CellCheck Newsletter APRIL 2019 FINAL

April Edition 2019

CellCheck ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND NEWSLETTER Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health

www.AnimalHealthIreland.ie

PROGRAMME NEWS | 03

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR | 04 CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH | 08 RESEARCH UPDATE | 09

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27

AHI gratefully acknowledges the financial and other contributions of our stakeholders.

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41WN27

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie

CELLCHECK PROGRAMME

Programme news

Finola McCoy, Programme Manager

W elcome to this month’s edition of the CellCheck newsletter. Very often I get queries from people who have taken some milk samples for culture, but aren’t sure where they should send them…..hence the introduction of the CellCheck Partner Lab list! This is a list on the AHI website of all commercial laboratories that are delivering mastitic milk sample services to an agreed standard and undergoing continual evaluation in this area. For more information, see this month’s Tip of the Month. Our guest contributor this month, Julie Bolton, Veterinary Inspector in the ARM Division of DAFM, reminds us about the growing challenge that is AMR, and some of the practices that we can adopt that can help to reduce the risk of AMR developing. One of these is to correctly identify the bacteria responsible for infection and the appropriate antibiotic treatment, which is why culturing samples is such an important practice. Our featured research paper looks at findings from an Irish study which looked at the pathogens responsible for clinical mastitis in a group of Irish farms. Finally I would like to take this opportunity to remind readers that the Discussion Group competition in the CellCheck Milking For Quality awards is now open for entries. All entries must be received by May 13 th . For more information see the AHI website click here or talk to your Teagasc advisor. The addition of the Discussion Group competition to the awards in 2018 was very positive, and encouraged many groups to put a spotlight on udder health and set themselves targets for improvement. Group members supported and motivated each other to achieve these targets, which delivers returns for everyone.

2018 Best SCC Discussion Group winners Pasture Apprentices - Midlands

2018 Most Improved SCC Discussion Group CFS Discussion Group - Kerry

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR

Farmer’s Role in Tackling AMR

Julie Bolton, Veterinary Inspector, AMR Division, DAFM, Backweston.

WHAT IS AMR? Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of a microorganism (like bacteria, viruses, and some parasites) to grow/survive in the presence of an antimicrobial (such as antibiotics) that should be capable of killing it when given at the correct dose. In other words the veterinary medicine is no longer effective to treat the disease. The terms antimicrobial and antibiotic are used interchangeably but in general when we talk about AMR, we are referring to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Antibiotics are natural or synthetic substances that inhibit the growth of or destroy bacteria. The discovery of antibiotics has revolutionised health care and prolonged life expectancy across the globe. In animal health antibiotics are vital tools to protect animal health and welfare, productivity, and facilitate the production of safe, nutritious food. The term antibiotic residue should not be confused with AMR. If there is an antibiotic residue in the food, this means that there are traces of antibiotics and associated metabolites remaining in meat and milk derived from animals that have been treated with antibiotics. If a farmer adheres to the required withdrawal period for an antibiotic then there is no risk of an antibiotic residue occurring in the meat or milk from the treated animal. However adhering to the withdrawal period does not prevent the development of bacterial resistance over time. Any use of antibiotics will, over time, lead to bacteria becoming resistant to these veterinary medicines, and the antibiotics will become less effective at treating disease. AMR is a very serious global public health threat. Without effective antibiotics, infections that were once deemed relatively minor have the potential to kill. Scientists estimate that if AMR continues to spread at current levels, by 2050 10 million people may die from AMR related infections, more than the death toll due to cancer. HOW RESISTANCE DEVELOPS AMR is a natural phenomenon. Bacteria have been around for millions of years and have developed various survival mechanisms. Bacteria acquire resistance genes which enable them to survive treatment with an antibiotic. Every time we use antibiotics some of the stronger bacteria develop resistance genes in order to survive. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics accelerates the rate at which resistance develops, and the problem is that the continued inappropriate use in the human and animal populations has resulted in the increased rate of development and spread of resistant bacteria.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

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FARMER’S ROLE IN TACKLING AMR

WHAT ARE HP-CIAS? HP-CIAs stand for Highest Priority Critically Important Antimicrobials which are the drugs of last resort for treatment of many bacterial infections in humans. These groups of antibiotics are critical tools to treat disease in humans where the first line antibiotics have not worked. Given the importance of HP-CIAs in human health, strict controls should be applied to their use in veterinary medicine. These antibiotics should NOT be used prophylactically i.e. to prevent disease, or as a first line of treatment in animals. They should only be prescribed when there are no effective alternative antibiotics available for the treatment of the bacterial disease. It is vital to keep these particular last resort antibiotics effective in human medicine, and so the animal health sector has a responsibility to ensure that this particular group of antibiotics are never used as first line treatment in animals. In Ireland, DAFM has published a policy document click here which outlines the conditions under which these last resort antibiotics should be used in veterinary medicine. We need to ensure that these antimicrobials remain effective for people and animals into the future. Your vet should only prescribe these antimicrobials when no other treatment will work, as proven by the results of culture and sensitivity testing of samples taken from clinically affected animals. See Table 1 for examples of trade names of products containing HP-CIAs.

Antimicrobial Family

Active

Examples Of Product Trade Names

Baytril, Enrocare, Enrotril, Colmyl, Doraflox, Enrodexil, Enrotron, Enrox, Enroxil, Fenoflox, Floxibac, Kariflox, Quinoflox, Roxacin

Enrofloxacin

Fluoroquinolones

Marbocyl, Marbocare, Marbonor, Boflox, Forcyl, Kelacyl, Marbim, Marbosyva, Marfloxin, Marbox, Masterflox

Marbofloxacin

3 rd and 4 th Generation Cephalosporins

Cefquinome

Cobactan, Ceffect, Cefimam, Cephaguard, Qivitan

Excenel, Naxcel, Alfacef, Cefavex, Cefenil, Cefokel, Ceftiocyl, Cevaxel, Cemay, Curacef, Eficur

Ceftiofur

Polymixins

Colistin

Coliscour, Colfive, Hydrocol, Sogecoli

Tylosin

Bilosin, Bilovet, Pharmasin, Tylan, Tylo, Tylosin, Tylovet, Tylucyl

Erythromycin Gamithromycin

Erythrocin

Zactran Zuprevo Draxxin

Macrolides

Tildipirosin

Tulathromycin

Tilmicosin

Hymatil, Micotil, Milbotyl, Pulmotil, Pulmovet, Tilmodyl, Tilmovet

Table 1: Antibiotics licenced for sale in Ireland containing HP-CIAs. (Source HPRA website accessed Feb 2019)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

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FARMER’S ROLE IN TACKLING AMR

RESPONSIBLE USE OF ANTIMICROBIALS Reducing the quantity of antibiotics being used in the both the human and animal health sector is key to addressing the challenge of AMR. When it comes to animal health, prevention is always better than cure. Minimising disease on your farm means minimising the use of antibiotics as well as maximising productivity. Good biosecurity, vaccination, adequate housing, optimal stocking densities and parasite control are the cornerstones of disease prevention in animal husbandry. Antibiotics must not be used to compensate for poor farmmanagement practices.

WHAT FACTORS INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF AMR DEVELOPING? • Underdosing

• Not finishing the treatment course

• Inappropriate use of antibiotics

• Using antibiotics of last resort (HP-CIAs) as first line therapy

• Incorrect disposal

• Overuse of antibiotics

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

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FARMER’S ROLE IN TACKLING AMR

SIX R’S

The “six rights” should be applied in prescribing and using antibiotics: 1. Right veterinary diagnosis; accurate diagnosis is essential to identify if an animal is suffering from a bacterial infection that will benefit from treatment with an antibiotic. Veterinary practitioners are best placed to make this decision. 2. Right animal; only the animal that has a bacterial disease should be treated with an antibiotic. 3. right veterinary medicine; antibiotics should only be used when absolutely necessary, and when the vet has diagnosed that there is a bacterial disease present. The antibiotic chosen for treatment should be effective to treat against the particular bacteria causing the disease. Bacterial isolates should ideally be tested for antibiotic sensitivity to ensure that there are no problems with resistance. 4. Right dose; antibiotics should be administered as per the instructions on the prescription. Animal weights should be estimated as accurately as possible. Underdosing animals accelerates the rate of resistance development. 5. Right duration; antibiotics should be given as directed by the vet. Do not stop the course prematurely as this will not fully treat the disease and may result in resistance to this antibiotic in the future. 6. Right storage and disposal; all medicines should be stored according to themanufacturer’s instructions in order to maintain their efficacy. All out-of-date medicines, containers and application equipment (including needles to a sharps container) should be placed in appropriate clinical waste containers. Antibiotics should never be disposed of with domestic rubbish or poured down the drain or toilet as this leads to development of resistant bacteria in the environment.

A ‘Code of Good Practice Regarding the Responsible Prescribing and Use of Antibiotics in Farm Animals’ was launched in November 2018, click here to view. The development of and spread of AMR is a challenge for public and animal health into the future. We all have a role to play in keeping antibiotics effective for future generations.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

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CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH

CellCheck Partner Labs

[Click here] for previously published tips

P revention of mastitis should be our primary goal - if cows don’t get infected, then we don’t have to worry about how to cure them! Knowing which pathogens the herd is being challenged with can help to ensure that efforts at prevention are targeted correctly. It is not possible to tell which bacteria are involved just by looking at milk, udders or somatic cell counts- you have to actually grow the bacteria to know for sure. We can do this easily by taking a sample of milk from a cow with mastitis (clinical or sub-clinical), and getting a laboratory to identify which bacteria are in the sample. Once the laboratory has grown the bacteria, they can also check if they are resistant or sensitive to a predetermined list of antibiotics (‘sensitivity testing’). This does not guarantee that an infected cow will be cured by a particular antibiotic, as conditions on a laboratory plate can differ dramatically from conditions in the udder. However, it is important to be aware of any resistance issues that may be emerging on farm and to choose a treatment that should be effective. To get good results……take good samples, and use a laboratory that has a proven performance record i.e. a CellCheck Partner Laboratory. TAKING GOOD SAMPLES Hygiene is essential-whatever bacteria are in the sample of milk, is what will grow in the lab, whether they come from the cow or from the environment. Mixed bacterial infections can occur in mastitis, but when three or more different bacteria are identified in one sample, this is universally recognized as a contaminated sample. CELLCHECK PARTNER LABS CellCheck has been working in partnership with the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine (DAFM) to harmonize methods and standards of commercial services available for mastitic milk samples. Limerick Regional Veterinary Laboratory has developed a proficiency test (PT) scheme, which all commercial laboratories offering milk culture/PCR services are welcome to participate in. Any commercial laboratory successfully participating in the DAFM PT scheme is recognised as a ‘CellCheck Partner Lab’, delivering mastitic milk sample services to an agreed standard and undergoing continual evaluation in this area. TIP TIP For step-by-step instructions on taking and handling milk samples in a sterile fashion, see Management Note A in the CellCheck Farm Guidelines for Mastitis Control. For the current list of CellCheck Partner Labs click here.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

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RESEARCH UPDATE Veterinary Record: first published as 10.1136/vr.101308 on 21 May 2013.

Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology

O. M. Keane, K. E. Budd, J. Flynn, F. McCoy INTRODUCTION

Effectivemastitis control requires knowledgeof thepredominant pathogenchallenges on the farm. Inorder toquantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pre-treatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 percent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis . However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge.

Click here for link to full Research Paper on AHI website

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

CELLCHECK REGIONAL COORDINATORS

A Resource and Point of Contact for CellCheck Activities in your Area

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Tom Starr 087 6697010

Mícheal Guinan 086 3511852 micheal.guinan@aurivo.ie Mayo/Sligo Aurivo

tstarr@arrabawn.ie Tipperary/Limerick National Co-op

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John Fitzpatrick 086 0426567

John Murphy 066 7163200 john.murphy@kerry.ie Kerry/Clare Kerry Agribusiness

fitzpatrickj@glanbia.ie Kilkenny/Laois/Carlow/ Kildare/Dublin Glanbia

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Sinead Treanor streanor@carbery.com 023 8822369 West Cork Carbery Group

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Andrew O’Neill 086 1836505 aoneill@tipperary-coop.ie Tipperary Tipperary Co-Op

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Tom Downes 087 2564669

Denis Guiry 086 8098639 dguiry@dairygold.ie Cork/Tipperary/Limerick Dairygold

downest@lakeland.ie Longford/Monaghan Lakeland Dairies

Brendan Dillon 087 2626851 BrDillon@glanbia.ie

Cork/Waterford/ Wexford/Wicklow Glanbia

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | April Edition 2019

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