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23 THE THEATER AUDIENCE - CHARLES BACHMAN 30 CIRCUM LOCUM STAFF: George Howell, Eric Chaffee,.,__________________________________

Barry Cohen, Joy Cummings, Wendy Hughes, Michael Sajecki, Janet Weinberg, Charles Fontana, Marcia Rybcznski, Heather Ingram, Wayne Printup, Ann Schillinger, Christopher Sajecki, Gloria Simon, Gretchen Baldauf, Dick Manning, Jo Ann Pizzo, Mike Kaiser, Mary Sullivan, Dave Schwab, Jan Nuzzo, Jenny Klein, Pat Bumstead, Peggy Burke STRAIT magazine is published fortnightly by the students of the New York State University College at Buffalo, 1300 El.-nwood Avenue, Buffalo, New York, 14222. Offices are in the Student Union, 401 and 421; telephone (716) 862-5326, 5327. Publishing and operating funds allocated through the United Students' Government under the auspices of Publications Board and through the advertising income. STRAIT is represented for national advertising income by National Educational Advertising Services. 360 Lexingtan Avenue, New York, N. Y. STRAIT is dietributed free to all members of the Buffalo State Community and to other students at other selected campuses of lhe Niagara Frontier. Price for all others: 25 cents per copy; $4.50 per year (14 issues). Unsolicited manuscripts will be considered for publication but STRAIT will not be responsible for their return; persons not associated with SUCB will not be discriminated against in the of manuscript publication. Editorial Y is determined by the editorial board. AIT subscribes to College Press Service (CPS) Denver, Colorado; and Dispatch News Service- lnternational(DNSI). Copyright I 972; all rights reserved: no portion of this magazine, its pictorial or verbal content may be reprinted in any manner without the express consent of the Editor-In-Chief. Printed in the United States of America by RecordPress. ·

In This Issue

AH HA! Caught you opening the door, which proves you're not one of those people who are stopped by closed doors or turned away by appearances. Inside this door, you'll find a variety of interesting rooms and thoughts to rip off... There's an article on amnesty which will open a few windows and let in some fresh air on the topic. There is also an in depth look at WNYPIRG , the pet project of that champion door buster, Ralph Nader. While you're inside you might look at what your government is spending money on and find out how you can help decide what part of our collective house gets improved. T And for those occasional trips into the world of entertainment, there is an article by Dr. Charles Bachman. You could close the door again, but what the hell - you've already stepped inside. CLICK! Photo credits: Barry cohen - 13, 18, 24; Nancy Dick - 10, 11, 16; Mary Sullivan - 14; Bill Malwitz - 17; Dan Axt - 5; James Hulbert - 15; Pete Francis - 12; Studio Arena - 25.



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A proposal was made by several students in Western New York that a student-funded, and student-organized Public Interest Research Group be established by several area colleges . The idea, or ideal, as it may seem, was set forth by Ralph Nader, the original muckraker, investi- gator, and instigator of the late sixties and present seventies. Members of the WNYPIRG movement are asking that students sign a petition that will guaran- tee them support for the optional funding of the long term project. Says Nader in his book Action for a Change: A Studnet's Manual for Public Interest Organizing: "It may be asked why the burden of such pioneering has to be borne by the young." He answers: because the youth, especially the college student, hold all the necessary pre-requisites - time, money, energy, and most importantly, Idealism. The appeal to the college student, it seems, is more an appeal to his emotional pocket than to his change pocket.

Many students have become indignant to the request for the "small semester fee" . Why have they been sighted as the sole social class has ALL the necessary pre-requisites? The goals for WNYPIRG are truly nobel. They lack only in their segregated appeal. Nader can truly be accused of hitting above the belt in his compli- mentary attitude of "today's youth ." Why, only yesterday we were nothing more than a noisy, non-action group trying to solve the world's problems with that same Idealism. Maybe this is what the WNYPIRG movement is getting at by their appeal for a definite structure in which to harness that floating Idealism. The group is asking students· only for concentrated time and energy, and a bit of "optional" money. With a priestly attitude, Nader and his local raiders are beginning to pass the collection plate around. A positive resignation to the fact that . maybe just what we need to give our previ s Idealisitic efforts a much needed kick in the ass and get something done for a change. BC

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the first to become more than a bit paranoid about the inspirations for and the origins of the charac- ters. When the Ms Cheezberger first appeared in the strip, several members of the STRAIT staff claimed that they were the inspirations. Similarly, many people have claimed to be the Glenn Patrick - the "peace-nik" referred to by Anderson and Wicks. Glenn Patrick is likewise a fictional character, his name being drawn from Manning's two middle names.

Letters to the Editor

To STRAIT Staff: Andrew Elston Age:20 Home:Elmira Major :Middle Class Ethic

GLENN PATRfcl( -~:~o ~:EAST

Spent his life expounding on the pseudo values of the middle class. College life centers on the "in- tellectual" value of all persons and things. Couldn't see a person for real without "analyzing" all of said person's qualities into a pigeon hole personality file. Does not believe feelings have any value since they cannot be expressed intellectually. Dick Manning Age:? Home:? Major: Human Observation by a God Spent major portion of life standing outside any contact with people. All thoughts and feelings on people gathered through observation in the Union. A faceless entity that snoops out people he finds interesting but dares not confront them. Gathers all material pertaining to persons via the grapevine. A:es women and peace-niks. "Pseudo-intellectual" Wits exhibited and being helped in growth by rest of STRAIT staff. You all FUCK! The letter by readers Wicks and Anderson refers to the recent installments of STRAIT's comic strip Krazy Kollege Komix by freelance cartoonist Dick Manning. As seriously involved individuals in the women's movement they are protesting the pro- trayal of Reesa Cheezberger. The letter is linked to, and in response to three additional women who came to the STRAIT office to protest the same cartoon character. One of the women - who shares her first name with the Manning character - felt that it was she from whom Manning drew the Ms Cheezberger. She expressed a concern that Manning was probably a fictitious character himself and that the entire strip was probably nothing more than a collection of piggish fun-poking and public ridicule drawn from actual State students. We must emphasise that a few of the Manning • acters are free exaggerations of his close friends; remainder are purely fictional. Anderson, Wicks are not the first to think that the characters were real people, nor were they Deborah Wicks Karen Anderson

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GLE'NN KNOWN To HtS FR1EtJD5 1 AS"'BIRtl'', IS A REPon:o f'or-s MOK.I i..ic.- PFAc.E· FREAK! 1-iE 8f:LOfllG-S T'o THE F'DS ! HIS G-OAL IN LIFE IS 1'b PUL.L NI )(.ON'-S PA"-\TS DOWN 11-l 1"HE" MIDDLE OF'TtMES SQUARtd

Just as Glenn Patrick is portrayed as a "pot- smoking peace-freak, whose goal in life is to pull down Nixon's pants in the middle of Time's Square," Reesa Cheezberger is shown as a castrating female who burns her bra. It is the contention of the STRAIT Editorial Board that Manning's cartoons/comments are both humorous and insightful. Manning's response to the letter appears below.

My goal, as creator of Krazy Kollege Komix, is to gently kick the "college scene" in the balls! At first I thought my characters were exaggerated stereotypes of fictitious people at this illustrious college, but little did I know that there are such characters as Nunzio, Bird, Weasel and the likes of Reesa Cheezberger roaming this campus. As a cynical social-political comic artist, I view this world as a stage and all ot' us as performers. We are given roles at birth and for the rest of our lives we study the script! I try to represent this world in my comic strip. Most people will see themselves in the strip and they will laugh; unfortunately I will also bruise a few delicate egos... but so what! Dick Manning






The Owl's Corner

"Come back!" the Social Worker called after him. "I've something important to say!" This sounded promising , certainly : the Clie1.ii._ turned and came back again . • "Keep your temper ," said the Social Worker . " Is that all?" said the Client, swallowing down his anger as well as he could. "No, " said the Social Worker. The Client thought he might as well wait , as he had nothing else to do, and perhaps after all she might tell him something worth hearing . For some minutes she puffed away without speaking, but at last she unfolded her arms. took the cigarette holder out of her mouth again, and said, "So you think you're changed, do you?" "I'm afraid I am madam," said the Client, "I can 't remember things as I used--and I don't keep the same size for ten minutes together!" "Can't remember what things?" said the Social Worker . "Well, I've tried to say, 'How doth the little busy bee,' but it all came different!,·, the Client replied in a very melancholy voice . "That is not said·right," said the Social Worker. "Not quite right, I'm afraid," said the Client timidly; "some of the words have got altered." "It is wrong from beginning to end," said the Social Worker decidedly, and there was silence for some minutes. The Social Worker was the first to speak. e "What size do you want to be?" she asked. "Oh, I'm not particular as to size," the Client hastily replied; "only one doesn't like changing so often, you know." "I don't know," said the Social Worker. The Client said nothing: he had never been so much contradicted in all his life before, and he felt that he was losing his temper . "Are you content now?" said the Social Worker. "Well, I should like to be a little larger, madam, if you wouldn't mind," said the Client; "Fifty three inches is such a wretched height to be." "It is a very good height indeed!" said the Social Worker angrily, rearing herself upright as she spoke (she was exactly fifty three inches high). "But I'm not used to it!" pleaded the poor Client in a piteous tone. And he thought to himself, "I wish the creatures wouldn't be so easily offended!" "You'll get used to it in time," said the Social Worker; and she put the cigarette holder back into her mouth and began smoking again. This time, the Client waited patiently until she chose to speak again. In a minute or two the So~i, Worker took the cigarette holder out of her mo and yawned once or twice, and shook hen;elf. Then ~ she got down off the swivel chair and crawled away. Reprinting of this article is encouraged by the author.



The Social Worker and the Client looked at each other in silence: at last the Social Worker took the cigarette holder out of her mouth, and addressed him in a languid, sleepy voice. "Who are you ?" said the Social Worker. This was not an encouraging opening for an interview. The client replied rather shyly, "I--I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I think I must have been changed several times since then ." "What do you mean by that?" said the Social Worker sternly. "Explain yourself." "I cannot explain myself, I'm' afraid, madam," said the Client, "because I'm not myself, you see." "I don't see," said the Social Worker. "I'm afraid I can't put it more clearly," the Client replied very politely, "for I can't understand it mysdf to begin with; and being so many different sizes in a day is v,ery confusing." "It isn't," said the Social Worker. "Well, perhaps you haven't found it so yet," said the Client, "but when you have to turn into a supervisor--you will some day, you know-- and then after that into an administrator, I should think you'll feel it a little queer, won't you?" "Not a bit," said the Social Worker. "Well, perhaps your feelings may be different," said the Client; "all I know is, it would feel very queer to me." "You?" said the Social Worker contemptuously. "Who are you?" Which brought them back again to the begin- ning of the interview. The Client felt a little irritated at the Social Worker's making such very short remarks, and he drew himself up and said, very gravely, "I think you ought to tell me who you are' first.'' "Why?" said the Social Worker. Here was another puzzling question; and, as the Client could not think of any good reason, and as the Social Worker seemed to be in a very unpleasant state of mind, he turned away.



lising Up Democratic The Call For Amnesty


view American men who fought this war, as well as those who refused to fight, as less than victims of a foreign policy neither of their own making nor in their real interest. As argued here, it was never officially nor publically clear exactly what the real American stake was in Viet Nam which could justifiably and persuasively forge a general union of support for this war among the American people. Glaringly unattended domestic problems such as the maldistribution of wealth and civil rights, and the massive allocation of national resources towards furtherance of the war effort and away from problems at home, simply made questions of the true national interest more debatable, frequently argued in terms of priorities . In this contest the issue of amnesty for war resisters must be raised in that this process of victimization and its socio-economic efforts has seriously disrupted (and for some, ended) the lives of most Americans. In brief, a government cannot understandably expect a people nutured on the ideas and d!mensions of individual liberty and freedom, to mechanically queue up on governmental fiat and place their lives on the line or hold their daily pursuits in abeyance, for a war not of their own design or understanding. AMNESTY - DEFINITION, SCOPE, PRECEDENT Speaking now directly to the meaning and issues of amnesty, it can be an Executive or Congressional pardon for a Fe?eral offense. It may take the form of a general (limited) or universal pardon, both with or without attendant conditions. In the former , there are persons or classes of persons excepted from its benefits. Congressional and Executive authority for amnesty is derived from the United States Constitution which empowers the same " . .. to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States except in cases of impeach- ment." Over six former U.S. Presidents exercised their vested power for granting amnesty in cases involving crimes far more serious than violation of draft laws or desertion. For instance, George Washington amnestied all people who participated in an insurrection in Pennsylvania against the United States; Adams amnestied Pennsylvania "insurrectionists" in 1800 for another "treasonable" set of offenses; Madison proclaimed (1815) "a free and full pardon of all offenses. .. touching the revenue trade and navigation" around New Orleans; Lincoln pardoned , under condition of oath-taking, those who participated in rebellion, and commuted the death sentence of deserters to imprisonment for the duration of the Civil War; Andrew Johnson granted an amnesty for the offense of treason, as did Grant in 1872: "limited" amnesties were also proclaimed by Presidents' T. Roosevelt, Coolidge, and Truman. In most of the pardons mentioned above, the offense

THE WAR AGAINST SOUTHEAST ASIA The United States Government continues to wage its war against Southeast Asia. This war is intrinsically criminal and, as sue h, is an atrocity-producing situation. Therefore the possibility is precluded of viewing well-publicized atrocities like Son My and My Lai as "mistakes" or "excesses " in an otherwise sound foreign policy. This neo-colonialist rendition of imperialism (N.B.: the policy of " Vietnamization") neces- sarily spawns illegalities and immoralities, and is itself illegal and immoral. Moreover, such a policy has aroused, and should arouse , a vigorous opposition. Individual and organized expression of resistance to the war have increased in number • kind as awareness of social responsibility confronts the vidual in the form of the draft of the realities of the front. From the very beginnings of U.S. intervention in the Vietnamese Civil War, intra-governmental and public con- troversy opened to question the legitimacy of conscription for an undeclared war; and whether or not an act of aggression had actually occurred which forced an Executive (Presidential) commitment of American manpower to Viet Nam. Hence, early individual resistance to the war crystallized around moral and legal considerations. Later opposition focused on its political significance as well. My personal recollection of early support for the war among conscriptible men made it difficult to discern , at that time (ca .,1964-7), where simple feelings of patriotism yielded to ingrained notions of what "manhood"required. Conse- q uently, war resisters were usually condemned as "un patriotic" or accused of "unmanly"cowardice. The aggressive upsurge in the Government's prosecution of the war , countered initially by sporadic but increasing vocal protest from t he more educated classes and occasional individual acts of defiance, forced governmental spokesmen to explain and justify the escalating American involvement in double think terms of "making war to achieve peace." As contradictions emerged and intensified within official decision-making circles, a "credibility gap" developed between t he Government and the public. The American interest in Viet Na m b ecame even more incomprehensible . The basic democratic value of "self -determination" or more accurately, the actual lack, thereof, for many sectors of the American public, became more influential in the proliferating opposition to the war (e.g. the fusion of the Civil Rights Movement with ~ ti-War Movement). W'This brief historical narrative is meant to serve this writer's view . that at no time was "legitimacy" of the Viet Nam War less than questionable, with questions being drawn along legal, moral, and political lines. Then and now, in this kind of public atmosphere of substantial controversy, it is inconceivable to



involved actual armed insurrection against the United States which the Constitution refers to as "treason". War resisters to the Viet Nam War (viz ., those men awaiting trial , in jail or stockade, on appeal for conviction, in exile or underground for dr_aft evasion or desertion from the military) lre not charged with armed insurrection against the U.S ., not with advocating the forcible overthrow of the U.S. Government. Their alleged offense in no way affected the destruction of life or property. If anything,their offense is that they valued freedom too highly to submit to conscription, their consciences, the undetermined legality and obvious immorality of the war ; or the brunt of racial oppression at home did not allow them to prepare for, participate in, or even indirectly contribute to the War. The point is that if U.S. Presidents can amnesty "treas- ona ble"offenses, surely the President or Congress can pardon the lesser "crimes" of draft evasion and desertion . Several former Presidents amnestied identical offenses. Pnsoners of War are usually released at a war 's end. It is likely that POW's have engaged in hostile combative activities against their captors. Certainly there is a greater moral justification for pardoning ("freeing") those people who refused to fight altogether than those who fought with the opposition. If resistance to the Viet Nam War involved 1) a personal refusal to kill and; 2) a violation of law - military or civil, we may regard such resistance as one form or another of disobedience. As such, the question of amnesty to disobedient resisters turns, in part , to the question of whether or not some form and degree of punishment is required (beyond that already meted out in the form of disruption of personal lives and pursuits) . It is a commonly accepted view that concomitant to any diliberate breach of law (e .g., "civil" disobedience) is the violator's willing accep- tance of consequence (e .g., punishment) . Moreover, refusal to accept the consequence of disobedient actions is, to many minds, redolent of irresponsibility (e .g., immorality, criminal- ity, or cowardice). I propose .that this commonplace is inappropriate with regard to resistance against the Viet Nam War · and as a g_eneral rule, it can do violence to the qualities o'f par~icular situations, as m this case, when universally applied. THE 'OPTI ON' OF AMNESTY -~he view that war resisters should willingly accept some pu~1t1ve measure for violating specific laws presumes that res1st~nce to this war in the form of some legal offense co~st1tutes a "wrong-doing" of which they are supposed to be guilty, and_ thus deserving of punishment; and secondly , that the:e exists a "legit!mate " authority for meting out punishment. On these pomts several questions come to mind. The answers lend support to the call for a total unconditional amnesty--that is, a restoration of civil rights f~r all men who directly resisted this war whatever form their resistance took. To the points at issue here , punishment for the act of disobedient resistance on the part of the individual pre- supp_oses lawful behavior, and hence "legitimacy" (in this restricted sense), on the part of the authorities who have the power to ~unish. At worst our Government acted illegally in contravention to the United Nations Charter, International Law,_ the Geneva Accords (1949,1954) and the U.S. Constitution; at best, it pressed men into its service in order to implement its policy behind the mask of patriotism when from the war's beginning the "legitimacy " of out interventio~ in Vietnamese affa~s was in official question (N.B. :opposition to hasty Congress10nal passage of the Tonkin Resolution [ 1964 j by Senators Morse and Gruening) . Ther_e is no court of law powerful enough to determine the legality and to implement its decisions of U.S. activities in Viet Nam, since the Supreme Court has hitherto decided not to_ hear ca_ses pertaining thereto . That the "Court of History " will ultimately judge U.S. involvement there speaks

irresponsibly to the needs and plight of war resisters now. On the view of most war resisters the feeling runs deep that no wrong on their part has been done. For that re;ls , even a pardon or amnesty for wrongdoing is unacce because presumtive and accusatory. However, this writer s they should at least have the option of amnesty open to them because they were victimized. The Government (the victimizer) should be flexible and humane enough, in the more In effect, it is the guilty who must pardon the innocent. constructive dimension of it s democratic tradition to officially recognize even the "possibility of error " on ~heir own part. For the Government to expect mindless mass allegiance to its dictates without the " health commotion" necessary to growth in a political democracy , and inexorably suppress opposition (even if that opposition was forced to break a military or civil law), can only erode its legitimacy as a democratic political formation. The moral point is that in their effort to avoid commission of a greater crime, they were compelled to commit a lesser one in their refusal to kill , especially when no real alternative was open to them. It is ironic that the power of amnesty lies in the institutions and in control, of the guilty. In effect , it is the guilty who must pardon the innocent. And it is noteworthy that most opposition to the war came from those who • • and are forced to fight it. • Some people argue that deserters are to be treated dif_fere~tly than Selective Service violators due to legal Junsd1ct1on. Namely: desertion falls under military law Sel_ectiv~ Service violations- -under civil law. The significance of this d1fference --really a distinction without difference-- evaporates upon closer scrutiny. Along this line of argument Senator Taft and Representative Koch have introduced Amnesty bills. As an aside , Presidential asspirant McGovern calls for an unconditional amnesty , Lindsay calls for a "conditional" rendition; Jackson , declares " no a~nesty." THE AMNESTY BILLS - INADEQUATE The Taft and Koch bills are inadequate because " limited" (to Selective Service violators only) and "conditional" (providing for a three -year alternate service in some non- military capacity). The argument given for the exclusion of deserters is that desertion is a military, not civil, violation and therefore, it should be handled as a purely military problem. This argument for separating civil and military acts of war resistance is objectionable on several grounds. First , it is arbitrary, as regards amnesty , in that the President as both Civilian Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces has the Constitutional authority to intervene in both civilian (e .g., the case of Jimmy Hoffa) and military (e.g., the case of Lt . Calley) affairs , as Nixon has recently done commuting the sentences of both Hoffa and Calley; whether acts of resistance occurred in the civilian or military realm, they are united by the motivating refusal to participate in the war effort. Parenthetically, our culture enshrines courage in the concept of "manhood", and usually defines the lat~ ·n terms of the aggressive of the "fighting man" and " 1 prowess." For many people, James Bond is a culture-hero Ko alternately, as a woman 's liberationist commented whips out his pistol and his penis as a show of masculinity. Therefore, if a man chooses not to fight his motives are, suspect. That the

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WHERE'S JANE FONDA? Jane Fonda and her Free Theater Association (FTA) troupe told the troops in the Philippines, Japan and Okinawa that "Bob Hope is not the enemy " but the enemy is the military itself. This past holiday season the troupe's shows consisted of a series of skits and songs satirizing the military, the Vietnam War and what Miss Fonda called "the degrading, sexist attitude of the U.S . military toward service women ." The military had made the FTA tour as difficult as they could, perhaps because FTA also stands for "Free The Army" or another translation using a far more pungent word than "free." Men from military intelligence followed them everywhere. They took pictures of the troupe and when the troupe did likewise to them they were angered. On one occasion where an intelligence agent tried to disrupt the performance by calling Miss Fonda a Communist, the audience ordered him out. Donald Sutherland, another member of the group bave away some information which may have upset Japanese authorities. He stated that the FTA had been shown documentary evidence that nuclear weapons are stored at the U.S, Marine base at Iwakuni. There were categorical American denials of the original charges made by a Socialist Diet member . A Japanese military delegation was also allowed to inspect the base where they said they found no evidence of nuclear weapons being stored. The opposition parties, however , will continue to press their charge. Meanwhile in Vietnam Bob Hope again performed for the holidays and some GI's had a question to ask. The banner read: "Where's Jane Fonda?" "GHOSTS" FAIL STUDENTS Term paper writing services are getting more widespread, popular and publicized. However, students should realize that paying for a term paper will not necessarily mean getting a good grade. There have been cases where term papers obtained from a service will have totally incorrect information. This can very obviously give away to a professor some evi- dence of a poor choice of companies on the student's part. In some cases the work may be done for the individual student (refer to Educated Ghosts-8 Dec. Strait News) charging per page according to the difficulty of the research. However it seems that a service may make use of mass production and profit again and again for writing one paper. Such a company has caused two University of Michigan students to be faced with expulsion. Both students had English papers due and unknowingly (and unfortunately) handed in the identical paper to the same English professor.

NEWS • Compiled by JoAnn Pizzo

CONFIDENCE CHALLENGED A New York radio station WBAI -fm is fighting to keep the FBI from the right to subpoena letters received at the station . The particular letter referred to was a typewritten message from a group iden- tifying themselves as the "Weather Under- ground." It was received just after a bonb explosion in the bathroom near the Albany office of Russell Oswald, the Cor- rections Commissioner in New York. The letter explained that the bombing was in protest of the killing at Attica. iaiiAI , maintaining that the letter was a 1 9tifidential news source" refused to hand it over to FBI agents. However they were ordered to do so by Albany County Judge Martin Schenk who ruled the letter as not necessarily being a "news" source. He also said that WBAI was not considered to obtain "legitimate" news because of their association with under- ground activities. The station is now appealing to the New York State Appellate courts with the letter still in their possession. They insist that it represents confidential communication and seek to prove that it 's confidentiality is protected under New York law.

YALIES OPT TUITION POSTPONEMENT Yale's new Tuition Postponement Option has given up to 1,257 students at the University a chance to finance the cost of their education against their future lifetime earnings. The new plan went into effect this fall . Students can defer up to $800 each academic year out of the total charge of the board , room, and tuition. The plan seems to be so successfully started that there are expectations for a similiar rate of enrollment in future years. Under the new plan unique features are that each debt is individually considered according to the stusent's income after graduation - rather than being a fixed amount to pay back. Each group leaving Yale will have obligations terminated when the group as a whole has repaid its amount posteponed with interest. The administrator responsible for the plan, Albert W. Buesking, said that the other Universities have shown an interest in the plan. "Yale has applied to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare for a grant to fiA e assistance to these universities and is committed to sharing Yale 's experiences with the entire educational co~unity. If this interest continues to grow and our experience continues to be successful, development of a secondary money market and student access to it may beco!Jle a reality. "




"It may be asked why the burden • • of such a pioneering has to be borne by the young."


In 1964 a book entitled Unsafe at any Speed was published . The book was written by a modern-day muckraker, Ralph Nader . "Ralph Nader " is almost a household word today, but at the time that Unsafe at any Speed was published few Americnas had heard of Nader . Since 1964, Nader has started a

similar to that collected with tuition, in the amount of two dollars per semester per student. The money will be used to hire a staff of professionals to aid the students in their research and to set up research projects on the individual cam- puses and on a regional level. The staff will consist of lawyers, social scientists, engineers, and urban planners and will be controlled by t elected student board of directors. · The purpose of the profession 1 staff is not to take the research and in- vestigation out of students' hands, rather to give students the technical advisement necessary to carry out the research which is to be conducted. Besides providing the necessary ex- pertise, the staff will give the organiza- tion a continuity that is lacking in most student directed organizations: the staff will not be interrupted by exams, winter and summer vacations, etc., and hope - fully will be able to do a full-time job when the students find it difficult or im- possible to be working on a research project. This will also be of advantage to the faculty members who wish to be- come active in WNYPIRG, since they cannot conduct or give advisement to a full-time research project which could take a year or two to complete. WNYPIRG hopes to involve every member of the college community, in- cluding faculty members. Their technical knowledge, along with the possibility of instituting new curricula specifically de- signed for such research projects can make WNYPIRG an integral part of the educational system. WNYPIRG won't become a realitA only a handful of students get involvW ' A number of schools in the Western New York area have expressed in- terest, in organizing a PIRG and a few

Buffalo State College and the State University at Buffalo . The first step in the organizing is the petition signing campaign which is in progress on both campuses. Students are being asked to sign a petition which will be presented to the State University's Board of Trustees in Albany asking them to authorize the formation of WNYPIRG.

crusade of muckraking. He has tackled some of the gigantic problems that lend themselves to the American consumer and has made public the reports of nu- merous research projects. Although the research seemed to reach a high point as a result of his in- vestigations of General Motors, the reports continue. Nader is currently del- ving into th€ irnexplained mysteries of the United States Congress. Nader may be approaching the up- per limit of his investigations but according to the chief muckraker, th~ American consumer hasn't . According to Nader, the average everyday American is limitless in his ability to "blow the whis- tle" on things that he complains about provided that he joins with other citizens in forming a cohesive organization that will give him some kind of voice in the control of his own life. The organization that was created by Nader in an attempt to control the consumer's market is the Public Interest Research Group (PIRG] . The idea of a PIRG for the college has since been channeled to the stu- dents. Action for a Change: A Student's manual for Public Interest Organizing by Ralph Nader and Donald Ross states that the college student has all the necessary pre-requisites for getting a PIRG off the ground: time, money, energy, and idealism. . Nader successfully organized a group m Oregon that tested his plan for stu- dent involvement in a PIRG . The Western New York PIRG (WNYPIRG) is being established at

Carl Bergevin, WNYPIRG co-ordinator for SUCB is asking that student 's pledge their support during the petition drive underway now through 17 February. Once organized, WNYPIRG will operate a student controlled, student funded organization which will begin in- vestigating problems of pollution, con- sumer fraud and civil rights in the Western New York area. The student funding will involve a voluntary fee,

students on some of the campuses have started to organize. Presently, the in- terested schools include Canisius, 'Youville, Erie Community Fredonia neseo, Jamestown co'mmunity: iagara Community, Niagara University, Rosary Hill, RIT, the University of Rochester and Villa Maria. The PIRG idea is beginning to reach east to Cornell Eisenhower College, Harpur and Syra'. cuse. Ideas for projects have been sug- gested from people on campus and from the community. Among the proposed re- search projects are: Emergency Health care in Western New York (the 911 system) and the suggestion for a regional ambulance service; food price com- parisons between supermarkets in the inner city and the suburbs; reclaiming the shores of the Niagara River for the purpose of parks and recreation areas. Anything which comes under consumer and public interest is a possibility for research. To get involved in these projects, students will have the opportunity to suggest the implement research. The pro- jects could be undertaken as indepen- dent study or summer research, or in conjunction with a course of study in Ralph Nader, director of the Public Interest Research Group in Washington, D.C., had this to say to the students of the Western New York area on the possibility of a student PIRG: "The growing student comitment at the State University College at Buffalo and other colleges around this state to the formation of a Western New York Student Public Interest Research Group (WNYPIRG) should be encouraging to all citizens interested in developing knowledgeable citizenship. The hard working and idealistic students leading this effort know that building the insti- tutions of citizen research and action is the basic pioneering need in this country. Other statewide student groups in Oregon, Minnesota, Vermont, and San Diego have already voted to contribute a few dollars per student per year to retain their full time lawyers, scientists, and other skilled professionals to advance the • es of genuine progress and justice in ing to solve serious problems be- 1, mg many Americans and the nation. "Many students today want to correct injustices and apply the resources and intelligence in the nation to the enormous


A student directed group, MONTPIRG (Montana Public Interest Group), is attempting to organize state college students into a force capable of repre- senting and giving voice to Montana consumers. Following the successful examples of similar organizations in Oregon and Minnesota, Montana students have formed local organizational groups on the public and private college campuses in Montana. Representatives of the various campus groups held a statewide organizational meeting in Helena in November. The student delegates discussed financing the organization, communications among the local boards and formulation of a general timetable for the further development of the organization. The delegates voted to apply immediately for status as a non- profit corporation and then chose one student from each campus to serve on a temporary board of directors for MONTPIRG' MONTPIRG will attempt to increase public university student fees by $3 a year, thereby creating a financial base from which the organization can hire a staff of lawyers, scientists, doctors or other professional people who would represent consumers in the courts. These professional people would be under control of a state board of directors composed of students elected from each campus. Participating schools would elect one representative for each 2,000 students. MONTPIRG board of directors would be responsible for de- ciding which issues would receive priority and would direct their funds accordingly, resorting to lawsuits if necessary to pro- tect consumers in the areas of environ- ment, business-consumer relations, health care for workers, discrimination cases, or other public issues. [cps] -making · - government, corporate, or union - special interests are well repre- sented but the public or broad citizen interest. The establishment of WNYPIRG would provide students with an effective professional voice for these forums and enlist enormous student participation, by way of research laboratory testing, and other skills both during the school year and during summer vacations. Citizenship experience should be an integral part of educational attainments. "It is hoped that students will support the WNYPIRG proposal and help create a construction and dynamic force for good in the state." Sincerely, Ralph Nader

One of Ralph Nader's original "Raiders", Karen Calish addressed a group at Buffalo State and cited several "posibilities" of action that area students might tackle if the WNYPIRG project works.

biology, chemistry, ECS, sociology, economics, criminal justice and any number of academic pursuits. Eventual- ly, new courses could be established in research methods and investigative pro- cedures. Buffalo State College students wishing to get involved in WNYPIRG ,an do so by stopping in at the WNYPIRG office in Perry Hall B-9 or • calling 862-4635. ' LOVE "RALPH"

problems that prevail now and which will loom even larger in the future. Everyone knows about these problems such as poverty, unemployment, discrimination, pollution, consumer injustice, threat of war, concentrations of power in fewer corporations and larger governments and the growing futility of the dollar to respond to the people's needs. "Students can do something about these problems while they are students. They can research them, develop strategies for change and participate in their implimentation. This most extensive educational experience for it challenges the intellect and the value system of the student in tandem and motivates effort and dedication. One of the main purposes of education is to develop the capacity and will to be effective citizens, whatever their respective value systems may be. A diversity of viewpoints indeed renews and invigorates responsible citizenship. What is needed is a a student directed insti- tution which will act as a catalyst for opportunities which students can take hold of and direct toward problem solving. "Before most forums of decision 11


Harrisburg Eight Down To Seven THEODORE GLICK SEVERED FROM TRIAL •EDWARD ZUCKERMAN The Harrisburg Eight became the Harrisburg Seven a fortnight ago , as John Theodore (Ted) Glick was "severed" from the impending by Judge R. Dixon Herman. The trial of the remaining seven defendants began with jury selection Monday, 24 January. They are charged with concocting an antiwar plot to kidnap presidential advisor Henry Kissinger, bomb government heating tunnels in Washington , and raid draft boards and other federal offices. Glick remains under indictment in the case, but he will be tried separately "at a later date ," Judge Herman said. Glick attributed the move to his pre- viously announced intention to act as his own attorney. "He[Herman] is scared of it [self -defense], " Glick charged after Herman's announcement of the severance at a pre-trial hearing. F.arlier, Glick approached the bench and asked Herman to explain his action. "I don't think I need to give any reasons," Herman said. "You'll probably know in due time. . . I've severed you . You're severed." He added, though, that he would set out his reasons in a written order soon . Glick, a 22 year old former F.agle Scout who was freed on appeal last October after serving ten months of an eighteen-month prison sentence for raiding federal offices in Rochester, N.Y. , told reporters he had "mixed feelings" about the severance move "It frees me to do a lot more things," he said , adding that he would like "to travel and organize." Glick will, however, soon face a hearing on his appeal in the Rochester case. If it fails, he would be returned to prison to serve the rest of his sentence. Meanwhile, some observers noted that if the government does badly in its case against the remaining Harrisburg de- fendants, Glick may never come to trial in that case. At a press conference after Glick's severance, all of the Harrisburg defendants said that neither eight or seven was the correct number to apply to that case. Instead, noting that several defendants and co-<:onspirators had been added and dropped since the first Harrisburg indictment was issued over a year ago, they suggested the group be called the Harrisburg 13-3+ 2+ l+ 1-1. [cps]

Throughout the speech, Seale made excellent use of raising his voice , which kept the attention of his audience. Photographers made good use of this by taking more pictures of the audience than they did of Seale. Nixon and Agnew received their verbal lashings when Seale compared them to Superman , who has never kissed Lois Lane. We may soon see various pollticians kissing their wives on national TV. Throughout the address, Seale ma

You Can't Walk to a Revolution

•ERIC DAUGHERTY "You must have people in a revolution, not just offices." These were the words of Bobby Seale, Chairman of the Black Panther Party, as he addressed more than 1,000 people at Canisius College Student Union, 2 February 1972. Seale, surrounded by three bodyguards gave a fifty minute speech which kept his audience on the brink of hypnotism. Although the emphasis was still on armed revolution in America, Seale urged people to support the various programs of the Panther Party. "Technology today has to be used by us," he said. "You can't walk to revolution , you got to fly." Seale made constant references to the free clothing programs and the free medical programs of the Party, which showed that the Panthers are definitely moving in a different direction with regards to revolution. He cited that the Chicago branch was attacked twice by the police, but was ignored by the residents of the community. But when the third attack occurred, the community defended the Panthers because the Panthers had begun to implement various food and medical programs. Seale also mentioned that the Panthers were starting a free ambulance service. Attica received its words when Seale called the authorities "Low-lifed racist dogs and murderers." He claim~ that Oswald promised that nothing would happen to the prisoners until he returned. But, then, that is an old story. 12


Quality begins at the point

of origin... • With the recent and pervasive talk circulating concerning the all-mighty Budget Crisis, the United Student Government at Buffalo State College granted an eleven and one half thousand dollar loan to WSCB. The student owned and operated radio station has begun lanning for the total revamp and renovation of the station itself.

hours to seven a.m. to midnight or three a .m., excluding weekends. With the onset of the 1971 -72 school year the sation began broadcasting twenty hours a day, beginning at seven a .m., seven days a week. For an all volunteer organization, staffed solely by Buffalo State students, the quality of the WSCB programming is said to be remarkably high. In addition to the live coverage of all Buffalo State Basketball games, the News Department under the direction of Richard Pffiefer has recently joined an organization of several college radio stations in the for- mation of a news network. The network, known as the United News Network, handles the daily ex- change of college news stories. The add- ition of the college-oriented stories to the hourly newscasts adds a flavor not found in any professional radio broad- cast. WSCB is currently served by United Press International, and Earth News services. Plans for the aquistion of a federal license which would permit the station to braodcast off the Buffalo State campus are also underway. For three consecutive years, the Board of Trustees of the SUNY system has refused to allow WSCB to request a federal license from Washington. And for three years they have failed to explain why. Members of the WSCB radio staff hope that the aquisition of the loan will aid in their quest for the federal license. The staff concludeds, however, that at least one step has already been taken at Buffalo ~tat~ College to bridge the existing commumcation gap.

Foremost on the three -page list of equipment-to-buy is new transmitters . In order to insure reception throughout the campus, WSCB must have transmitters in each building where they wish to be heard. Parts for the transmitters that the station already has will also be bought. Out of the total appropriation, nine thousand dollars will go for "studio equipment" such as tape recorders, microphones, turn tables, and control boards. The rational behind the purchase of this internal equipment was expressed by President of Communications Board Robert Brown when he said that in order to have high quality reception, high qaulity must begin at the point of origin. "It's silly to have transmitters capable of receivinc;, a high quality signal, if the qual- ity of the signal is not high quality ." The work, which began a day after the loan was granted, will take several months to complete. A complete renovation of the studio complex in the Student Union will take place. Included in the renovation will be the construction of a new production room to be used solely by the News tment_ Presently there is only one ction room for news production, casting, studio tapings, and com- mercial tapings are done. Most of the staff which numbers close to sixty persons, will aid in the actual oon-

struction, • installation , and readaptation of the studios. When WSCB was first founded in 1966, as part of a group called The Radio Club, it was staffed by less than a dozen people and operated in one room in the basement of the New Science building. Being, more or less, into their own as an organization, they received little recognition from anyone out side the staff. In late 1966 the now defunct Mens Residence Hall Association set up another radio station in Neuman Hall (WVRH). When it became clear that WVRH was planning to request student government recognition and financing , WSCB , fearing that it might be shut down applied for similar recognition . Following a series of meetings and hearings, WSCB received the recognition , ano WVRH left the airwaves. Along with the official standing, WSCB also received space in the newly completed Student Union. WSCB was given an initial annual budget of $5,500. Over the past four years, the budget has risen to $6,500 annually. Because of the low budget the radio found it necessary to appeal for the recent appropriation. The amount of time that WSCB broadcasts daily has risen sharply. In 1967 WSCB broadcasted only a few hours a day. As recent as the Spring term of 1971 WSCB boosted its broadcasting 13

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