JD_FAQ_2017-FINAL-V3

Johne’s disease leaflet series ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health

Johne’s disease Frequently Asked Questions

Johne's Control AnimalHealthIreland.ie

IRISH JOHNE’S CONTROL PROGRAMME Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41WN27

AHI gratefully acknowledges the financial and other contributions of our other stakeholders to the Johne’s Disease Control Programme.

Johne's Control AnimalHealthIreland.ie

IRISH JOHNE’S CONTROL PROGRAMME Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41WN27

Johne's disease Frequently Asked Questions

Q1.

What causes Johne’s disease?

Q2.

What are the signs of Johne’s disease?

Q3.

What are the stages of the disease?

Q4.

What is the economic impact of Johne’s disease on an infected farm?

Q5.

How does Johne’s disease spread between different farms?

Q6.

How do I stop Johne’s disease coming into my farm?

Q7.

Can I treat an infected animal?

Q8.

How does Johne’s disease spread between animals on a farm?

Q9.

What tests are available for individual animals and how reliable are they?

Q10. Is there a vaccine for Johne’s disease?

Q11. Are any human diseases linked with Johne’s disease?

Q12. What is the prevalence of Johne’s disease in Irish beef and dairy herds?

Q13. How should I test a herd for Johne’s disease?

Q14. How do I control Johne’s disease in an infected herd?

Q15. If I need colostrum in an emergency what is my best option so as not to spread Johne’s disease?

Q16. Is there a coordinated national approach for Johne’s disease in the Republic of Ireland?

Please refer to the disclaimer on the last page regarding information in this leaflet.

PAGE 4

Q1. What causes Johne’s disease?

A bacterial disease of cattle Johne’s disease is caused by a bacterial infection. The name of the bacteria is ‘ Mycobacterium avium sub-species paratuberculosis’ which is commonly called ‘ MAP ’ . Signs of Johne’s disease are typically seen in animals that are between three and five years old but can occasionally be seen in animals that are younger than two years of age and in elderly animals. Animals acquire MAP infection by mouth i.e. from colostrum, milk and feed, water or the general environment contaminated by dung/slurry from another infected animal shedding MAP . Calves born to infected cows may be born already infected. Initially the bacteria live mainly in the gut of infected cattle where they grow and cause damage very slowly. The bacteria can eventually spread from the gut to other parts of the body, being found in the muscle, milk, dung and the womb. 1. Which animals become infected when exposed to MAP? Young animals (in the first months of life) are the most likely to become infected if exposed to MAP bacteria. The risk of becoming infected reduces as the animal gets older. If an older animal is exposed to a large amount of MAP bacteria (e.g. in a herd where many animals are infected and shedding the bacteria) it may also become infected (Windsor and Whittington, 2010). 2. How long does it take for MAP infection to cause clinical disease? An animal with a new infection will not show signs of disease and will appear to be healthy (Whitlock and Buergelt, 1996). Disease can occur more quickly (after many months) when an animal is infected with a large amount of bacteria. An infected animal can shed the bacteria to infect others before developing signs of disease.

See Q2: 'What are the signs of Johne’s disease?' for more detail on these signs.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 5

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Johne’s disease in calves and adults Exposure to MAP bacteria usually leads to different outcomes in calves and adults. Calves • More susceptible to infection if they are exposed to MAP • Rarely show signs even if they are infected. Adults • Are less likely to become infected when they are exposed to MAP • Commonly develop signs once they have been infected for sufficient time.

See Q8: 'How does Johne’s disease spread between animals on a farm?' for more details on how animals become infected.

References

Larsen, A.B., Merkal, R.S., Cutlip, R.C., 1975. Age of cattle as related to resistance to infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 36, 255-257. Rienske AR Mortier, Herman W Barkema, Janet M Bystrom, Oscar Illanes, Karin Orsel, Robert Wolf, Gordon Atkins and Jeroen De Buck 2013. Evaluation of age-dependent susceptibility in calves infected with two doses of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using pathology and tissue culture Veterinary Research, 44:94 DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-94 http://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com/ articles/10.1186/1297-9716-44-94 Whitlock, R.H., Buergelt, C., 1996. Preclinical and clinical manifestations of paratuberculosis (including pathology). Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 345-356. Windsor, P.A., Whittington, R.J., 2010. Evidence for age susceptibility of cattle to Johne’s disease. Veterinary Journal 184, 37-44.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 6

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Q2. What are the signs of Johne’s disease?

Typical signs include: • Reduced production- lower milk yields and lower feed conversion efficiency • Weight-loss despite a good appetite • Scour (not bloody) • Soft swelling of the jaw (bottle jaw) or brisket • Death. Signs develop with increasing time since infection, so that they become more obvious as an infected animal ages (Radostits et al., 2007). A sub-clinical animal will also have reduced production, reduced fertility performance, reduced slaughter weight and slaughter value, reducedmilk quality and increased susceptibility toother disease before the obvious signs occur, depending on the level of infection within the herd. The extent that these ‘sub-clinical’ affects occur is likely to vary between individual animals and herds (Merkal et al., 1975; Nordlund et al., 1996; Johnson et al., 2001; Gonda et al., 2007; Kudahl et al., 2009; P. Vázquez et al., 2012). If animals are culled because of reduced performance, infertility or other disease, an infected herd may never have cows with the more obvious signs of Johne’s disease. Corbett, C., Caroline S Buck, Jeroen DeOrsel, Karin Barkema, Herman W., 2017. Fecal shedding and tissue infections demonstrate transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in group‑housed dairy calves. Veterinary Research (2017) 48:27 DOI 10.1186/s13567-017-0431-8 RESEARCH. References

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 7

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Q3. What are the stages of the disease?

MAP bacteria slowly damage the intestines of infected animals. The disease progresses as the gut becomes increasingly damaged. Progression can be described in 3 steps from the moment of infection. Animals in the first months of life are most likely to become infected (stage 1) if exposed, although older animals may also become infected. Animals may become infectious (stage 2) after a period of time (months to years) and shedding of MAP will increase as the disease progresses. As an animal may not become affected (stage 3) with clinical signs for many more years, undetected shedding from an infectious animal can continue for a long time (Weber et al., 2005). Affected animals have been infected for a long time (many months to years) and are typically between three and five years old but can be younger or older. The clinical signs usually develop slowly (Radostits et al., 2007).

INFECTED Exposed to MAP and becomes infected 1 Figure 1. Johne’s disease progression steps

2

3

INFECTIOUS Shedding MAP to infect other animals

AFFECTED Clinical signs and high MAP shedding

The steps of an infection 1. An animal becomes infected The newly infected animal appears healthy because there is little damage to the gut.

Animals acquire MAP infection by mouth i.e. from colostrum, milk and feed, water or the general environment contaminated by dung/slurry from another infected animal shedding MAP . Calves born to infected cows may be born already infected. Young animals are most susceptible to new infections. Bacteria are present in the small intestine and surrounding structures (called lymph nodes) where they cause very little damage. The animal fights the infection at these local sites but cannot get rid of the bacteria (Stabel, 2000). In this early stage, almost no MAP bacteria will be shed although calves born infected or that become infected shortly after birth while in the calving pen or still with its dam can shed MAP and infect other new born calves. The animal does not produce any antibody and so antibody tests are not useful (Corbett et al 2017). 2. An animal becomes infectious The animal still appears healthy but starts to shed MAP bacteria and can infect other animals. Over a long period of time the bacteria slowly multiply damaging more of the intestines. The bacteria can now invade other areas of the body including the muscle, udder and womb. Infectious animals will shed increasing amounts of bacteria in the dung and also start to shed in colostrum, milk and across the placenta to an unborn calf (Streeter et al., 1995; Whitlock and Buergelt, 1996; Whittington and Windsor, 2009). Antibody may start to be produced, but only at low levels in a small proportion of infectious cows. Antibody tests will therefore fail to detect many infectious animals.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 8

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

3. An animal becomes affected The animals’ performance starts to reduce. It loses weight despite continuing to eat well. Diarrhoea develops which gets worse and more persistent. The bacteria continue to multiply and gut damage becomes severe. The local immunity is overcome allowing a rapid increase in bacterial growth. The animal now increases antibody production to try to fight the disease but this cannot stop the rapid increase in bacterial numbers (Stabel, 2000). The increase in bacteria means that large numbers are shed in the dung. They continue to be shed in colostrum and milk and it is commonly spread to unborn calves in the womb (Whittington and Windsor, 2009). The animal is now affected by the disease, typically starting with reduced performance. Eventually diarrhoea will develop which gets worse and more persistent. The animal will lose weight as feed conversion efficiency gets progressively worse and the gut is increasingly affected, may develop a soft swelling under the jaw, will become unable to rise and eventually will die from the disease (Radostits et al., 2007). The increase in antibody production means that the antibody tests are better at detecting animals that are affected by Johne’s disease. Variable progression There can be marked differences in the time it takes for the disease to move through these steps in different animals. Although the main signs (step 3) usually start between three and five years of age, they can start in animals that are younger or older than this (Windsor and Whittington, 2010). The reasons for this difference are not fully understood, although the amount of bacteria that cause the initial infection and variability in the way individuals react to infection (genetic susceptibility) are probably involved (Sweeney, 1996; Whitlock and Buergelt, 1996; Koets et al., 2005; Kirkpatrick et al., 2011; Bermingham et al., 2010; Berry et al., 2010).

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 9

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

References

Berry, D.P., M. Good, P. Mullowney, A. R. Cromie, and S. J. More. (2010). Genetic variation in serological response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and its association with performance in Irish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Livestock Science 131:102–107 Gonda, M.G., Chang, Y.M., Shook, G.E., Collins, M.T., Kirkpatrick, B.W., 2007. Effect of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on production, reproduction, and health traits in US Holsteins. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 80, 103-119. Johnson, Y.J., Kaneene, J.B., Gardiner, J.C., Lloyd, J.W., Sprecher, D.J., Coe, P.H., 2001. The Effect of Subclinical Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Infection on Milk Production in Michigan Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 2188-2194. Kirkpatrick, B.W., Shi, X., Shook, G.E., Collins, M.T., 2011. Whole-Genome association analysis of susceptibility to paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle. Animal Genetics 42, 149-160. Koets, A.P., Langelaar, M., Hoek, A., Bakker, D., Willemsen, P., van Eden, W., Rutten, V.P.M.G., 2005. Evidence for distinct host response patterns in cows experimentally infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis 8th International Coloqium on Paratuberculosis, Copenhagen. Kudahl AB, Nielsen SS. Effect of paratuberculosis on slaughter weight and slaughter value of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science (2009) 92:4340–6. doi:10.3168/jds. 2009-2039 29. Merkal, R.S., Larsen, A.B., Booth, G.D., 1975. Analysis of the effect of inapparent bovine paratuberculosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 36, 837-838. M. L. Bermingham, S. J. More, M. Good, A. R. Cromie, P. Mullowney, I.M. Higgins, D. P. Berry. (2010). Genetic associations between Johne's disease and susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp avium in Irish Holstein Friesian dairy cows. Advances in Animal Biosciences 04/2010; 1(01). DOI:10.1017/ S2040470010004450 Nordlund, K.V., Goodger, W.J., Pelletier, J., Collins, M.T., 1996. Associations between subclinical paratuberculosis and milk production, milk components, and somatic cell counts in dairy herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208, 1872-1876. P. Vázquez, J. M. Garrido and R. A. Juste. 2012 Effects of paratuberculosis on Friesian cattle carcass weight and age at culling 2012 Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2012 10(3), 662-670 Available online at click here . Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D. (Eds.), 2007. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). In Veterinary Medicine. Saunders Elsevier Philadelphia. Stabel, J.R., 2000. Transitions in immune responses to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology 77, 465-473. Streeter, R.N., Hoffsis, G.F., Bech-Nielsen, S., Shulaw, W.P., Rings, D.M., 1995. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from colostrum and milk of subclinically infected cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56, 1322-1324. Sweeney, R.W., 1996. Transmission of paratuberculosis. Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 305-312. Weber, M.F., Kogut, J., Bree, J.d., Schaik, G.V., 2005. Evidence for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding in young cattle. Proceedings International Conference on Paratuberculosis 8th, 679-689. Whitlock, R.H., Buergelt, C., 1996. Preclinical and clinical manifestations of paratuberculosis (including pathology). Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 345-356. Whittington, R.J., Windsor, P.A., 2009. In utero infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a critical review and meta-analysis. Veterinary Journal 179, 60-69. Windsor, P.A., Whittington, R.J., 2010. Evidence for age susceptibility of cattle to Johne’s disease. Veterinary Journal 184, 37-44.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 10

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Costs increase as prevalence increases The economic impact of having Johne’s disease in a herd depends on how many animals in a herd are infected, infectious and affected (Hutchinson, 1996; Ott et al., 1999; Lombard, 2011). In herds with a very low prevalence it can be difficult to detect any economic loss (Hoogendam et al., 2009; Lombard, 2011). However, where no attempt is made to prevent spread and more animals become infected over time, the economic impact will increase. An economic impact is consistently reported in herds with animals that have the obvious signs of Johne’s disease (Hutchinson, 1996; Lombard, 2011). Q4. What is the economic impact of Johne’s disease on an infected farm?

See Q2 ‘What are the signs of Johne’s disease?’ for details of how Johne’s disease progresses in an individual animal.

Johne’s disease reduces production The economic impact of Johne’s disease occurs predominantly by: • Reduced daily production. (This can begin when / before animals develop obvious signs).

• Reduced lifetime production due to early culling of animals with and without obvious signs and reduced salvage value when culled (Benedictus et al., 1987; Hutchinson, 1996; Lombard, 2011). A detailed review of previous international studies estimated the following to be associated with Johne’s disease infected dairy cows (Chi et al., 2002):

Slaughter Value Culling risk Risk of death on farm Days Open Milk Yield / Solids

-25% +25% +3% +28 days / year -16% to -25%

In a large American study, the losses in infected herds compared to non-infected herds were:

€85 per cow per year

For all infected herds

> €170 per cow per year

Once 10% of cull cows have obvious signs

(Ott et al., 1999)

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 11

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

The economic impact in Ireland is less well known, though it will increase in individual herds with increasing prevalence of infection. Some information is available about the impact of Johne’s disease in Ireland, based on case study data collected from one infected herd over a ten year period (Barrett et al 2006). Between five and ten years after introduction of Johne’s disease the annual average gross margin was observed to decline from €155 per cow above the farmers’ peer group to €130 per cow below i.e. a fall of €285 per cow per year relative to the peer group over the 10 years.

See Q8 ‘How does Johne’s disease spread between animals on a farm?’ f or details of management practices that can increase the unseen spread of Johne’s disease on a farm.

References

Barrett, D.J., Good, M., Hayes, M., More, S.J., 2006. The economic impact of Johne’s disease in an Irish dairy herd: A case study. Irish Veterinary Journal 59, 282-288. Benedictus, G., Dijkhuizen, A., Stelwagen, J., 1987. Economic losses due to paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Record 121, 142-146. Chi, J., VanLeeuwen, J.A., Weersink, A., Keefe, G.P., 2002. Direct production losses and treatment costs from bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 55, 137-153. Hoogendam, K., Richardson, E., Mee, J., 2009. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Irish Veterinary Journal 62, 265- 271. Hutchinson, L.J., 1996. Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis. Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 373-381. Lombard, J.E., 2011. Epidemiology and Economics of Paratuberculosis. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 27, 525-535. Ott, S.L., Wells, S.J., Wagner, B.A., 1999. Herd-level economic losses associated with Johne’s disease on US dairy operations. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 40, 179-192.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 12

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Q5. How does Johne’s disease spread between different farms?

The two main ways that Johne’s disease is known to spread between farms are: 1. Introducing an infected animal 2. Colostrum, milk or dung from an infected animal or farm coming in contact with young animals (especially calves). 3. Where animals from a non-infected farm are reared elsewhere in contact with infected animals. The purchase of an infected animal (male or female) is the most common way that Johne’s disease spreads between farms (Sweeney, 1996; Radostits et al., 2007; Richardson et al., 2009). Introduction by an infected animal Purchased animals infected with MAP bacteria (the cause of Johne’s disease) may be healthy for many years before they show signs. These healthy carriers can shed the bacteria in dung, colostrum, milk and to unborn calves in the womb (Whitlock and Buergelt, 1996). Such animals have no signs of ill-health and these animals are frequently bought and moved between farms without any knowledge that they are infected with and may be shedding MAP bacteria. When they arrive on a new farm ‘unseen spread’ can infect many replacement calves before the signs of Johne’s disease are detected (Barrett et al., 2006). Pre-movement / pre-purchase testing does not reduce risk Testing a healthy animal before introducing it to a herd gives little information about its true status and the risk of it carrying MAP bacteria. Infected animals will rarely test positive until they have been infected for many years. Young breeding animals that test negative must not be assumed to be free from infection. See Q9 ‘What tests are available for individual animals and how reliable are they?’ for more details on testing animals for Johne’s disease. Spread with colostrum, milk and dung This is the second most common way that Johne’s disease spreads between farms (Sweeney, 1996). When the colostrum, milk or dung from an infected animal / farm contacts the cattle (especially calves) on another farm there is a risk that MAP will spread between the farms. See Q8 ‘How does Johne’s disease spread between animals on a farm?’ for more information on ‘unseen spread’ of Johne’s disease on a farm.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 13

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

The risk of spreading Johne’s disease between farms increases when you: • Increase the amount of colostrum, milk and dung brought onto the farm • Increase the contact young animals have with dung from test-positive animals in the herd, or dung from other herds • Feed milk from test positive cows or waste milk from any cows. Common management practices that facilitate spread between farms in this way can be ranked as highest, moderate and lower risk for introduction of Johne’s disease.

HIGHEST RISK

4 Bringing in infected animals from another farm. These animals may appear quite normal, with a negative test result, especially early in the disease process

4 Spreading slurry from another farm onto land grazed by young animals 4 Bringing in colostrum from another farm to feed to calves 4 Bringing in milk from another farm to feed to calves 4 Sending heifers to be reared on a unit that does any of the above, or any of the risky practices outlined below 4 Using dirty equipment (trailers, crush etc) that is shared between several farms when working with young animals 4 Farm visitors with dirty outer clothing working directly with young animals 4 Spreading slurry from an infected farm on land grazed by older animals 4 Using dirty equipment (trailers, crush etc) that is shared between several farms when working with adult stock 4 Farm visitors with dirty outer clothing working with older stock

HIGHER RISKS

MODERATE RISKS

LOWER RISKS

Figure 2. Johne’s disease spread risks between farms .

Other possible routes of spread between farms There are other potential ways that Johne’s disease might spread between farms but these are thought to be of lesser importance than the routes detailed above. Spread from other farm animals The MAP bacteria that infect cattle can also infect sheep and goats. It is possible that in some herds that graze sheep with cattle (or on land where cattle manure has been spread), the sheep may become infected and shed MAP bacteria in faeces (Muskens et al., 2001; Whittington et al., 2001; Radostits et al., 2007). Spread from wildlife MAP bacteria can be carried and shed by a wide range of wild animals including rabbits, deer, foxes, rats and some birds (e.g. crow, rook). The threat of spread to cattle from other species remains poorly understood but is likely to be low (Greig et al., 1999; Beard et al., 2001). The prevalence in wildlife in Ireland is currently not known. Spread in semen MAP bacteria are occasionally found in semen from infected bulls (Ayele et al., 2004). However, the probability of spread occurring from semen is considered low (EFSA, 2004). Bulls are not currently required to be tested for Johne’s disease before entry into AI stations (EU directive 88/407/EEC) though Johne’s testing is carried out voluntarily in Irish AI stations.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 14

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Spread in embryos MAP bacteria can be found in the uterine flush fluids of infected cows and in artificially infected embryos after washing. In practice however the threat of spread via embryo transfer (when washed in accordance with international standards) appears to be very low (Rhode and Shulaw, 1990; Bielanski et al., 2006). Recipients brought into a herd may of course be a risk for introducing Johne’s disease. Spread in rivers This is thought to be possible but has never been documented (Sweeney, 1996). Ayele, W.Y., Bartos, M., Svastova, P., Pavlik, I., 2004. Distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in organs of naturally infected bull-calves and breeding bulls. Veterinary Microbiology 103, 209-217. Barrett, D.J., Good, M., Hayes, M., More, S.J., 2006. The economic impact of Johne’s disease in an Irish dairy herd: A case study. Irish Veterinary Journal 59, 282-288. Beard, P.M., Daniels, M.J., Henderson, D., Pirie, A., Rudge, K., Buxton, D., Rhind, S., Greig, A., Hutchings, M.R., McKendrick, I., Stevenson, K., Sharp, J.M., 2001. Paratuberculosis Infection of Nonruminant Wildlife in Scotland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39, 1517-1521. Bielanski, A., Algire, J., Randall, G.C.B., Surujballi, O., 2006. Risk of transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by embryo transfer of in vivo and in vitro fertilized bovine embryos. Theriogenology 66, 260-266. EFSA, 2004. The Risk of Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis via bovine semen. The EFSA Journal 110, 1-59. Greig, A., Stevenson, K., Henderson, D., Perez, V., Hughes, V., Pavlik, I., Hines, M.E., II, McKendrick, I., Sharp, J.M., 1999. Epidemiological Study of Paratuberculosis in Wild Rabbits in Scotland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 1746-1751. Muskens, J., Bakker, D., Boer, J.d., Keulen, L.v., 2001. Paratuberculosis in sheep: its possible role in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 78, 101-109. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D. (Eds.), 2007. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). In Veterinary Medicine. Saunders Elsevier Philadelphia. Rhode, R.F., Shulaw, W.P., 1990. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from the uterine flush fluids of cows with clinical paratuberculosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 197, 1482-1483. Richardson, E., Mee, J., Sanchez-Miguel, C., Crilly, J., More, S., 2009. Demographics of cattle positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by faecal culture, from submissions to the Cork Regional Veterinary Laboratory. Irish Veterinary Journal 62, 398- 405. Sweeney, R.W., 1996. Transmission of paratuberculosis. Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 305-312. Whitlock, R.H., Buergelt, C., 1996. Preclinical and clinical manifestations of paratuberculosis (including pathology). Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 345-356. Whittington, R.J., Taragel, C.A., Ottaway, S., Marsh, I., Seaman, J., Fridriksdottir, V., 2001. Molecular epidemiological confirmation and circumstances of occurrence of sheep (S) strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cases of paratuberculosis in cattle in Australia and sheep and cattle in Iceland. Veterinary Microbiology 79, 311-322. Council Directive 88/407/EEC of 14 June 1988 laying down the animal health requirements applicable to intra- community trade in and imports of deep-frozen semen of domestic animals of the bovine species. References

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 15

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Q6. How do I stop Johne’s disease coming into my farm?

To stop Johne’s disease coming into your farm, reducing the risk from moved or purchased stock should be the first priority. Next, the risks from colostrum, milk and dung must be considered (Sweeney, 1996; Radostits et al., 2007).

Buying stock is the biggest risk Buying new stock is the most common way of bringing Johne’s disease onto a farm (Sweeney, 1996). The only way to prevent this risk is not to buy in any stock (including bulls). This may not be possible for herds where the purchasing of new stock is essential to the business. Importing stock from a country with more Johne’s disease than Ireland is a higher risk than buying Irish cattle from tested herds with a risk management plan in place. Minimising risk when purchasing stock requires careful planning Minimising the risk of introducing Johne’s disease with purchased stock in Ireland requires careful planning. This is because: • Pre-introduction testing does not reliably identify carrier animals • There are very few herds with a known low risk of having Johne’s disease to buy stock from. Introduced stock should be kept away from calf rearing pens and young stock, or areas young stock graze. Infected animals will rarely test positive until they have been infected for many years. Young breeding animals that test negative must not be assumed to be free from infection. An animal that tests positive should be considered very high risk for carrying Johne’s disease. If a closed herd has repeatedly tested negative for Johne’s disease then purchasing stock from such a herd would lower the risk. Reducing risk from purchased stock Purchasing stock will always pose the risk of bringing Johne’s disease into a herd. If you buy from individual farms regularly, it could be helpful to ask them for the herd testing history for Johne’s disease, the number of tests the herd has completed and whether there is a VRAMP in place for the herd. Your private veterinary practitioner can assist you in interpreting this information. If purchasing stock is absolutely necessary then the following steps will also help to reduce the risk: • Minimise the number of animals purchased • Buy from as few herds as possible (preferably only one) • Buy from a herd that: It may be helpful to read Q5 ‘How does Johne’s disease spread between different farms?’ before reading this section. See Q9 ‘What test are available for individual animals and how reliable are they?’ for more details on test reliability.

- has not introduced stock (including bulls) for many years - has no history of animals with signs of Johne’s disease - has no positive test results for Johne’s disease and is actively managing farm biosecurity - has a VRAMP in place and actively manages farm biosecurity.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 16

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Reducing risk from colostrum, milk and dung Contact with dung, colostrum and milk from an outside animal or farm can introduce Johne’s disease (Sweeney, 1996). The following tables give examples of when this may happen and some options to reduce the risk. To use the tables, identify whether you are currently doing any of the risk activities and choose the best control option that you can from the list. Higher risk activities should be addressed before moderate and lower risk activities. The list below gives examples only and is not exhaustive. Control options should be created that are specific for your own farm and management practices. A good control option will: • Reduce the amount of dung, colostrum and milk that is brought onto the farm • Reduce the contact that young animals have with dung, colostrum and milk from test positive animals or herds with an unknown test history • Avoid bringing onto the farm any dung, colostrum and milk from a Johne’s infected herd.

Higher Risk Activities

How effective will it be?

Control Option

Excellent Very Good Good

Do not spread slurry from outside farms

Do not purchase colostrum / waste milk / milk to feed to young animals Purchase colostrum / milk from test negative herds with a VRAMP in place Purchase only dried colostrum / milk products Purchase colostrum / milk from one herd that has been closed for several years and has no history of Johne’s disease** Spread slurry from one herd that has been closed for several years and has no history of Johne’s disease or positive test results Spread slurry from Johne’s test negative only or pig slurry Do not spread slurry from outside farms onto land grazed by young animals

Spreading slurry* from an outside farm onto land grazed by calves

Moderate

Excellent Very Good Good

Purchasing colostrum / milk to feed to calves OR Sending heifers to be reared on a unit that feeds purchased milk

Moderate

*Remember that a rented slurry tanker may be contaminated with MAP bacteria from the previous user even when you spread your own slurry **Heat treating liquid milk and colostrum at 60 0 C for 60-120 minutes can reduce MAP and other infectious agents to undetectable levels without destroying important protein and antibodies (Godden et al., 2006; McMartin et al., 2006)

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 17

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Moderate Risk Activities

How effective will it be?

Control Option

Do not use shared equipment when working with young animals

Using dirty equipment (e.g. trailers, crush etc) that is shared between several farms when working with young animals Farm visitors with dirty outer clothing working directly with young animals

Excellent

Thoroughly clean all shared equipment that is used when working with young animals before use

Very Good

Do not use allow farm visitors to work with young animals, or

Excellent

Ensure all farm visitors wear clean, disinfected (or disposable) outer clothing before working with young animals or overalls and boots supplied by you and kept exclusively for use on your farm

Very Good

Lower Risk Activities

How effective will it be?

Control Option

Do not use shared equipment when working with older stock

Using dirty equipment (trailers, crush etc) that is shared between several farms when working with older stock

Excellent

Thoroughly clean all shared equipment that is used when working with older stock before use

Very Good

Excellent

Do not spread slurry from outside farms

Spreading slurry* from an outside farm onto land never grazed by calves

Very Good

Spread slurry from test negative herds only Spread slurry from one herd that has been closed for several years and has a history of test-negative results for Johne’s disease

Moderate

*Remember that a rented slurry tanker may be contaminated with MAP bacteria from the previous user even when you spread your own slurry

References

Godden, S., McMartin, S., Feirtag, J., Stabel, J., Bey, R., Goyal, S., Metzger, L., Fetrow, J., Wells, S., Chester- Jones, H., 2006. Heat-Treatment of Bovine Colostrum. II: Effects of Heating Duration on Pathogen Viability and Immunoglobulin G. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 3476-3483. McMartin, S., Godden, S., Metzger, L., Feirtag, J., Bey, R., Stabel, J., Goyal, S., Fetrow, J., Wells, S., Chester-Jones, H., 2006. Heat Treatment of Bovine Colostrum. I: Effects of Temperature on Viscosity and Immunoglobulin G Level. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 2110-2118. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D. (Eds.), 2007. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). In Veterinary Medicine. Saunders Elsevier Philadelphia. Sweeney, R.W., 1996. Transmission of paratuberculosis. Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 305-312.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 18

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Q7. Can I treat an infected animal?

There is no recognised treatment Johne’s disease is currently considered an incurable condition. There is no recognised treatment for animals infected with MAP bacteria (Radostits et al., 2007). Infected cows will get worse with time and shed bacteria in dung, colostrum, milk and across the placenta to unborn calves (Sweeney, 1996; Whitlock and Buergelt, 1996). Treating known infected animals is not recommended Infected cows can be stopped from spreading the bacteria to others in the herd only by culling or strict isolation from all other stock. Johne’s disease is notifiable Johne’s disease is notifiable in Ireland since 1956. This means that DAFMmust be informed of any suspected or confirmed case under SI 130 of 2016. If a faecal culture has been performed at a regional veterinary laboratory then notification will be done automatically and nothing further needs to be done. If the diagnostic test has been done in a private laboratory and the results are uploaded to the ICBF then notification is deemed to have occurred. If any person has a suspicion of the presence of disease on clinical signs alone, then the department must be notified by that person, or when diagnostic test results have not been uploaded to the ICBF. DAFM do not currently place restrictions onto herds with confirmed Johne’s disease positive animals. Animals that have clinical signs consistent with Johne’s disease must not contribute milk for human consumption (S.I No. 432 of 2009). There is no compensation scheme for animals culled because of Johne’s disease in Ireland (Pettit, 2004). See Q8 ‘How does Johne’s disease spread between animals on a farm?’ for more details on how infected cows spread the disease. European Communities (Food and Hygiene) Regulations, 2009. S.I.432 of 2009 REGULATION (EC) No 853/2004 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/ PDF/?uri=CELEX:02004R0853-20160401&qid=1493897348889&from=EN Pettit, T., 2004. Update on Johne’s disease. Teagasc Specialist Service. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D. (Eds.), 2007. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). In Veterinary Medicine. Saunders Elsevier Philadelphia. Sweeney, R.W., 1996. Transmission of paratuberculosis. Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 305-312. Whitlock, R.H., Buergelt, C., 1996. Preclinical and clinical manifestations of paratuberculosis (including pathology). Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 345-356. S.I. No.130 of 2016. Notification and Control of Diseases Affecting Terrestrial Animals (No.2) Regulations 2016. References

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 19

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Q8. How does Johne’s disease spread between animals on a farm?

MAP bacteria spread from infectious to susceptible animals MAP bacteria are shed by infectious animals in dung, colostrum and milk and may also pass to the fetus in the womb. Johne’s disease typically spreads on a farm when MAP bacteria are passed from infectious animals to susceptible, non-infected animals. Older animals are likely to be the highest shedders and young animals (in the first months of life) are most susceptible to infection. This spread can occur for years before any animal develops the signs of Johne’s diseases. Some management practices can dramatically increase the rate of this ‘unseen spread’ on a farm (see below). MAP bacteria come from animals that are already infected and infectious on a farm (typically older animals). These animals shed the bacteria in: • Dung • Colostrum • Milk • In the womb: Calves can be infected in the womb if the dam is infected. This becomes increasingly common as the disease progresses in the dam (Whittington and Windsor, 2009). Once MAP bacteria have been shed they can remain infective to susceptible animals (in the farm environment) for many months and sometimes for over a year (Whittington et al., 2004). Shedding starts long before an animal shows signs of Johne’s disease (unseen shedding). Animals that have progressed to show signs can shed billions of bacteria every day (Sweeney, 1996; Weber et al., 2005). The level of shedding increases as the disease progresses (Figure 3). Spread to young and susceptible animals Animals are most likely to become infected if they swallow MAP bacteria when they are very young. Even a very small amount of dung, e.g. on a dirty udder, can contain enough bacteria to infect a suckling calf. Spread occurs to both new born animals and unborn calves on most farms.

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 20

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

1

2

3

INFECTED Exposed to MAP and becomes infected

INFECTIOUS Shedding MAP to infect other animals

AFFECTED Clinical signs and high MAP shedding

INCREASING MAP SHEDDING

Figure 3. Johne’s disease progression steps

See Q2 ‘What are the signs of Johne’s disease?’ for more detail on disease progression in infected animals.

Unseen spread MAP bacteria can spread from infectious animals to susceptible animals for years before the first animal in the herd develops signs of Johne’s disease. Unseen spread means that by the time the first animal develops clinical signs in a farm: • There may be many infected but apparently normal animals in the herd • Young calves and susceptible older animals are at high risk of becoming infected (Whitlock and Buergelt, 1996). If cattle are culled for low performance then unseen spread may continue for much longer without an animal being seen with clinical signs.

Bacteria shed by infectious animals

More bacteria in farm environment

More infectious animals

More animals become infected

Figure 4. Johne’s disease progression steps

Management factors can increase spread Some common management practices can dramatically increase the rate of spread of Johne’s disease on a farm. This occurs whenever a single infectious cow feeds or is in direct or indirect contact with several calves / young animals that are not her own by: • Inadequately cleaning pens between calvings • Feeding pooled colostrum or milk • Having group calving accommodation • Having adult cows share accommodation with several calves / young animals • Spreading slurry from infected cows onto land grazed by calves / young animals. These activities present an increased risk of rapid spread of Johne’s disease on a farm (Wells and Wagner, 2000; Radostits et al., 2007).

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 21

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Other possible routes of spread on a farm There are other potential ways that Johne’s disease might spread on a farm but these are thought to be of lesser

importance than the routes detailed above. Spread from other farm animals

The MAP bacteria that infect cattle can also infect goats and sheep. However, sheep that develop Johne’s disease are usually infected with a different strain that almost never infects cattle. It is possible that in some herds that graze sheep with cattle (or on land where cattle manure has been spread), the sheep may become infected and shed MAP bacteria in faeces (Muskens et al., 2001; Whittington et al., 2001; Radostits et al., 2007). Goats, deer and camelids can be readily infected with the cattle strain and any of these species of unknown status and co-grazing with cattle are a source of risk to the cattle herd. The cattle herd can also act as a source of risk to the goats, deer and camelids. Spread from wildlife MAP bacteria can be carried and shed by a wide range of wild animals including rabbits, deer, foxes, rats and some birds (e.g. crow, rook). The threat of spread to cattle from other species remains poorly understood but is likely to be low (Greig et al., 1999; Beard et al., 2001). The prevalence of MAP in wildlife in Ireland is currently not known. Beard, P.M., Daniels, M.J., Henderson, D., Pirie, A., Rudge, K., Buxton, D., Rhind, S., Greig, A., Hutchings, M.R., McKendrick, I., Stevenson, K., Sharp, J.M., 2001. Paratuberculosis Infection of Nonruminant Wildlife in Scotland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39, 1517-1521. Corbett, C., Caroline S Buck, Jeroen De Orsel, Karin Barkema, Herman W., 2017. Fecal shedding and tissue infections demonstrate transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in group‑ housed dairy calves. Veterinary Research (2017) 48:27 DOI 10.1186/s13567-017-0431-8 RESEARCH Greig, A., Stevenson, K., Henderson, D., Perez, V., Hughes, V., Pavlik, I., Hines, M.E., II, McKendrick, I., Sharp, J.M., 1999. Epidemiological Study of Paratuberculosis in Wild Rabbits in Scotland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 1746-1751. Muskens, J., Bakker, D., Boer, J.d., Keulen, L.v., 2001. Paratuberculosis in sheep: its possible role in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 78, 101-109. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D. (Eds.), 2007. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). In Veterinary Medicine. Saunders Elsevier Philadelphia. Sweeney, R.W., 1996. Transmission of paratuberculosis. Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 305-312. Weber, M.F., Kogut, J., Bree, J.d., Schaik, G.V., 2005. Evidence for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding in young cattle. Proceedings International Conference on Paratuberculosis 8th, 679-689. Wells, S., Wagner, B.A., 2000. Herd-level risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in US dairies and association between familiarity of the herd manager with the disease or prior diagnosis of the disease in that herd and use of preventive measures. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216, 1450-1457. Whitlock, R.H., Buergelt, C., 1996. Preclinical and clinical manifestations of paratuberculosis (including pathology). Vet Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 12, 345-356. Whittington, R.J., Marshall, D.J., Nicholls, P.J., Marsh, I.B., Reddacliff, L.A., 2004. Survival and Dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Environment. Applied Environmental Microbiology 70, 2989-3004. Whittington, R.J., Taragel, C.A., Ottaway, S., Marsh, I., Seaman, J., Fridriksdottir, V., 2001. Molecular epidemiological confirmation and circumstances of occurrence of sheep (S) strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cases of paratuberculosis in cattle in Australia and sheep and cattle in Iceland. Veterinary Microbiology 79, 311-322. Whittington, R.J., Windsor, P.A., 2009. In utero infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a critical review and meta-analysis. Veterinary Journal 179, 60-69. References

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 22

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

Two types of test for Johne’s disease There are two main types of test that can be used to identify animals with Johne’s disease. These are: • Tests that find MAP bacteria directly • Tests that find an antibody response against MAP bacteria. Tests looking for bacteria are performed on dung or milk samples and tests looking for antibody are performed on individual animal blood or milk samples. Q9. What tests are available for individual animals and how reliable are they? Two basic rules for all Johne’s disease tests Current JD test technology for all test types means that test result interpretation can be challenging. In an animal that is infected but has no signs of disease (Stage 1 and 2, Figure 5) bacteria may be shed in dung but not every day or in high numbers, making it hard to detect them. At this time the animal will produce very little antibody, and so it is hard to find any in blood or milk. In the early stages of disease, using either type of test, the results will often be negative even though the animal is infected. Once the disease has progressed so that an adult animal shows signs of disease (stage 3 below) there will be more bacteria in dung and more antibodies in the blood. It is much easier to find the bacteria (in dung) or antibody (in blood and milk) and the tests become more reliable. The next section contains information on Johne’s test reliability. To be confident that a herd has a low risk of having Johne's disease there should be no test positive animal over a number of years. In addition, the management of the farm should be such as to minimise all exposure of susceptible stock. Both are achievable where tests are interpreted in the light of results from on- going farm risk assessment. See Q2 ‘What are the signs of Johne’s disease?’ for more information on the signs of Johne’s disease.

See Q2: ‘What are the signs of Johne’s disease?’ for more information on the progression of Johne’s disease in infected cattle.

1

2

3

INFECTED Exposed to MAP and becomes infected

INFECTIOUS Shedding MAP to infect other animals

AFFECTED Clinical signs and high MAP shedding

INCREASING TEST RELIABILITY

Figure 5. Johne’s disease progression steps

www.animalhealthireland.ie

PAGE 23

Johne’s Disease Frequently Asked Questions

More information on test reliability Laboratory tests for all diseases are less than 100% reliable. This means that from time to time the test result may not reflect the true disease status of the animal. This is the case with Johne’s disease too. When a test does not reflect the true status of an animal it can give either: • a positive result when testing a non-infected animal. This is called a ‘False Positive’. A ‘Specificity’ score (0-100%) indicates how often the test will give a negative result when testing non-infected animals OR • a negative result when testing an infected animal. This is called a ‘False Negative’ result and happens very frequently with Johne’s disease tests. A test’s ‘Sensitivity’ score (0-100%) indicates how often the test gives a positive result when testing infected animals. Sensitivity scores are low for individual animal Johne’s disease tests, especially before clinical signs are seen. The sensitivity for Johne's disease tests in individual animals are commonly estimated to be less than 30% and is highly dependent on the stage of the disease. The sensitivity of tests improve as Johne’s disease progresses from Step 1 (infected) to Step 3 (affected). The specificity of a test measures how many uninfected animals are correctly identified by the test, i.e. how many true negatives does the test reveal. A number of factors influence the specificity of antibody tests for Johne’s disease. In some animals the TB skin test can lead to a transient antibody response that cross-reacts with the blood or milk antibody tests for Johne’s disease leading to false positive test results. Therefore, herds using these tests should avoid using them for the three months following a TB skin test including the second day of the TB test. Also milk samples taken from cows during the first week of lactation may yield false positive test results for milk based Johne’s disease tests due to the high level of antibody present in early lactation milk. Estimates for the specificity of Johne’s antibody tests range from 98% to 99%. Therefore, on average, it might be expected that approximately 1-2 in every 100 tests on non-infected animals might yield a false positive test reaction in a truly negative animal. When considered together, Specificity and Sensitivity values give an overall indication of the reliability of the test. They can both change with other factors (e.g. how samples are stored, the technical design of the test and how many similar bacteria are in the cow’s environment). While there are limitations with the tests, i.e. that some infected animals will be missed and some unifected animals will test positive, they remain very valuable tools for herdowners wishing to reduce the risk of disease transmission within their herds and therefore an estimated range in likely score is often all that is known for a test (Osterstock et al., 2007). It is a requirement that approved laboratories are used for the current AHI voluntary Johne’s disease Control programme. Approved laboratories are accredited to carry out Johne’s disease tests to the international quality There are currently two tests available to detect MAP bacteria for which sufficient data on sensitivity and specificity are available to allow them to be recommended for use in an Irish context. These tests are called a ‘Faecal Culture’ and Faecal PCR. Faecal Culture This test takes a dung sample and places it into optimal conditions for the MAP bacteria to grow so that it can be identified. It is the most definitive test for MAP (and has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity in the order of 60%). However false negative results can occur because of the absence of viable bacteria in the sample being examined. Occasionally false positives may occur as a result of where viable MAP are present as a consequence of pass through. The situation known as ‘pass through’ can occur in environments where there is a high level of contamination and standard ISO/IEC 17025 should be used for testing. Tests to find MAP bacteria

www.animalhealthireland.ie

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33

Made with FlippingBook flipbook maker