Innovation Management DigiBook V44

JULY 2017 | VERSION 44 D I G I B O O K INNOVATION MANAGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISCOVERY, INVENTION, INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY ...................................................................................................................... 3 TYPES OF INNOVATION ................................................................................................ 4 STAGES IN INNOVATION.............................................................................................. 5 CUSTOMER AND INNOVATION .................................................................................. 6 OUTCOMES OF INNOVATION...................................................................................... 9 AREAS OF INNOVATION ............................................................................................. 10 BUSINESS ......................................................................................................................... 11 PERSONAL LIFE.............................................................................................................. 11 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY .................................................................... 12 GOVERNMENT ............................................................................................................... 13 HUMAN BRAIN .............................................................................................................. 14 CREATIVE MIND............................................................................................................ 15 CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATOR........................................................................ 16 INNOVATION PROCESS ............................................................................................... 18 AFFINITY DIAGRAM ..................................................................................................... 21 DO IT CONCEPT FOR CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION....................................... 23 CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM................................................................................. 24 THEORY OF INVENTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING – TRIZ............................................ 25 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................. 26

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INTRODUCTION

Innovation is about creating value and increasing productivity, and therefore, enhancing business. Innovation takes various forms. In addition to traditional technological innovation, there is innovation through new business models, new ways of organizing work, and innovation in design or marketing. A major challenge for the business today is to manage and exploit to the best effects all these

different kinds of innovations.

Innovation management is not a new concept. However, the manner in which organizations deal with their innovation has evolved over the years. Other factors that affect innovation, such as knowledge retention methods, client needs, etc that were not considered before are now playing an important role in innovation process. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISCOVERY, INVENTION, INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY People generally use these terms interchangeably. All the four terms have different meanings which give different results.

Discovery

Something that already exists and we need to explore it

Something that is created and did not exist previously

Invention

Innovation

Improvement to discoveries and inventions made

Creativity

Energy used for any discovery, invention or innovation

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TYPES OF INNOVATION

As defined earlier, innovation is introducing something new. For the purpose of business, innovation means a novel idea hits our mind or it may also mean implementing the idea which already exists. An innovation may emerge progressively or it may be fundamental or revolutionary.

 Breakthrough Many organizations visualize innovation as a strategic initiative that helps in generating brand new categories or support new revenue streams. Such type of innovations may be called as breakthrough innovations or radical innovations. These innovations bring along with them good money but involve significant risks. If framed other way round, such innovations may have a very low chance of being successful but, if they work, they take the organization to the next level. Such innovations become indispensible to the organization. Examples of breakthrough innovations are – Tata Nano, LCD TV, Camera phones, iPod, etc.  Incremental Incremental innovation is less precarious. It checks what has been done previously and improves it in a considerable manner. Incremental innovation has the capacity to add tremendously to the organization’s growth. Continuous gradual improvements go a long way in increasing effectiveness and efficiency of processes. Examples of incremental innovation are – ZX or VTI model of Honda City, higher pixel cameras in mobile phones etc.

Creates new market

Breakthrough

Innovation

Sustains existing markets

Incremental

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Feature

Breakthrough innovation

Incremental innovation

Significance

Major novelty (e.g. entirely new products)

Minor improvements in existing products and processes Determination in solving problems within a given framework

General guidelines A fresh look on old problem

Knowledge base

Diversified, with unprecedented use of analogy and tools developed in other industries/ contexts

Specific

STAGES IN INNOVATION Innovation is a key activity for any organization if it wants to succeed in the competitive world. Incremental and breakthrough innovations have their own significance in creating or sustaining the market for the organization. Innovation is costly and uncertain, so the organization needs to follow certain steps to make it highly successful.

Forming – Question to clear ambiguity, problem statement

Storming – Brainstorming, idea generation, most important usage

Norming – Assumption get created, most dangerous stage

Performing – Question the validity of each decision

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 Forming This is the first stage in the innovation process. In this stage there is ambiguity, so people involved in the innovation process asks frequent questions. As the ambiguity gets cleared, the innovation team defines the problem statement.  Storming This is the most important stage for any innovation process. The effectiveness of this stage predicts whether the innovation process would be successful or not. In this stage the innovation team comes together and does brainstorming for generation of numerous ideas. The success of this stage depends on the number of ideas that are generated by the team.  Norming This is the third stage in the process of innovation. This stage is a very dangerous stage as lots of assumptions get created. It is important for the innovation team to break these assumptions.  Performing This is the last stage in the innovation process. In this stage, the validity of various alternatives chosen in earlier stages is questioned. All the solutions don’t have the same impact on the problem. Thus, it becomes necessary to analyze the various alternative solutions and chose the most effective one. Every organization has got that unique methodology to face challenges or espouse any transformation. The success or failure of an organization depends extensively on how well a system or culture is managed within an organization. This innovation culture can often be the difference between a successful and a not so successful organization. An CUSTOMER AND INNOVATION

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organization, which can manage the innovation culture quiet effectively, grows more rapidly than any organization which lacks this knowledge and understanding.

 The success story of Nokia is an effective example of how organizations can achieve the path of growth by keeping the customer in mind, while innovating for new products. It was one of the first organizations to enter the market of cell phone handsets. As a result of its high quality and wide product range, it has

become the undisputed leader in various countries. Instead of importing products with technologies which were already established, Nokia extensively studied the needs of its customers and interacted with them. Based on the customer insights, they developed their products.

The typical characteristics of the customer that any innovation team need to take into consideration while designing a new product or updating the existing product can be represented in the following diagram:

C – Cost cautious, commanding comfort

U – Urgent, user friendly

S– Safety, sensitive

T – Technology cautious, time cautious

O – Opportunist

M – Money oriented, maintenance

E – Environment friendly, economy, expert

R – Result oriented

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INNOVATION AND ECONOMY MATRIX Now-a-days businesses, whether dealing in products or services are experiencing tremendous transformation like never before. In any business, a crucial aspect required is to make profit and growth of revenue. Innovation is the vital concept that affects the economic prosperity. Introduction of new or improved product decides the fate of any organization. Creative ideas take the form of innovation. Crisis is the mother of innovation! In uncertain economic conditions where there are cycles of boom or recession, innovation becomes the key for any organization. The innovation and economy matrix studies how the market share of any organization gets impacted depending upon the type of innovation done by it in the economic condition of boom or recession.

Boom

Economy

Recession

Maximum Growth Market Domination

Success

No result

Minor growth

 Quadrant 1 (Q1) This is the quadrant of breakthrough innovation in a booming economy. It is a very important quadrant for every organization because they experience a big growth in this quadrant. Every organization tries to introduce new products which can bring new experience to the customer in the good economic condition as buying power of customer is high. If an organization is successful in doing so, then it gets the early advantage and dominates the market for that product.

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 Quadrant 2 (Q2) This is the quadrant of breakthrough innovation in a depressed economic condition. During recession the consumers are not keen on buying luxury products. So, for any organization to achieve profit in such market conditions, it becomes important that it is able to bring a breakthrough product in the market. Any good breakthrough innovation in this quadrant ensures success to the organization.  Quadrant 3 (Q3) This is the quadrant of incremental innovation in a booming economy. It is an important quadrant for any organization, but the organization doesn’t experience as big growth as in case of Q1 or Q2. This quadrant helps the organization to achieve minor growth and sustain the already existing product market. The organization becomes highly vulnerable if it operates in this quadrant only. The competition can come up with a new breakthrough product and the customer would shift towards that new product immediately.  Quadrant 4 (Q4) This quadrant is of incremental innovation in a depressed economy. It is the most dangerous quadrant for any organization and therefore, they don’t want to be in this quadrant for a long time. The buying power of customer is already low and they would not like to spend money on any product which doesn’t offer them something new. This quadrant results in no or little increase in the market share of the organization. OUTCOMES OF INNOVATION An innovation may be an act of creating something new in the market place that improves the range and quality of products on any offer. For example, the Apple iPod is an innovation compared with the Sony Walkman, which was an earlier portable device for playing music. Past surveys and studies prove that all businesses want to be more creative and innovative. One of the surveys shows that almost 90

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per cent of businesses believe that innovation is a priority for them. This concludes that the importance of innovation is increasing significantly.

In the current economic scenario, strategic planning is being tremendously influenced by innovation. It has been acknowledged that innovation results into wealth creation. Although business success depends on the efficiency, in the long run, it cannot sustain business growth. The organization needs to understand that the outcome of every innovation is different and it shouldn’t expect the innovation to be a 100% success in the first time. All innovations need to undergo constant changes/improvements.

Innovation

Failure

Partial success

100% success

Not possible

Continuous innovation

The outcome of any innovation can be:  Failure

 Partial success  100% success

For any innovation, achieving 100% success in the first time is not possible because any new product/process needs to undergo some modification or transformation depending on the response of the proto introduced. So, organizations should look at failure or partial success as the real outcomes of innovation. Thus, continuous innovation is the key to success in the innovation process.

AREAS OF INNOVATION

In order to achieve competitive advantage, one should innovate quickly and efficiently. Innovation is concentrated more by the top and middle level management. For any innovation which is being carried out in different areas, certain factors are to be kept in mind:

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 Business This is the major area where there is continuous innovation. The organization doing the innovation in the business area should keep the following in mind:  Quality and safety Any innovation done in business

should result in improving the quality of the product. Customers are obsessed with quality. Along with the quality, the innovation should also make the product safer to use.

 Cost Organizations are becoming more and more cost cautious. So any innovation done in the area of business must result in bringing down the cost of the product.  Profit High profit is considered as the life-line for the success of any organization. So, the innovation must be able to increase the profit of the organization.  Effort and time Organizations are increasingly realizing the value of time and trying to bring down the effort required in doing any activity to minimal. The innovation in

the area of business must be able to reduce the time and the effort required to do any activity.

 Personal life Innovation impacts the personal life of a person. Any innovation done with the

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intention of improving the personal life of a person must consider the following factors:  Feel good

The success of any innovation lies in the fact that it adds to the comfort of the person and makes him/her feel good. TV remote is a classic example of such type of innovation.

 Quality of life The innovation must result in improving the quality of life. For example, any innovation done in the field of electronics should be able to raise the standard of living of the people.

 De-stress People are constantly living in stressful environment. So, it becomes necessary for the innovation to de-stress the people in their personal life.

 Corporate social responsibility Organizations have realized that it is their duty to give back to the society something in return. So, all the big organizations are practicing corporate social responsibility. Innovation in the area of CSR must focus on the following:  Improving quality of life index The innovation in the field of CSR is said to be effective when it is able to improve the quality of life index of people. Any innovation by CSR department

related to medical can be categorized as innovation to improve quality of life index.

 Transforming social issues CSR addresses many social issues

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impacting the society. Along with that it also needs to look for innovative ideas that can bring transformation in the ways these issues are handled and can be modified.

 Government The economic condition of the country not only depends on its business market but also on the various policies made by the government in those regards. It is important for a country that its government also keeps on innovating by bringing newer policies which are beneficial for its citizens. Mostly, the innovations done by the government of any country are incremental innovations.

Business

Quality + Safety

Cost

Profit

Effort + time

Personal life

Feel good

Improve quality of life

De-stress

CSR

Improve quality of life index

New methods for transforming social life

Government

Incremental innovation

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HUMAN BRAIN Our brain is divided into two parts i.e. the left brain and the right brain. The right brain represents the feminine side which comprises of creativity, imagination and intuitiveness. The left brain on the other hand is the masculine side which comprises of logical and intellectual aspect which analyzes everything.

Dream

Logical

Left brain

Right brain

Details

Big picture

Rational System

Emotive

Intuitive

LEFT BRAIN

RIGHT BRAIN

Uses logic

Uses feeling

Detail oriented

Big picture oriented

Fact rules

Imagination rules

Words and languages

Symbols and images

Acknowledges

Appreciates

Reality based

Fantasy based

Practical

Impetuous

Safe

Risk taking

Analytical, data oriented

Emotional, thinks outside the box

In case of innovation, ideas get generated in the right brain because it is the creative side of the brain. All the innovative ideas are result of right brain activity. Once the idea gets generated in the right brain it is important for the person to move to the left brain. The left brain is the logical side of the brain so it helps in implementing the

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idea generated. Thus, in the process of innovation the use of left and right side of brain is equally important.

CREATIVE MIND Our mind operates in three different states of unconscious, sub conscious, and conscious.  Unconscious mind It may be defined as that part of the mind which boosts a collection of mental phenomena that occur in a person’s mind. However, the person is unaware of these phenomena at the time of occurrence. They comprise of the unconscious feelings, unconscious or automatic skills, unobserved perceptions, unconscious thoughts, unconscious habits and automatic reactions, complexes, hidden phobias and concealed desires.  Sub conscious mind It is the element of mind which is situated beneath the conscious mind. The sub conscious mind is a kind of a store room where all the experiences, the holder of past impressions, reactions and desires are accumulated. Also, it is the place where involuntary physiological processes exist.  Conscious mind It constitutes the normal, waking and thinking state of mind in which functioning of majority of people takes place. For innovation, it is important for the person to move away from the sub conscious state of mind and move towards the unconscious state. If the person keeps on operating in sub conscious state of mind then he won’t be able to generate any new ideas because this state of mind doesn’t have the capacity to think something new. For creation of new ideas it becomes necessary for the person to switch to the unconscious mind. Once the ideas are generated they move from unconscious state

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to conscious state. The ideas generated by unconscious mind are implemented by the conscious state of mind.

More from unconscious to conscious

Subconscious

Unconscious

Conscious

Implement on idea generated

Generate idea

If operate here then can’t innovate

CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATOR

Excellent relationship

Observers

Curious

Patience and perseverance

Experimenters

Don’t give up

Risk taker

Passionate

Domain expert

Out of box thinking

Intuitive

Different perspective

Self convinced

Do what fear the most

Researcher

MIND MAP Mind map is a diagrammatic representation of interlinked words, ideas and tasks. Generation, visualization and classification of ideas are depicted in the mind map. It acts as an aid to study as well as organize data, solve problems, write and make decisions. Arrangement of the elements of a mind map is done by following the instinct, based on the importance of concepts. Elements are further classified into groups, branches or areas and their aim is to represent semantic or other connections between parts of the information.

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Mind map is a method which offers a key that reveals the potential stored in the brain. This technique gives the freedom to explore the infinite expanses of the brain. The technique of mind map can be applied to every facet of human life to increase clarity and depth of understanding. Mind map is a useful technique that improves the way we take notes. It supports and enhances generation of ideas for innovation. In an innovation procedure, a mind map is formed evolving around a problem statement which is placed in the centre. Associated ideas, words and concepts are added to such statements. Steps in creating the mind map:  Start in the centre by writing the problem statement  Insert symbols, codes, dimensions and images in your mind map  Select key words and write them in various groupings, branches or areas  In order to see the stimulation as well as to encode or group, apply various colours throughout the mind map

Advantages of mind map in the innovation process  Relationship building tool  Excellent tool for introvert people  Observes behaviour of different people  Easy to recall the key words and the key images  Helps in seeing the whole picture, global view at once

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Application of mind map Apart from being effectively used in the innovation process, mind maps can be used for a lot many personal and business situations. Person can reform a complicated data with the help of a mind map, as it helps in seeing interlinks and clarifying the through process. Mind map can be used at various instances. Some of them are listed below:  Solving complicated problems  Showing interlinks between various concepts and ideas  Generating options while decision making  Having bird’s eye view  Memorizing ideas and concepts INNOVATION PROCESS The process of innovation involves exploring divergent thoughts, followed by congregating them to select and synthesize something new. Speedy innovation needs an efficient innovative process.

Need

Problem statement

Objective for innovation

Brainstorming (45-60 min)

Diverse group

Identify best alternative

Continuous innovation

Define result

Plan

Implement

Breakthrough

Proto

Incremental

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 Stage 1: Need Identifying the need for the innovation is the first stage of any innovation process. Person doing innovation should be clear about the reason behind the innovation i.e. what is the need? If the need is clearly defined then it becomes easy for the innovation team to work effectively in the later stages of innovation.  Stage 2: Defining problem/Opportunity statement The second stage in the innovation process is to clearly define the problem associated with the innovation process. This is a critical stage because if the problem is not accurately defined then it becomes difficult to arrive at the right result. In this stage the innovation team can either define the problem statement or state the opportunity statement. Both of these statements act as an objective for the rest of the innovation process.  Stage 3: Brainstorming Brainstorming is by far the most widely used tool to stimulate creative thinking for innovation. Alex Osborn, who was an American advertizing executive, had a strong belief that anyone, could learn to produce creative solutions for a wide variety of problem. He developed the brainstorming technique. It is particularly helpful when the innovation team needs to break the stagnancy and conventional thinking patterns, so that they can develop novel ways of seeing things.

In the brainstorming process people of diverse backgrounds should participate. This helps the group be more creative. While conducting a brainstorming session ideas should not be criticized. It is based on the principle of suspecting judgment, which denotes that the generation phase

is different from the judgment phase of thinking. In such sessions team members try to configure the possibilities regarding the limitations of a problem and the

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wrong assumptions are wrecked. At this point, if judgments and analysis are conducted, they may limit the generation of ideas.

Generally a brainstorming session is conducted for 45-60 minutes in which diverse people participate. In the first 15 minutes of brainstorming session, ideas come hastily. After 15 minutes, thinking stops and it becomes difficult to come up with new ideas. Thus, person requires thinking, to think. It is during this time that people do out of box thinking and come up with the ideas which are most productive.

Ground rules for brainstorming:  Ideal group size for brainstorming is 8-10  No idea generated in brainstorming is qualified as good or bad  It is perfectly ok to build on someone else's idea  No discussion or debate is permitted  Unusual ideas are welcomed

 Stage 4: Identify the best alternative Once the brainstorming session is over, the next stage is to identify the best alternative. As stated earlier, in brainstorming session there is no discussion done on the quality of idea. All the ideas generated in the brainstorming session are analyzed in this stage. The ideas are checked for the feasibility and the implementation. There can be SWOT analysis done for various alternative ideas to choose the most effective idea. It is an important stage because if the idea chosen is not the most effective, then it would lead to wastage of time and resources of the organization.  Stage 5: Define result The next stage in innovation process is to define result. Once the best alternative is chosen, the innovation team decides on the result it wants to achieve with that solution.

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 Stage 6: Plan Once the result is defined, the next step is to do proper planning for achieving the result. This is a time consuming stage where all the details are looked at. While planning, there are several issues which the innovation team should consider.

They should decide on the budget and the timeframe for developing the idea. The innovation team should also plan for the resources. They must clearly identify the resources which they require for the implementation of the idea.  Stage 7: Implementation This is the second last stage in the process of innovation. Here the alternative chosen in stage 4 is implemented.

 Stage 8: Proto In this stage the prototype of the result of the innovation process is tested. This stage is considered as a part of innovation process because the prototype would help the team to know the various shortcomings of the product developed by them. Once the application of innovation process is complete, it is necessary to constantly study it in order to improve the process, product or service. As a result of this, continuous innovation is required.

AFFINITY DIAGRAM Affinity diagram is a tool which assimilates large amount of data in the form of ideas, opinions and issues. It organizes them into groups based on their natural relationships.

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When to use an Affinity diagram:  While dealing with many facts or ideas which leads to obvious confusion  When grasping power becomes weak as the issues appear too large  When harmony in a group is necessary

Creating an Affinity diagram  Step 1: Generating ideas

Use the brainstorming tool to generate a list of ideas. The rest of the steps in the affinity process will be easier if these ideas are written somewhere so that they can be easily referred to.

 Step 2: Sort ideas The team physically sorts the various random ideas generated in brainstorming sessions into groups. The team should search for the ideas that seem to be significant in one way or the other and insert them together in one column. The team hunts for those ideas which are already related to those set aside and add them to that group.  Step 3: Create header A header is an idea used to capture the important link among the several ideas existing in that group. The team creates the header by:  Navigating the existing ideas which can serve as headers and thereby placing them at the top of the group of related cards  Discussing and approving on the wording of cards alternatively, which are created exclusively to be headers

 Step 4: Draw the finished affinity diagram  At the top of the diagram, carve your problem statement  Lay the header cards over the groups of ideas  Analyze and clarify the ideas and groupings  After the affinity diagram is completed, document it

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Problem statement

Header 1

Header 2

Header 3

Header 4

Idea 1

Idea 1

Idea 1

Idea 1

Idea 2

Idea 2

Idea 2

Idea 2

Idea 3

Idea 3

Idea 3

Ideas chose from various headers 

DO IT CONCEPT FOR CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION ‘DO IT’ is a process for creativity and innovation. This enables in exploring the best out of the creativity methods. ‘DO IT’ stands for:

Define the problem carefully to make sure you are solving the real problem and to help engage your unconscious and conscious minds to the problems

Define

Open yourself to consider many diverse solution ideas. Delay judgment on ideas generated until the identify step

Open

Identify the best solution to your problem and modify it until you are ready to transform your idea into action

Identity

Transform

Transform your solution idea into action

 D: Define the problem This step ensures that the team is clear about the actual problem on which they are working. Often, people work on symptoms rather than the root cause. To

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avoid this, the team has to repeatedly ask why the problem exists, until they reach the root cause. Defining the problem ensures that each team member knows clearly the problem statement. Big problems are broken down into smaller ones during this stage.  O: Open to ideas Once the team has clearly defined the problem statement the team generates solution ideas. It is essential that at this stage a large number of ideas are generated. No idea is to be judged as good or bad during this stage. The creativity of the team members should be at its peak. It is important to remember that each team member has a different perspective, and all ideas are valuable.  I: Identify the best solution It is during this stage that the ideas generated are judged to narrow down to a single idea that will be implemented. At times, the best choice is easily apparent. At other times, ideas may have to be studied carefully to know the pros and cons before zeroing down to the idea of choice.  T: Transform Once you have identified the problem and generated a solution for it, it’s now time to implement that solution. This is a stage of planning and action. Many creative people may fail during the implementation stage. To transform an idea into reality, one should first prepare a detailed action plan for the same. It may lead to formation of a business or marketing plan. Once this task is completed, work of implementation commences. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM It is a tool used to distinguish, classify and show the possible causes of a specific problem or quality characteristic. The relationship between a particular outcome and the various factors that influence this outcome can be graphically narrated. The innovation team should implement this diagram in the following scenarios:

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 Identification of the possible root causes, crucial reasons, for a particular effect, problem, or condition  Categorizing and relating among the factors that affect a particular process or effect  Existing problems should be analyzed in order to take suitable actions

Basic layout of a cause and effect diagram

Cause C

Cause A

Effect

Cause B

Cause D

THEORY OF INVENTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING – TRIZ TRIZ may be stated as problem solving tool which is based on the data, research and logic. It is not at all based on intuition. TRIZ helps in providing creative and innovative phases with knowledge based systematic support. The TRIZ problem solving method

TRIZ specific solution

TRIZ general problem

Your specific problem

Your specific solution

By applying TRIZ as per the above diagram, you can solve the problems by implementing creativity and innovation. TRIZ can be categorized into two forms of contradictions:  Technical contradictions

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Such contradictions are the typical engineering trade-offs. The desired state cannot be met due to the prevention of the system. In other words, whenever something nice happens, something else automatically worsens.

 Physical contradictions Such contradictions are also known as inherent contradictions. They are the situations in which an object or system bears conflicting, differing requirements.

CONCLUSION

Innovation can be induced given the right setting. Organizations should thrive to become learning organizations which change and adapt to suit their changing business environment. To create an innovative culture is an everyday task which involves inspiring the ordinary to the strategic.

Innovative organizations understand that initiatives such as constant development, brainstorming sessions or creativity training cannot construct an innovative organization. Instead the portfolio of such initiatives under a good climate of innovation, gives rise to skilled and passionate people in an organization. Such people endeavour to make innovation a routine in their mindset.

References: www.articlesnatch.com, www.ezinearticles.com, www.paggu.com, www.asci.org.in, www.viewzone2.com, www.en.wikipedia.org, www.experiencefestival.com, www.balancedscorecard.org, www.mindtools.com, www.safepark.com,

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