loosed only by Him. Prophecy is by no means the fruit o f the prophet’s own calculations as to events likely to happen in the future. That the prophets did not originate their own message is clear also from another passage in the first epistle of Peter: “ O f which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied o f the grace that should come unto you; searching what or what manner o f time the Spirit o f Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings o f Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves but unto us they did minister ,the things,” etc. (1:10-12). In the light o f such a passage as this how can it be claimed that these prophets based their messages on conjecture or human cal culation? Prophecy is not the result of the sagacious and shrewd insight o f men, who, recognizing certain general principles o f God’s government o f the world with ref erence to righteousness and unrighteous ness, on the basis o f which, together with their study o f men and events, were thus enabled to predict future things. The very men who wrote these prophecies had to study them for themselves. It was for future generations and not for themselves that they were writing (1 Peter 1:10-12). Again, Daniel (12:8, 9), says, “ I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end o f these things? And He said, Go thy way, Daniel; for the
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“Holy men o f God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit." “Holy men o f God.” Some manuscripts omit the w o rd , “holy” and substitute the word “ from” for “ of,” thus making the passage; read: “Men spake from God.” The full passage would then read: “ For'not by the will o f man Was prophecy, at any time, borne in, But by the Holy Spirit, being borne along, Spake men from God.” Thus again is it clear that the snbject of this passage is not what Scripture means, but whence it came r “Men spake”—Not always holy men either (compare Caiaphas, John 11:49-51; Baalam, Numbers 23:25, 26). For Baalam said: “What the Lord saith unto me that inust I speak,” though his greed for gain prompted him to the opposite. “Men from God spake as they were borne along by the Holy Spirit.” “ Spake.” May we not quite naturally infer that this word “ spake” includes both writings and .words ?( David was a prophet (Acts 2:30), and being a prophet, we are told that he “ spake” o f the resurrection o f "Christ. Yet we know that writing is involved in the word “spake;” for he wrote the 16th Psalm, from which Peter in Acts 2 :30, 31, quotes. It was customary for the prophets to write their prophecies (cf. “Moses wrote of me,” John 5:46; “Write the words I have spoken,” Jeremiah 30:2; “ Take, my breth ren, the prophets who have spoken in the name o f the Lord,” James 5:10). Does not writing involve words? Are the words o f Scripture inspired then? So it would seem from the words o f the Apostle Paul: “Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teach- eth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth” (1 Corinthians 2 :13). Does this quotation teach that God controls the utterance as well as the conception? Assuredly it does. “ The theory that God inspired the con ception and not the words will not answer. Burke has wisely said, as to the words in a sentence, that every word is one o f the feet upon which the sentence walks, and
paring spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit o f God; for they are foolishness unto him : neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he that is spiritual judgeth all things.”— 1 Corinthians 2:10-15. God gives both the vision and the inter pretation thereof (Genesis 40:8; 41:16). The same inspiration it took to write the Scriptures, it takes also to interpret them —the inspiration o f the Holy Ghost. - "For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man.” Prophecy at no time, whether by the prophet in the Old or the apostle in the New Testament dispensa tion, came, or, more literally, was brought by the “will o f man.” Here again it is clear that it is the origin and not, at least not primarily, the interpretation or exposi tion that is under discussion in this con nection. The word "came" makes this cer tain, for it is the same word used to desig nate the source from which the voice heard on the transfiguration mount proceeded, namely, not from “ cunningly devised fables” on the part o f man, but from God’s “ voice which came from heaven.” This verse explains more fully the statement made in the previous verse that “no proph ecy o f the scripture is of any private inter pretation,” that is to say it does not have its source in any man or set o f men. Could the full inspiration of the prophets be more fully asserted than in these words? The will, genius, determination is by no means the source o f the prophecy of the Scripture. The events predicted therein lay above and beyond any human power and ken, exceeded any flight o f man’s imagina tion, and recorded such subjects as only the foreknowledge o f God could define. The Scripture, according to the Apostle Peter, is an illumination to which man could not have attained by any wisdom of his own, nay, could not even have formed the wish to attain unto it. It lay hid amid God’s mysteries; it is something which must b e ' revealed and interpreted to men by God.
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that to shorten or to lengthen a word or even to change its place in a sentence, may be to divert the course o f the whole sen tence. Wordsworth says that language is the incarnation o f thought, intimating that it -bears the same relation to thought that the body does to the spirit, not only its vehicle, but its means o f expression and exhibition. Everyone knows that the most honest reporter may not give proper expres sion to the conceptions o f one whose address or sentiments he undertakes to , represent; and in all critical cases we insist, that after an interview we shall see what has been written, and examine the forms o f expression lest they do injustice to our thought. Dr. John Hall o f New York said o f Dr. Briggs that he was himself the prin cipal contradiction to his own theory. When he delivered his famous inaugural address at the assumption o f his new chair in a well-known theological seminary, he was taken to task for the sentiments he there ejxpressed, and he and his friends defended his position on. the ground that his concept was all right but his language was misconstrued and misunderstood. Dr. Hall says that if a man cannot express his own ideas so as to be understood, how much less could he express the ideas o f the Almighty God unless God exercised oversight over his language. FIVE IM PORTANT PASSAGES “There are, with regard to this question o f verbal inspiration, or the oversight of the very words o f Scripture, five impor tant and significant passages in the Word o f G od : Hebrews 12:27; Galatians 4 :9 ; John 8:58; John 10:34-36; Galatians 3:16. I f these passages are examined, it will be seen that in the first instance the argu ment turns on one phrase, ‘yet once more.’ In the second, on the passive voice rather than the active voice o f the verb. In the third, on the present rather than on the past tense.. In the fourth, on the inviola bility o f a single word; and in the fifth, on the retention o f the singular number of a noun, rather than the plural. Taking the.
five passages together, they teach us that, to alter or omit a phrase, change the voice or mood or tense o f a verb, change a! single word or jfven the number o f a noun, is to break the Scriptures; and if this does not come dose to verbal inspiration, then I am no judge.”—A. T. Pierson. “Borne along.” This word (present par ticiple)" is the same as that translated “came” (v. 17), “which came” (v. 18), and means, being borne along. The Scrip ture was borne from heaven to earth as the voice on the Transfiguration mount referred to in v: 18. The word means, to be carried along as a ship with the-wind, as in Acts 27:15, 17. In John 3 the Holy Spirit is likened unto the wind. He is pre sented to us under this symbof in Acts 2:2 also. Note here the antithesis—they did not bring, they were brought; they were passive, not active. That which is brought moves and furthers nothing by its own efforts and labor. This word explains more fully the meaning o f v. 20: “no prophecy o f the scripture is o f any private' interpretation;” that is prophecy has not its origin in the free will o f man. Thus the Apostle asserts in the fullest sense o f the word the full inspiration o f the prophet?. The Scripture came not by man’s own pri vate impulse, but by the impulse o f the Holy Spirit. “ When moved.” The participle moved may be correctly translated, when moved, so that the passage teaches that holy men o f God wrote the Scriptures, not when their own mind or will suggested it to them, but when moved upon, to do so by the Holy Spirit. Further, the participle is passive, and denotes to be moved. Thus the Scriptures were not written at the sug gestion o f men, but by men when moved upon, prompted, yea, even driven by the Spirit o f God. Thus the Holy Spirit prompted these men o f God to the task of writing the j Scriptures. Possibly this prompting came through the outward chan nel, as ordinary suggestions are conveyed, viz., various occasions or motives, such as have led to the composition o f the books
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o f the Bible. The Holy Spirit also enabled these men o f God to select from the great mass o f material'at the writer’s hand just the ,material to be used under the given circumstance. This is the inspiration of selection. This material may have been gathered from facts specially revealed to these men by God, or from facts already known to others. They were led to so dispose of, and use them as to be able to truthfully say, “ God hath revealed them I T IS wifh sincerest regret that we announce the death o f an ideal Chris tian gentleman, E. A. K. Hackett, at Ft. Wayne, Ind., August 28, 1916, who for the past seven years has been on the Board of Directors o f the Bible Institute o f Los Angeles. Although Mr. Hackett’s home was in Ft. Wayne, where he was sole owner o f tjie Daily Sentinel, he has spent part o f each year in Los Angeles, for many years past, having established a home in the exclusive residence section on Alvarado Terrace. Beside his active interest in the Bible Insti tute, he was a director o f the Union Rescue Mission, and a member o f the Committee o f Management o f the Y. M. C. A. Quiet, dignified and sincere, he quickly endeared himself to every agency in Los Angeles for the uplift o f his fellowmen. His activities were in many directions, commanding not only his,means but his personal services as well. Several years ago he made it his special personal work to visit the jails, where he did everything in his power to encourage unfortunate men, so completely effac ing himself in his effort to help them that probably very few o f them knew him by name. Hundreds o f frail men in this city and scattered throughout Southern California and the entire country, will for the first time know o f him as E. A. K. Hackett by seeing his picture in the
unto us by his Spirit” (1 Corinthians 2:10). There is no doubt but that the Spirit also co-operated with the natural faculties of these men o f God, building, enlightening and controlling them, the result o f this co-operation being the different books which in their combination constitute the Bible and which have been moulded into unity by the power, inspiration and guidance of the Holy Spirit.
O A GOOD MAN’S DEPARTURE
public prints. They will rememher him as the soft-voiced, modest, kindly gentleman who spoke to them words o f cheer and encouragement to save them from them selves. From a vest pocket they will take a little mirror, remembering that he gave it to them as they left the city jail in the early morning, after a night’s debauch. On the reverse side they will look at the bright picture o f the Saviour standing in the midst o f the people, and will again read the inscription: “ Come unto Me all ye that labour and are heavy laden. I will give you rest.” Mr. Hackett had these mirrors manufactured for this special work and gave away many hundreds o f thfeih in this way. Among his most' notable benevolences was the establishing o f the Hackett Medical College in Canton, China. He endowed the college and placed it in charge ' o f his daughter, Dr. Martha Hackett, who is still there. His religious activities in the East included every denomination and every worthy charity. He was one o f the foun ders o f the Winona Assembly at Winona Lake, Ind., where he had his summer home, and it was there he was stricken with the illness that caused his death, following removal to Ft. Wayne. Beside his widow, he also leaves another daughter and two sons in Ft. Wayne, and a daughter, Mrs. John Cherry Johnson, in Los Angeles. He was 65 years o f age.
..•..•..«..•..•..I GREAT REVIVALS and EVANGELISTS VI. JOHN WESLEY (Concluded) By the Late JOHN CHARLES RYLE, D. D. Bishop of Liverpool □
Note. —The following masterly appreciation of the great founder of the Methodist church appears in Bishop Ryle’s book entitled “ Christian Leaders of England in the Eighteenth Century.” We are using it because of the weight which its authorship gives it, Bishop Ryle having been one of the greatest evangelical leaders of the Church of England, during the century succeeding Wesley.— John H. Hunter.
left my native country, in order to teach the Georgian Indians the nature o f Chris tianity; but what have I learned o f myself in the meantime? Why, what I least sus pected, that I, who went to America to convert others, was myself never con verted to G od! I am not mad, though I thus speak; but I speak the words o f truth and soberness. “ If it be said that I have faith— for many such things have I heard from miserable comforters—I answer, so have the devils a sort o f faith; but they are still stran gers to the covenant o f promise. . .The faith I want is a sure trust and confidence in God that through the merits of Christ my sins are forgiven, and I reconciled to the favor o f God. I want that faith which St. Paul recommends to all the world, especially in his Epistle to the Romans; that faith which makes everyone that hath it to cry, ‘I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith o f the Son o f God; who loved me, and gave himself for me.’ I want that faith which none can have with out knowing that he hath it.” IM PORTANT RECORDS Records like these are deeply instructive. They teach that important lesson which man is so slow to learn—that we may have a great deal o f earnestness and religious ness without any true soul-saving and soul- comforting religion—that we may be dili gent in the use of fasting, prayers, forms, ordinances, and theN sacrament o f the Lord’s Supper, without knowing anything
ESLEY’ S own accounts of his spiritual experience dur ing these two years o f his life are deeply interesting. I will transcribe one or two of them.
On February the 7th, 1736, he records: “ On landing in Georgia I asked the advice o f Mr,. Spangenberg, one o f the German pastors, with regard to my own conduct. He said in reply, ‘My brother, I must first ask you one or two questions. Have you the witness within yourself? Does the Spirit o f God bear witness with your spirit that you are a child of God?’ I was surprised, and knew not what to answer. He observed it, and asked, ‘Do you know Jesus Christ?’ I paused, and said, ‘I know He is the Savior of the world.’ ‘True,’ replied he, ‘but do you know He has saved you?’ I answered, ‘I hope He has died to save me.’ He only added, ‘Do you know yourself?’ I said, ‘I do.’ But I fear they were vain words.” • On January 24, 1738, on board ship on his homeward voyage, he makes the fol lowing record: “I went to America to convert the Indians; but oh, who shall convert me? Who, what is he (hat will deliver me from this evil heart o f unbelief? I have a fair-summer religion; I can talk w ell; nay, and believe myself, while no danger is near. But let death look me in the face, and my spirit is troubled, nor can I say to die is gain.” On February 1, 1738, the day that he landed- in England, he says : “ It is now two years and almost four months since IPage 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100
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