OKC MAPS Economic Impact - Full Report

OKLAHOMA CITY MAPS PROJECTS M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a P r o j e c t s

ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDY

25 Years of Change Through Public and Private Investment

NOVEMBER 2019| Full Report

OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Table of Contents Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Three Rounds of MAPS Projects ........................................................................................................... 4 MAPS (Metropolitan Area Projects) ..................................................................................................... 8 MAPS for Kids...................................................................................................................................... 11 MAPS 3................................................................................................................................................ 16 Related City Development Efforts ...................................................................................................... 18 MAPS Impact (Goals, Geography, and Measurement)....................................................................... 20 Downtown Market.............................................................................................................................. 20 Downtown Study Area Demographic Change .................................................................................... 26 Population Trends............................................................................................................................... 26 Age and Sex Distribution..................................................................................................................... 30 Housing Units...................................................................................................................................... 32 School Enrollment............................................................................................................................... 39 Racial Diversity.................................................................................................................................... 40 Educational Attainment ...................................................................................................................... 44 Household Income .............................................................................................................................. 45 Disabilities of Residents ...................................................................................................................... 47 Homelessness ..................................................................................................................................... 48 Downtown Workforce ........................................................................................................................ 49 Downtown Study Area Economic Change .......................................................................................... 52 Downtown Employment Trend........................................................................................................... 52 Employment Growth - ZIP Codes........................................................................................................ 62 MAPS Investment – Public and Private............................................................................................... 65 MAPS Investment – MAPS, MAPS for Kids, MAPS 3 ........................................................................... 65 Total Public and Private Investment ................................................................................................... 66 Private Investment and Property Market Valuations ......................................................................... 68 Downtown Office Market ................................................................................................................... 74 Downtown Residential Market ........................................................................................................... 77 Bricktown Property Valuations ........................................................................................................... 79 Lodging, Tourism, and Cultural Attractions ........................................................................................ 81 Downtown/Bricktown Lodging Sector................................................................................................ 81 Tourism ............................................................................................................................................... 84 Downtown Transportation ................................................................................................................. 86 Multimodal Transportation ................................................................................................................ 86 Embark Streetcar ................................................................................................................................ 90 Citizen Satisfaction.............................................................................................................................. 99 Summary of MAPS Evaluation .......................................................................................................... 101 Key Policy Findings............................................................................................................................ 101 Endnotes ........................................................................................................................................... 105

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Table of Figures Figure 1. MAPS Projects ................................................................................................................................ 5 Figure 2. MAPS for Kids Projects................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 3. MAPS 3 Projects ............................................................................................................................. 7 Figure 4. Original MAPS Projects – Summary ............................................................................................... 8 Figure 5. MAPS for Kids - Suburban School Districts .................................................................................. 14 Figure 6. MAPS 3 Projects – Summary........................................................................................................ 16 Figure 7. Downtown Study Area Map......................................................................................................... 21 Figure 8. Downtown Study Area Census Tract Boundaries ........................................................................ 22 Figure 9. Downtown Study Area – Census Tract Map ................................................................................ 23 Figure 10. Downtown Study Area – ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) Map............................................... 24 Figure 11. Population Growth by Census Tract .......................................................................................... 27 Figure 12. Downtown OKC Population in Group Quarters by Census Tract............................................... 28 Figure 13. Group Quarters-Adjusted Downtown Population by Census Tract ........................................... 29 Figure 14. Age Distribution and Population Characteristics by Census Tract (2017) ................................. 31 Figure 15. Downtown Housing Units by Census Tract – Assessment Data................................................. 33 Figure 16. Downtown Housing Units by Census Tract – ACS Data ............................................................. 34 Figure 17. Persons per Household in Occupied Housing Units (2017) ....................................................... 34 Figure 18. Housing Characteristics of Downtown Study Area Census Tracts ............................................. 35 Figure 19. Housing Unit Characteristics by Census Tract (2017) ................................................................ 37 Figure 20. Housing Units by Year of Construction (2017)........................................................................... 38 Figure 21. School Enrollment Persons 3 Years and Over - Study Area Census Tracts ................................ 39 Figure 22. Downtown Study Area Residents by Race ................................................................................. 40 Figure 23. Population by Race by Census Tract (2017)............................................................................... 41 Figure 24. Downtown Study Area Residents Hispanic or Latino of any race (2017) .................................. 42 Figure 25. Educational Attainment of Population Ages 25 Years and Over by Census Tract (2017).......... 43 Figure 26. Household Income by Income Bracket and Census Tract (2017) .............................................. 46 Figure 27. Disabilities Among Population by Census Tract (2017) ............................................................. 47 Figure 28. Point-in-Time Estimates of OKC Homeless Population.............................................................. 48 Figure 29. Occupation of Residents in Downtown Study Area (2017) ....................................................... 51 Figure 30. Study Area Employment by Place of Work and Residence (Census Tracts) .............................. 53 Figure 31. Downtown Study Area Job Growth by County Where Worker Lives ........................................ 54 Figure 32. Home Location of Downtown Study Area Workers................................................................... 55 Figure 33. Characteristics of Residents Who Live and Work in the Study Area ......................................... 57 Figure 34. Work Area Profile (2015) ........................................................................................................... 60 Figure 34. (Cont.) Work Area Profile (2015) ............................................................................................... 61 Figure 35. Business Establishment and Employment Profile for ZIP Code Study Area (2016) ................... 63 Figure 36. MAPS Projects – Total Public Investment .................................................................................. 65 Figure 37. Public and Private Investment - MAPS & Downtown Study Area.............................................. 67 Figure 38. Total Market Value of Assessed Property in Study Area ........................................................... 69 Figure 39. Total Market Value of Assessed Property by Census Tract ....................................................... 70 Figure 40. Total Assessed Market Valuation by Census Tract - Downtown ............................................... 72 Figure 41. Total Assessed Square Footage by Census Tract – Downtown.................................................. 73 Figure 42. Downtown Office Market Footage and Valuation..................................................................... 76

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Figure 43. Downtown Office Market Footage and Valuation (Tax Year 2017)........................................... 76 Figure 44. Downtown Residential Market Footage and Valuation............................................................. 78 Figure 45. Downtown Residential Market Footage and Valuation (Tax Year 2017)................................... 78 Figure 46. Market Value of Selected Bricktown Commercial Properties ................................................... 80 Figure 47. Downtown Hotel Development ................................................................................................. 82 Figure 48. Visitation/Participation in Downtown/Bricktown Area ............................................................. 85 Figure 49. Embark Bus Service – Trips and Service Miles ........................................................................... 87 Figure 50. Heartland Flyer – Annual Passengers......................................................................................... 88 Figure 51. Spokies Bike Sharing – Annual Trips .......................................................................................... 88 Figure 52. Oklahoma River Cruises – Annual Passengers & Service Hours................................................. 89 Figure 53. Downtown Streetcar Map.......................................................................................................... 91 Figure 54. Means of Transportation to Work - Study Area Census Tracts ................................................. 92 Figure 55. Means of Transportation to Work - Study Area ZIP Codes (73012, 73103, 73104) .................. 93 Figure 56. Streetcar 3-Block Impact Zone................................................................................................... 94 Figure 57. Employment in the Streetcar Impact Zone................................................................................ 95 Figure 58. Total Property Valuation in Streetcar Impact Zone ................................................................... 96 Figure 59. Total Property Square Footage in Streetcar Impact Zone ......................................................... 97 Figure 60. Office Market Square Footage Growth in Streetcar Impact Zone ............................................. 97 Figure 61. Housing Units in Streetcar Impact Zone .................................................................................... 98 Figure 62. Overall Satisfaction Rating of City Residents (2018).................................................................. 99

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

About this study

Oklahoma City MAPS Projects: 25 Years of Change through Public and Private Investment was prepared by the Greater Oklahoma City Chamber and RegionTrack. This report extends the previous evaluation of the MAPS projects titled Impact Analysis of Oklahoma City’s MAPS and Other Significant Central City Investments prepared by Larkin Warner and Eric Long. The initial release of the report in 2003 was followed by updates in both 2005 and 2009. For more information about this study, please contact Eric Long at 405-297-8976 or elong@okcchamber.com.

About the authors

Mark Snead is an economist and president of RegionTrack. His research interests focus primarily on regional economic modeling and forecasting, local area economic development, and the economic role of the nation’s energy-producing regions. Prior to founding RegionTrack, Mr. Snead served as vice president and Denver branch executive of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City where he served as the Reserve Bank’s regional economist and lead officer in the states of Colorado, Wyoming and northern New Mexico. Mark was responsible for briefing the Kansas City Fed’s president and external audiences on economic and business activity in the Denver region’s states. Eric Long is the research economist for the Greater Oklahoma City Chamber, where he has served for over the past decade. As the Chamber’s research economist, he provides business intelligence, workforce and economic analysis that support the region’s economic development efforts and local businesses. Mr. Long has served on the national board of C2ER, The Council for Community and Economic Research and is a past graduate of Leadership Oklahoma City.

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Introduction Oklahoma City recently marked 25 years of public capital improvement projects funded through the ongoing MAPS initiatives. The MAPS projects addressed needs in transportation, education, recreation, entertainment, arts and culture, public space and lifestyle amenities. The resulting change in the city during the MAPS era has been substantial and transformative. Why MAPS? The current activity level in downtown Oklahoma City leaves few reminders of the conditions present in the pre-MAPS era. Downtown had settled into stagnation and then entered decline in the decade following the Oil Bust of the early 1980s. When MAPS was first proposed in the early 1990s, no catalyst capable of propelling economic renewal in downtown Oklahoma City was visible. Downtown’s condition reflected decades of insufficient public and private investment. Private housing, retail and office development migrated outside the city’s central core into other markets across the city. 1 At 620 square miles, the sheer size of the city’s footprint allowed for seemingly unlimited and inexpensive growth in suburban areas and other rural markets. 2 Oklahoma City had joined a group of mid-sized cities across the United States experiencing robust growth in the suburbs while the central city withered away. More importantly, it was losing ground to competing cities as a modern business hub. Economic and demographic trends were also working against the city’s competitive posture as a regional business hub. The most vibrant and desirable cities to live in were increasingly urban. Workers, particularly the young and educated, were seeking urban areas with a strong job market, a range of lifestyle amenities, and sufficient public services. The continued decline of downtown Oklahoma City presented an immense hurdle for efforts to develop a nationally competitive urban economy. As a result, expectations were guarded over whether MAPS could trigger the revitalization of downtown. Public Investment as an Economic Development Strategy . Building a complete city would require the revitalization of downtown, and public investments through MAPS were viewed as the tool that could jumpstart the process. Oklahoma City leaders believed that the effects of insufficient public investment downtown could be reversed over time through the targeted MAPS initiatives. Renewed public investment would in turn spur private investment in a joint effort to revitalize downtown. A vibrant downtown area would then serve as the hub of a much more vibrant, livable, and competitive Oklahoma City metropolitan area. In describing the process of balancing growth on the periphery of the city with a strong central core, comparisons were made to fast-growing Phoenix, another city with a large footprint (516 square miles) but a much more vibrant central core. As Oklahoma City councilman David Greenwell described the process, “They show you can embrace both a sprawling city and maintaining a focus on developing your downtown core. And the two do not conflict.” The MAPS initiatives followed the increasingly important economic development strategy of placemaking , or the process of developing a city in which residents want to live, work, and play. This approach acts as both a retention mechanism for current businesses and residents while attracting others from outside the region. The objective for downtown called for the weaving together of an expanded business and employment presence, a vibrant residential community, expanded retail and services options, medical and education facilities, and a range of cultural, recreational, and

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

entertainment venues. The presence of each of these components would serve to create a vibrant urban locality that offered both employment opportunities and lifestyle amenities. Downtown Revitalization . In the 25 years since the onset of the initial MAPS projects, Oklahoma City and its residents have enjoyed transformative change in the quality of life downtown. The reconstruction of the area and the subsequent turnaround in the City’s trajectory has been substantial and consistent. All three rounds of MAPS projects have contributed to the resurgence of downtown. The initial MAPS projects established many of the civic landmarks now recognized as key components of commerce, government, and civic life in Oklahoma City. The initial MAPS projects are now being integrated more deeply into the city’s development plans for downtown through synergies with MAPS 3 projects. MAPS for Kids played only an indirect role in the revival of downtown but represents a key step in improving educational outcomes in the city’s primary school district. MAPS for Kids was intended to serve as a catalyst in raising educational outcomes in the public schools by revitalizing an increasingly dilapidated education infrastructure. The key direct contribution of MAPS for Kids to downtown is the construction of a new charter elementary school that fills a critical gap for families with young children who choose to live downtown. Several MAPS 3 projects are now completed, and the extent of their future contribution is already being realized. Many of the MAPS 3 projects represent vital aspects of the city’s long-range plan for downtown revitalization that started in the early 1990s. The increased focus of MAPS 3 on lifestyle amenities such as Scissortail Park, wellness centers, and biking trails underscores the range of items beyond traditional infrastructure that characterize today’s great cities in which to live and work. Prior Evaluations . Because of the key role played by public funding and the substantial financial commitment of taxpayers in the region, ongoing evaluation of the outcome of the MAPS projects is fundamental to public oversight. This report extends the most recent evaluation of the MAPS projects titled Impact Analysis of Oklahoma City’s MAPS and Other Significant Central City Investments prepared by Larkin Warner and Eric Long. The initial release of the report in 2003 was followed by updates in both 2005 and 2009. The 2009 MAPS report focused primarily on the influence of the initial round of MAPS projects and accompanying private investment activity in the downtown Oklahoma City area. The report also discussed the early stages of planning and implementation of the MAPS for Kids projects underway at the time. Measuring Change . Since the release of the 2009 report nearly a decade ago, much has changed surrounding both the MAPS projects and the resulting development of Oklahoma City, particularly in downtown. The original MAPS projects continue to mature, MAPS for Kids projects are now largely completed, and a significant new round of projects approved under the MAPS 3 initiative is now underway. The City recently solicited public recommendations for potential MAPS 4 projects. This report extends the 2009 MAPS report by updating outcomes for the early MAPS projects and providing an initial examination of the more recent MAPS efforts. The time frame of the report focuses primarily on the period since 2009, which captures the era of the MAPS 3 initiative.

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

The overall results suggest that the initial public investment in MAPS triggered substantial additional public and private sector investment. To date, approximately $1.8 billion in city investment has been used or earmarked for the three rounds of MAPS projects in Oklahoma City. Additional city infrastructure expenditures in the period totaled $690 million and worked to enhance the outcome of the MAPS projects. Other federal, state, and local government entities invested an additional $600 million in the downtown area. Total public investment through city spending on MAPS and investments by other public sector entities reached $3.1 billion between 1995 and 2018. Private investment spending in the downtown study area similarly surged along with the initial MAPS projects and has continued steadily through 2018. Estimated private investment spending totaled $3.9 billion between 1995 and 2018. Private investment gains are highly visible in the office, hotel, medical and research, residential, food service, and entertainment sectors. In total, the combination of city investment through MAPS along with other public and private sector investments in the downtown study area reached an estimated $7 billion in the full MAPS era. Report Objective and Structure . In assessing the various changes resulting from MAPS, this evaluation pursues three basic underlying tasks: 1. Update the prior evaluation of the original MAPS projects provided in the 2009 report, particularly the contribution of MAPS to change in downtown Oklahoma City; 2. Provide an initial review of the mostly completed MAPS for Kids projects; and 3. Detail MAPS 3 initiatives completed or currently underway and the role these projects are expected to play in shaping future growth in Oklahoma City. The report documents the activities of the MAPS projects but is more focused on the resulting changes in the demographic, workforce, lifestyle, and economic conditions enjoyed by residents of Oklahoma City. The MAPS projects are viewed as the clear catalyst behind the revitalization underway in downtown Oklahoma City. These public investments in turn triggered significant private development in housing, lodging, retail, office space, and recreational offerings. Each major area of visible change is evaluated throughout the report. A final, though more informal, task pursued throughout the report is the development of a more integrated view of the three rounds of MAPS projects approved to date. The number and breadth of projects and the length of time over which they have transpired warrants a more comprehensive view of MAPS as a single, ongoing economic development effort that now extends twenty-five years. The initial section of the report reviews the three rounds of MAPS projects and other related city economic development initiatives. The second section of the report details the downtown study area, the site of most of the MAPS projects approved to date. The following two sections examine changes in the downtown study area across a range of demographic and economic factors. The report shifts in the following section to an evaluation of public and private investment, focusing on changes in property valuations and activity in key downtown markets such as office and residential. The next two sections examine changes that have occurred in lodging, tourism, and transportation in the downtown study area in the MAPS era. A detailed evaluation of the change underway around the path of the downtown streetcar is provided as well. The final section of the report reviews the major findings contained throughout the report.

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Three Rounds of MAPS Projects Oklahoma City voters have now approved three consecutive rounds of MAPS public infrastructure improvement projects – MAPS in 1993, MAPS for Kids in 2001, and MAPS 3 in 2009. Because of the pay- as-you-go approach to MAPS, the first completed project (downtown ballpark) opened in 1998 and many MAPS 3 projects remain underway today. The initial MAPS projects focused on reversing years of decline in the city’s downtown core. MAPS for Kids subsequently targeted the foundational issue of public education in Oklahoma City and the challenges presented by an aging education infrastructure. MAPS 3 targeted further improvements to downtown but included additional citywide initiatives, with many focused on modern lifestyle amenities. What is Unique About MAPS? The MAPS initiatives remain highly innovative in terms of both structure 2. Public Vetting Process: City Council reviews and makes project recommendations 3. Voter Approval: Projects are approved through a majority vote of the people 4. Direct Funding: Funded through a temporary dedicated local sales tax 5. Pay-as-You-Go: Projects begin only after funds are collected 6. City Managed: Direct project operations are managed by City staff 7. Debt-Free: Projects carry no debt upon completion 8. Public Oversight: Continual public oversight by volunteer committees of private citizens The details of each project pursued within the three MAPS initiatives are described in greater detail in the remainder of this section. Figures 1-3 provide a detailed overview of the projects within each MAPS initiative. and process. Some of the key characteristics of the MAPS projects include: 1. Public Inception: Projects are initiated through a public input process

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Figure 1. MAPS Projects Projects totaling $350 million in investment passed by voters Dec. 14, 1993, with a 54% majority; all projects completed in 2004 PROJECTS COST PROJECT DESCRIPTION STATUS

LOCATION Bricktown

DEVELOPMENT FOCUS

1 Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark $34 million Construction of a new 12,000 seat Professional Baseball Leagues-compliant stadium

Completed in 1998; current home of the Oklahoma City Dodgers. Completed in 1999, improvements in 2003-04

Recreation/entertainment and tourism Recreation/entertainment and tourism Public convention and meeting space, tourism

2 Bricktown Canal

$23 million Construction of a 1-mile tree-lined urban canal system with water taxi, hiking and bicycle trails, water features, and landscaped parks $60 million Renovation and expansion (100,000 new sq. ft.) of the former Myriad Convention Center including a new ballroom and grand staircase, new audio-visual equipment, updated electrical and mechanical systems $87.7 million Construction of a new 586,000 sq. ft., 20,000+ seat, 3- level sports arena for hosting a major league sports franchise $53 million Complete interior renovation of much of the existing music hall including new balconies and box seats, private suites, practice rooms, and dressing rooms $53.5 million 7-mile stretch of Canadian River converted to series of river lakes. Landscaped trails and recreational facilities. Now known as Oklahoma River. $21.5 million Construction of a new 4-story 112,000 sq. ft. $14 million New livestock show facilities, new horse barns, and renovations and improvements of the arena and several exhibition buildings. $5 million Transportation system between downtown/Bricktown, the I-40/Meridian hotel and restaurant district, and Stockyards City. downtown public library including new and equipment, classrooms, and conference center space.

Bricktown

3 Cox Convention Center

Completed in 1999

Central Business District

4 Chesapeake Energy Arena

Completed in 2002, renovated in 2009-10; current home of the NBA Oklahoma City Thunder

Central Business District Central Business District

Recreation/entertainment and tourism

5 Civic Center Music Hall

Completed in 2001

Civic/arts/entertainment and tourism

6 Oklahoma River

Completed in 2004

South of Downtown/Bricktown

Recreation/entertainment and tourism

7 Ron J. Norick Downtown Library

Completed in 2004

Central Business District

Education

8 State Fairgrounds Improvements

Completed in 1998

State Fair Park

Recreation/entertainment and tourism

9 Oklahoma Spirit Trolleys

Completed in 1999, decommissioned in 2010

Downtown area

Transportation

Total Cost

$350 million Raised approximately $363 million

Sales tax extended six months in1998 ‘Finish MAPS Right’ with a 68% majority

Source: City of Oklahoma City and Greater Oklahoma City Chamber

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Figure 2. MAPS for Kids Projects $684 million ($514 million sales tax and $180 million bond issue) approved by voters Nov. 13, 2001, with a 61% majority; projects mostly completed by 2018 PROJECTS COST PROJECT DESCRIPTION STATUS LOCATION

DEVELOPMENT FOCUS

1 OKC Public School Construction and Renovation

$470 million Replacement, renovation, or additions at every OKCPS school district building. Includes construction of a new downtown elementary school (John W. Rex). School configurations changed to better match student population demographics. Approximately 100 construction projects at 75 district schools. New gymnasiums added at all district elementary schools. OKC public schools received 70% of MAPS for Kids sales tax funding and a $180 million bond issue. Construction, expansion, or renovation of school buildings in 23 suburban school districts located within Oklahoma City. Approximately 400 approved projects across 23 districts. Suburban districts split 30% of MAPS for Kids sales tax funding based on the number of students living within Oklahoma City limits. $52 million Hardware and software purchased with sales tax funding included wireless mobile labs, network printers, presentation stations, desktop computers, system and classroom software, library automation system, network equipment, and classroom phones. Items purchased with bond funding included a laptop for each teacher, substitute teacher management system, printers, technical services contract, server upgrades, central telecom system, messaging system, data storage, wiring, voice over IP system, and other hardware and software systems. $9 million Purchased 160 new buses. 111 conventional buses, 13 smaller buses, and 36 minibuses. Ten buses with wheelchair lifts. $153 million

Mostly completed City-wide

Education

2 Suburban Public Schools Construction and Renovation

Completed

Suburban school districts

Education

3 Technology Upgrades

Completed

City-wide

Education

4 District Transportation

Completed

City-wide

Education/Transportation

Total Cost

$684 million

Raised approximately $700 million

Source: City of Oklahoma City and Greater Oklahoma City Chamber

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

Figure 3. MAPS 3 Projects 10-year, $777 million building campaign approved by voters on Dec. 8, 2009 with 54% majority; most projects completed or currently underway PROJECTS COST PROJECT DESCRIPTION STATUS

LOCATION Downtown

DEVELOPMENT FOCUS Recreation/entertainment, lifestyle amenities, and tourism

1 Scissortail Park (Downtown)

$132 million Construction of a new 70-acre urban park extending from the core of downtown to the shore of the Oklahoma River. Skydance Bridge connects the north and south sections of the park. $131 million Construction of a modern downtown streetcar

Underway: 40-acre north section opened in September 2019; completion of the 30-acre south section expected in 2021.

2 Downtown Streetcar

Completed in 2018: service commenced December 2018.

Downtown/ Bricktown

Transportation

system serving as an urban circulator and connector linking Midtown, Central Business District, Scissortail Park, and Bricktown. Project includes the purchase of 7 streetcars, construction of 5.2 miles of in-ground track and 22 stops, and a new streetcar maintenance facility.

3 Downtown Convention Center

$288 million Modern replacement for the current convention center. Specifications include a 200,000 sq. ft. exhibit hall, 45,000 sq. ft. meeting space, and 30,000 sq. ft. ballroom. Located on the east side of Scissortail Park. $18.1 million Construction of new and improved sidewalks in areas with high demand for pedestrian amenities. $39.5 million Construction of 50 miles of trails linking the $57 million Construction of a whitewater rafting and kayaking center on the Oklahoma River as a watersport destination, including upgrades to the existing lighted recreational and competitive rowing venue. $52 million Construction of 4 new state-of-the-art wellness centers providing exercise equipment and programs, including aquatics, to seniors in a social and recreational setting. Oklahoma River with Lake Overholser, Lake Hefner, and Lake Draper.

Underway: Convention center completion expected in late 2020.

Downtown

Public convention and meeting space, tourism

4 Sidewalks

Underway; the current plan calls for 60 miles using $9 million of additional City reserves. Underway: West River Trail completed in 2015; Will Rogers Trail completed in 2018; Lake Draper Trail scheduled completion in 2018. Completed: race course improvements completed in 2013; rapids completed in 2016. The site is designated an official U.S. Olympic & Paralympic Training site. Underway: N. Rockwell Ave. center opened 2017; S. Walker Ave. center opened 2018; third center 2019 opening; fourth center 2021 opening. A fifth wellness center has been proposed. Completed in 2017. The largest event space in Oklahoma City. The Center is designed for horse shows and other events.

City-wide

Transportation

5 Trails

City-wide

Recreation, health, lifestyle amenities, and transportation

6 RIVERSPORT Rapids

Boathouse District

Recreation/entertainment and tourism

7 Senior Health and Wellness Centers

(1) N. Rockwell; (2) S. Walker; (3) NE 23 rd & N. MLK; and (4) TBD

Health and lifestyle amenities

8 Bennett Event Center $58.7 million Construction of a new 279,000 sq. ft. exhibition hall with 201,000 sq. ft. of contiguous exhibition space, 12,000 sq. ft. lobby, 10,000 sq. ft. commercial catering kitchen and improvements to parking and other infrastructure.

State Fair Park

Recreation/entertainment and tourism

Projected Total Cost

$777 million Raised approximately $805 million

Source: City of Oklahoma City and Greater Oklahoma City Chamber

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

MAPS (Metropolitan Area Projects) The passage of the original MAPS projects on December 14, 1993 by 54% of voters ushered in a long- lived era of significant public capital improvement projects in Oklahoma City. The initial $350 million program focused primarily on the revitalization of the core downtown area. Years of urban decay, demolition, and suburban migration, all exacerbated by the Oil Bust of the 1980s, weighed heavily on the continued viability of downtown as the core of civic life in the region. City leaders recognized the pivotal role played by substandard public facilities in the struggles of the city core and proposed the original MAPS projects as an initial step toward reversing the economic decline of the area. MAPS Projects . The initial set of nine projects within MAPS is notable and includes several facilities that are now viewed as core city landmarks. Figure 4 summarizes the cost and economic development focus of the nine major projects. Projects include construction of the Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark, construction of the Bricktown Canal, renovation and expansion of the Cox Convention Center, construction of Chesapeake Arena, renovation of the Civic Center Music Hall, creation of the Oklahoma River system, construction of the Ron J. Norick Downtown Library, improvements at State Fair Park, and a trolley system for transportation to/from downtown and the surrounding area. The 2009 MAPS report provides additional context concerning the economic development issues addressed by the projects. The set of initial projects also highlights the relative lack of modern public amenities in the downtown area at the onset of MAPS. It further reflects the steep decline that had occurred in Oklahoma City’s stature as the civic hub of the region and state. These projects dramatically altered the visible look of downtown and created a key set of new civic assets for Oklahoma City and the broader region to enjoy. Figure 4. Original MAPS Projects – Summary Project Type Project Name Cost Economic Development Focus Sports Arena Chesapeake Energy Arena $87.7 million Recreation/entertainment and tourism Convention Center Cox Convention Center Improvements $60.0 million Public convention and meeting space, tourism River System Oklahoma River Redevelopment $53.5 million Recreation/entertainment and tourism Music Hall Civic Center Music Hall Renovation $53.0 million Civic/arts/entertainment and tourism Ballpark Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark $34.0 million Recreation/entertainment and tourism Canal Bricktown Canal $23.0 million Recreation/entertainment and tourism Library Ronald J. Norick Downtown Library $21.5 million Education Fairgrounds State Fairgrounds Improvements $14.0 million Recreation/entertainment and tourism Trolley Oklahoma Spirit Trolleys $5.0 million Transportation and tourism Total $350 million

Source: City of Oklahoma City and Greater Oklahoma City Chamber

The initial MAPS projects were funded through a 1 cent local sales tax beginning January 1, 1994. The tax was initially approved for five years and then extended in December 1998 by a vote of the people for an additional six months, reaching 66 total months. 3 The six-month sales tax extension dubbed ‘Finish

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

MAPS Right’ was viewed as a common-sense adjustment to the initial plan and passed with a 67% majority. Direct collections totaled $309 million while interest earnings provided an additional $54 million. The sales tax expired on July 1, 1999, raising a cumulative total of $363 million. Federal funds covered $4.6 million of the cost of the trolley system. MAPS - Economic Development Characteristics . The overarching theme of the initial MAPS projects was the revitalization of downtown Oklahoma City as the center of civic life in the greater Oklahoma City area. Externally, the efforts were intended to enhance the national image of the city and its fledgling status as a convention and tourism destination. Six of the nine venues in MAPS have an entertainment component, including the arena, ballpark, river, music hall, canal, and fairgrounds. These new and upgraded public venues provided numerous opportunities for entertainment, recreation, and cultural and arts activities for both city residents and non-resident visitors. Eight of the nine MAPS projects (not the public library) have an outward focus on increased tourism, by both in-state and out-of-state visitors. These new downtown public venues offered several attractive venues for visitors to make repeated visits to the area for entertainment and recreation. The Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark and Chesapeake Arena are directly related to fan-attended sporting events. The Ballpark was a modern replacement for the aging All Sports Stadium located at the state fairgrounds where prior professional teams played from 1962 to 1997. Professional baseball in Oklahoma City is traced back almost uninterrupted to 1904. 4 The new stadium has been ranked among the best minor league ballparks in the country. 5 The Oklahoma City Dodgers, the Triple-A affiliate of the Los Angeles Dodgers, are currently based in Oklahoma City and play their home games at the Ballpark. The canal is now a centerpiece of the revitalization of Bricktown, which has become downtown’s primary entertainment district. The formerly deteriorating area is home to continued private investment and sharply rising property values. Extensive redevelopment of existing structures from the historic warehouse district maintains its early roots in city history. A key aspect of the area’s revitalization is the development of an extensive network of new hotels, retail vendors, and foodservice operators. Bricktown is also an active area for residential real estate development and increasingly office space development. The completion of Chesapeake Arena was a key factor in the temporary relocation of the NBA’s New Orleans Hornets to Oklahoma City for home games during the 2005-06 and 2006-07 seasons following Hurricane Katrina. The availability of newly constructed and NBA-suitable Chesapeake Arena coupled with the success of hosting an NBA franchise for two seasons in Oklahoma City ultimately contributed to the relocation of the Oklahoma City Thunder beginning with the 2008-09 season. The presence of the Thunder propelled Oklahoma City into the exclusive tier of cities with a major sports franchise. The Thunder are now viewed as a key lifestyle amenity for residents, with the team having drawn annual attendance at the full capacity of the arena annually since 2012. 6 The Oklahoma River system has become an anchor recreational destination downtown. The seven-mile system of parks, greenways, trails, and recreational amenities provides riverfront activities for residents and visitors alike. The Boathouse District is home to Olympic-level rowing and whitewater venues that

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

place Oklahoma City among a group of elite destinations for training and competition. New permanent trails developed in MAPS 3 now connect distant areas of the metropolitan area to the Oklahoma River and downtown. Convention center improvements addressed the limited role played by Oklahoma City in the national convention market. MAPS funding upgraded and extended the life of the aging and undersized Cox Convention Center by more than two decades. This improved conference venue provided the initial step in rebuilding the city’s convention profile as early MAPS projects were marketed as new assets for conventioneers visiting Oklahoma City. These efforts have since led to the groundbreaking on the construction of a nationally competitive conference center approved in MAPS 3 and adjacent Omni conference hotel. The improvements at State Fair Park reflect the tightly woven role of agriculture and animal husbandry in the state economy, as well as the significance of the facility in-state entertainment and tourism. The success of these improvements led to the subsequent construction of the Bennett Event Center at State Fair Park in MAPS 3. The trolley system is the only relatively small project among the initial MAPS efforts and the only project that is no longer active. The trolleys were decommissioned in 2010 at the end of their useful life. The final project in the original MAPS initiative, the Ron J. Norick Downtown Library was completed in August 2004. The library serves the local community through traditional library services as well as providing computer access, meeting space, and online services. The library carries a largely educational focus and is designed to serve primarily city residents.

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

MAPS for Kids Prior to the completion of the original MAPS projects, voters approved funding for MAPS for Kids to provide a comprehensive overhaul to public education infrastructure in Oklahoma City. The $694 million initiative passed on November 13, 2001 with a 61 percent majority, the largest among the three major MAPS programs to date. Infrastructure Crisis . The Oklahoma City public school (OKCPS) system, the largest in the state, has faced numerous challenges in recent decades. These challenges include a long-term drop in enrollment (from approximately 75,000 in the late 1960s to only about 40,000 currently), demographic shifts 7 , issues attracting and retaining teachers, student performance challenges, aging facilities, and financial constraints. MAPS for Kids focused on remedying the last two of these long-standing challenges – aging facilities and financial constraints. The revitalization of education infrastructure through MAPS for Kids was intended as a jumpstart for the Oklahoma City public school district, much like the original MAPS projects provided a jumpstart to downtown through the construction of core public infrastructure. 8 Project Kids, the foundational education reform effort leading to MAPS for Kids, focused on building a consensus among the City of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma City Public Schools, the District Board of Education and the Oklahoma Public Schools Foundation on reforms needed within the school district. 9 Led by civic, business, and community leaders, Project KIDS noted several reforms needed to bring the district up to modern standards, including the foundational issues of distressed, outdated, and inefficient buildings and aging transportation and information technology infrastructure. An overarching goal was to provide equal facilities to all schools in the district and eliminate any potential role that substandard facilities might play in the various challenges faced by the district. To the degree that substandard facilities contributed to enrollment and demographic shifts, school reconstruction would address these obstacles as well. Targeted Spending . The original $694 million budget for MAPS for Kids prioritized spending in four broad areas: • $470 million for OKC district school construction and renovation projects; • $52 million for information technology purchases and upgrades; • $9 million for transportation (primarily buses); and • $154 million split among 23 suburban school districts serving students living within the Oklahoma City limits. Funding included $514 million in city sales tax and a $180 million bond issue. Project funds were earmarked for bondable expenditures such as buildings, equipment, and vehicles, but excluded ongoing operating expenses such as salary. The MAPS for Kids 1 cent sales tax expired in 2008 after raising the approved funds. The initial proposal called for the closure of unneeded school buildings, construction of new schools, and at least $1 million in deferred maintenance and other renovations at every other district school. A key goal established within Project KIDS was to reduce the number of buildings operated by the district from

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OKC MAPS PROJECTS – 25 YEARS

88 to 70. There are currently 72 structures operated by the district with plans to further streamline the number of buildings operated. Plans included a new downtown elementary charter school - John W. Rex Elementary - completed in 2014. 10 In total, six new district schools were constructed using MAPS for Kids funding. Elementary schools include Cesar Chavez Elementary School, John W. Rex Elementary School, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Elementary School. New middle and high schools include Douglass Mid-High School, U.S. Grant High School, and John Marshall Enterprise Mid-High School. The first major construction project at the new Douglas Mid-High School began in January 2004, and nearly all MAPS for Kids projects were fully completed by 2018. The city council terminated the OKC MAPS Trust, the governing body responsible for managing MAPS for Kids funds, in 2018. 11 Bond Funding Issues . MAPS for Kids provided the funding to bring aging district facilities up to date after struggling for years to maintain the existing school system infrastructure. At the time of the MAPS for Kids vote in 2001, the age of buildings in the district averaged 57 years and many were deteriorating due to deferred maintenance. The average life expectancy for the buildings was 50 years. Excess capacity due to falling enrollment contributed to the maintenance and upkeep burden. The district’s bus fleet was similarly extended well beyond its expected life and the information technology used across the district lagged far behind current standards. The inability of the district to obtain bond funding approval from voters in prior years had long hampered the maintenance of buildings and the purchase of updated and upgraded equipment and vehicles in the district. In the three decades from 1970 to 1999, only four of ten school bond proposals were approved by district voters. 12 This compared to the passage of 36 bond proposals in Mid-Dell, 28 in Putnam City, and 41 in Edmond in the period. The district was forced to use operating funds to make capital improvements and perform ongoing repairs and maintenance, including the removal of asbestos from buildings. Voter reluctance to support district bond issues shifted with the passage of MAPS for Kids. The Yes for Kids initiative in 2007 resulted in the passage (79% approval) of a $248 million bond issue for site acquisition, building construction and renovation, equipment for new school facilities, and updated information technology and transportation equipment. 13 In the subsequent Yes to Yellow bond effort in 2016, voters approved (65% approval) bonds totaling $180 million for maintenance, fine arts, athletics, information technology, and transportation needs. 14 School Quality and Living Choices . A key economic development issue underlying MAPS for Kids is the role played by the quality of the school district in contributing to economic growth in the city. The MAPS for Kids initiative is based on the underlying premise that school quality and the decision of where to live are closely related. Project KIDS similarly recognized the role played by the quality of the school district and its aging facilities in the choice of families to live outside the Oklahoma City school district. “ The Oklahoma City Public School District is not the first choice for many in our community who have school-aged children. For the past 30 years, families have chosen to leave our District or select other educational options .” Project KIDS Report (2001)

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