Coaching for Excellence DigiBook V34

JULY 2017 | VERSION 34 D I G I B O O K COACHING for EXCELLENCE

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3 COACHING AND COUNSELLING ............................................................................ 4 COACHING AND MENTORING ................................................................................ 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUCCESSFUL COACH................................................... 5 THE MANAGER AS A COACH................................................................................. 10 COACHING MODELS .................................................................................................... 11 C.R.E.A.T.E. MODEL OF COACHING ...................................................................... 11 DIRECTIVE VS. NON DIRECTIVE COACHING ..................................................... 13 DIRECTIVE COACHING......................................................................................... 13 NON DIRECTIVE COACHING .............................................................................. 13 MOTIVATIONAL COACHING.................................................................................. 15 G.R.O.W. MODEL ........................................................................................................ 18 SIX STEP MODEL FOR COACHING......................................................................... 21 SIX CAP COACHING SYSTEM .................................................................................. 24 MOTIVATION ................................................................................................................. 25 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY........................................................................................... 25 THE PORTER LAWLER MODEL OF MOTIVATION .............................................. 26 INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (IDP)............................................................... 28 THE STEPS FOR MAKING IDP.................................................................................. 29 WHAT ALL INDIVIDUALS SHOULD KEEP IN MIND WHILE MAKING IDP... 30 MODEL FOR CAREER PLANNING.......................................................................... 31 CAREER PLANNING PROCESS ................................................................................ 32 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................. 33

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INTRODUCTION

As human beings we all have dreams and aspirations in life. To fulfill them, there is a need for a precise and clear path. The direction and guidance thus serves mammoth role in trekking up to the summit of success.

Since every individual has a unique dream, every path has to be customized to harness the strengths and surpass the weaknesses of the aspirant. This has given boost to the practice of coaching.

Coaching gives us an opportunity to proactively take charge of our lives and direct it in the way we desire. Coaching is a method of directing, instructing and training a person or group of people, with the aim to achieve some goal or develop specific competency. Coaching generally refers to the development of somebody's skills and knowledge through one-to-one training. Coaching is usually conducted by a more senior and experienced colleague. It involves planned training activities that have measurable outcomes and is designed to facilitate learning by providing guidance and support as well as tutoring. Coaching can be defined as “a developmental strategy that enables people to meet their goals for improved performance, growth or career enhancement.” Executive coaching is a form of coaching used with senior managers. From the protégée’s point of view, as said by Gerard O'Donovan, "Coaching is about performing at your best through the individual and private assistance of someone who will challenge, stimulate and guide you to keep growing."

Coaching is allied with, but yet separate from activities like counselling, training, mentoring, management consulting etc. Since coaching is most similar to counselling

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and mentoring, the many distinctions between coaching and other methodologies are discussed below. Coaching and counselling Counselling in the workplace usually involved turning around underperformance by resolving problems that involve stress, anxiety, poor quality work, absenteeism and frequently missed deadlines. Sometimes, workplace counsellors do adopt a coaching style, but the inherent differences remain. They are:  The purpose of counselling is to get employees to recognize the gaps between their actual and the desired performance, identify the source of the problem, and develop an action plan to address it. Coaching is a process of continual development by which employees gain the skills and abilities they need to develop professionally and personally and perform better at work and in their personal lives.  Counselling looks for causes behind the problem or performance deficit, whereas coaching emphasizes new competencies and innovative actions.  The more traditional counselling approaches generally follow a remedial approach, emphasizing deficits and the problems of not meeting a set pattern, required conduct or standard. Coaching emphasizes strengths and achievements.  Counselling generally involves minimal assessment, whereas the coaching model interfaces with learning, development tools and behavioural diagnostic assessment tools introduced at the beginning of the coaching intervention.  Traditional counselling focusses on exploring reactive solutions, whereas coaching is proactive, looks to recognize and avert problems before they arise.  Counselling is usually need based and occasional, whereas coaching is generally an ongoing process. Coaching and mentoring Very often, coaching is confused and referred interchangeably with mentoring. Mentoring is a natural way of passing on knowledge, skills and experiences to others by someone who is usually older and wiser with broad life

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experiences and specific expertise. While coaching and mentoring have their differences, they very often require the same competencies. The differences, however, are:  Mentoring invents a future based on the expertise and wisdom of another, whereas coaching is about inventing a future from the individual’s own possibilities.  Mentors are recognized as experts in their field.  Mentoring is usually more specifically career focussed in terms of career advancement.  Mentors usually have experience at senior management level, and have a broad knowledge of organizational structure, policies, power and culture.  Mentoring means freely giving advice and opinions regarding strategies and policies, whereas coaching is about evoking answers from the individual.  Mentors have considerable power and influence to advance the individual’s career and advocate promotion.  Mentors convey and instill the standards, norms and values of the profession/organization. Coaching is more about exploring and developing the individual’s own values, vision and standards. Characteristics of a successful coach  Capacity for self-awareness Some aspects of self-awareness include:  A capacity for self-observation and self-reflection.  Recognition of what is immutable, what is beyond our control and what we can change.  An ability to monitor own reactions, emotions and behaviours and the impact they have on coaching interventions.  A realistic understanding of own strengths and weaknesses.  Knowledge of own motives and needs.  Recognition of own prejudices.

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 The ability to accept criticism and feedback without becoming defensive.  Awareness of ‘transference’ situations where the protégée unconsciously projects qualities of an important person in his life, or ‘counter-

transference’ situations where the coach has ‘transference’ onto the protégée.  Knowledge of fears and anxieties about coaching, such as fear of failure, confrontation and challenge or success.  Inspiring others An inspiring coach will:  Live and act according to stated values and beliefs.  Operate from a model of ‘strengths’ rather than weaknesses.  Recognize strengths where others see weaknesses.  Build insight and motivation so protégées can determine and focus on the goals that ‘pull’ them towards action and truly reflect their values, dreams and aspirations.  Help individuals recognize previously unseen possibilities that exist within their current life circumstances.  Continue to set higher standards for himself and others.  Act as a role model.  Challenge and take individuals out of their comfort zone to achieve greater success and satisfaction.  Be willing to accept responsibility for setbacks and failures.  Show a commitment to competence.  Demonstrate the ability to inspire commitment to change in the individual, and promote persistence to ensure that the end result is sustained learning and behavioural change.  Reveal a passion to help others learn, grow and perform to their maximum potential.  Ability to build relationships A good coach will:

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 Take time to get to know the individual.  Build rapport, trust and openness.

 Establish credibility by believing strongly in his purpose, and showing strength in adversity.  Ascertain confidentiality of the relationship.  Show patience and have reasonable expectations, understanding that personal growth is sometimes slow, uneven and perhaps difficult.  Earn the trust and belief of the individual in order to provide the necessary amount of support and challenge.  Resist the urge to deliver insights and allow the individual to discover his own insights and answers.  Offer unconditional support and appreciation of the individual’s uniqueness and worth.  Encourage mutual discussion and problem solving.  Flexibility A flexible coach will:  Recognize when to be supportive and compassionate and when to be challenging and tough.  Adjust easily to the agenda for the protégée.  Recognize different personal styles and adapt to these styles.  Vary the style of coaching to suit the individual.  Receive feedback and make changes in attitude and behaviour.  Be self-confident and appropriately humble.  Communication skills Some of the skills require are:  Authenticity: A coach is sincere and honest and is what he says he is. He is willing to self-disclose if it facilitates the protégée’s self-exploration and insight.

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 Empathy: A coach understands and empathizes with the protégée’s subjective world, and meets his needs with concern and understanding.  Unconditional support: The coach appreciates the individual’s uniqueness and worth.  Insight: A coach has the ability to perceive, understand and generalize from personal experience and professional sources.  Curiosity: A coach is genuinely interested in human nature and is sensitive to the personal wellbeing of others.  Ability to listen: A coach listens, more than he talks. The coach asks questions, reflects, clarifies and gives feedback.  Ability to use humor: Coaches should be able to laugh at themselves and their idiosyncrasies and be light-hearted.  Ability to tolerate ambiguity: Coaches require the ability to cope with unfamiliar territory, with paradox and uncertainty underscored by a trust in self and the process of coaching.  Courage and willingness to offer feedback: Coaches provide ongoing feedback, both positive and negative, for helping their protégées change and grow.  Ability to confront others: A coach does not hesitate to challenge protégées regarding their unused potential for the benefit of the individual and the organization.  Capacity to be forward looking Forward looking coaches:  Emphasize the here and now.

 Are future oriented, recognizing the past only as it impinges on the present.  Identify openings that will allow a meaningful result in the shortest period of time.  Act even when they are uncertain of the outcome.

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 Work with the protégée to establish stretch goals and action plans.  Are goal oriented and outcome oriented.  Encourage the protégée to accept responsibility for one’s own future development.  Discipline. Discipline is manifested through the following:  Focussing intently on achieving the goals, tempered by an empathetic awareness of the protégée’s insecurities and blockages regarding change.  Focussing on the task at hand, despite setbacks and the possibility of failure.  Resisting pressures from self, the protégée or management for a ‘quick fix’.  Recognizing circumstances when a protégée may not be able to change, and be willing to support the protégée to focus his energies elsewhere.  Adhering to the structure of the coaching sessions.  Always matching and adjusting to the protégée’s pace of learning and change.  Ability to manage professional boundaries Good coaches display the following characteristics:  The ability to recognize whether coaching is the best option for the particular individual.  The ability to appreciate whether change is within the control of the individual and will lead to the desired results, such as more satisfying relationships, a balanced lifestyle, career enhancement and so on.  The ability to know when not to take on a protégée.  The ability to recognize when the coaching issue is beyond protégée’s competence.  Capacity to diagnose issues and find solutions These qualities include:  A genuine sense of enquiry.

 Intuition as to what is wrong and what can be done.  An ability to apply theory to practical solutions.  Creativity in terms of offering fresh perspectives and new insights.  Unique and novel problem solving abilities.

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 Business orientation Coaches require:

 Ambition and strong drive to be successful.  A strong belief in themselves and their abilities.  The ability to be a self-starter and make things happen.  A contagious enthusiasm for coaching.  A ‘can do’ attitude.  Energy and stamina to complete a task.  Resilience and determination in the face of rejection.

 The willingness to take on new risks, challenges and enter the unknown.  A creative ‘entrepreneurial spirit’ that constantly challenges and inspires them to develop newer and more successful selling strategies.

 A commitment to a vision and business goals.  A competitive desire to win new business.

The manager as a coach When managers adopt coaching, the organization benefits in numerous ways. Some general organizational benefits include:  Employees’ commitment to the vision and goals of the organization is enhanced.  Commitment to training, learning and development is increased.  Turnover is decreased because individuals feel the ownership.  Self-awareness is increased. Interpersonal skills are valued and developed.  Workplace communication is improved.  Employees become self-directed, less dependent and more accountable.  New skills and competencies are learnt and practiced. Ongoing feedback is available to support new behaviours. This results in skilled and productive employees, and measurable gains in output.  Co-operation is increased and shared work objectives are accomplished.

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 Conflicts are reduced, which results in more attention to work issues.  Staff is more motivated and enthusiastic, and generates improved customer relations.  There is greater utilization of human resources to address individual and team performance challenges. Some roles of the manager as coach:  Know your employees.  Foster and support learning environment.  Work with employees to clarify values and vision.  Ensure employees know what is expected of them.  Diagnose problems.  Find solutions.  Establish clear performance goals.  Develop and action plan.

COACHING MODELS C.R.E.A.T.E. model of coaching This model explains the process of coaching in a precise manner. It has six steps, which are as follows: 1. Create trust and safety It is the initial step of the coaching, where building trust becomes very important. The person seeking the guidance must feel confident about his coach. He must feel that the coach will not share his secrets with anyone. He must not hold back any information out of distrust and fear. 2. Recognize possibilities In this step, individual’s value system, organizational value system and work settings are analyzed. Strengths and weaknesses of the individual are discovered. Based on this information, career options are identified and goals are set.

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Create trust and safety

Recognize possibilities

Explore, observe and assess

Action and commitment

Talk through learning’s

Enjoy success

3. Explore, observe and assess This step focuses on finding ways to achieve the goals that are set in the previous step. The individual, with the help of coach, explores various options available to him. After observing external factors and assessing the options in their light, the individual identifies the best option. 4. Action and commitment In this step the individual commits himself to the goals. He starts implementing the option he has chosen. He discusses with coach the problems he faces while implementation. 5. Talk through learning’s The individual keeps revisiting his past learning’s and continues to learn new things. He learns through solving problems that he faces while implementation. He also gets inputs from constructive feedback given by others.

6. Enjoy success The individual must celebrate every success however small it is. It boosts his self confidence and gives energy to go on. It also bestows power to handle failures.

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Directive vs. non directive coaching Directive coaching

In this type of coaching, the coach offers the solutions, tools and techniques for moving forward. Here the person giving advice, the coach, has to know the answer already i.e. he is the master.

The role of the coach is to make the individuals perform correctly by getting them to do what the coach says. Feedback is always in the form of instructions (e.g. "Do this, don’t do that"). The individual has little power or input in the learning process. Advantages  This style makes individuals respond quickly in the initial stages.  If an individual is defocussed, being directive may help to get him back on track.  A coach may be able to minimize management time by simply telling people what to do. Disadvantages  The majority of individuals will only make short-term changes with this approach. For example, they may do the exercise suggested by the coach in the lesson, but may not understand it or believe it enough to practice it on their own. The emphasis on constantly obeying may hurt a person's confidence and self efficacy.  People may become dependent on the directions given by the coach rather than developing their own sense of problem solving and decision making.  This style can easily make coach negative in his approach. He may forget that learning is a process. He may get frustrated if the individual cannot perform what he asks. Non directive coaching In this type of coaching, the coach simply asks questions to the individual to allow him to find his own solutions. Through the use of questions, individual discovers and experiences solutions. He sets up objectives on what to do, and how to do it.

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It helps him to see the situation from a different perspective and gain clarity. It also helps to uncover options, challenge inconsistencies and hold himself accountable for his actions. The coach acts as a mirror and not an advice giver. He uses open ended questions to determine what the issue is, what has been tried, and what the individual wants right now. He gives feedback on any discrepancies he notices between what was said and how the action has been taken. He makes the individual believe in his ability to resolve issues. Advantages  Individuals are involved in their own learning process, which increases the motivation and the probability of long-term change.  A better relationship gets established between the coach and the individual. It increases the amount and quality of information exchanged.  Individuals are less intimidated to explore ideas and ask questions.  The coach gets more feedback from the individual and is more aware of how to improve the learning environment.  The increased use of questions helps equip individual to solve his own problems and be less 'coach dependent'. Disadvantages  Expertise is required on the coach's part because the process is much more interactive.  Coaches may fall into the trap of asking questions that are too broad and lead individuals into lengthy, unnecessary discussion.  Coaches may talk too much and minimize the opportunity for the individuals to learn through experience.  Often coaches have a misconception that this approach means there is no structure or control. They have to be told that sessions should be 'learner- centered’, yet 'coach driven'.

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Motivational coaching The motivational coaching comprises of four steps.

Express empathy

Support self efficacy

Roll with resistance

Develop discrepancy

 Express empathy Empathy involves seeing the world through the individual's eyes, thinking about things as the individual thinks, and feeling things as the individual feels. Expression of empathy is critical. When individual feels that he is understood, he is able to open up and share feelings and experiences with others. This allows coach to assess when and where he needs support and what are potential hurdles in the coaching process. Importantly, when individual perceives empathy on a coach's part, he takes up challenges given by the coach more readily. Individual becomes more comfortable after fully examining his ambivalence about the change and is less likely to defend ideas. The coach's accurate understanding of the individual's experience facilitates the change.  Support self efficacy As noted above, individual's belief that ‘change is possible’ is an important motivator. As individual is held responsible for choosing and carrying out actions, coach focusses his efforts on helping the individual stay motivated. He

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keeps supporting individual’s sense of self- efficacy. Since there is no right way, individual creativity is not limited.

The individual is helped to develop a belief that - change is possible. For example, the

coach might inquire about changes the individual has made in his life, highlighting skills the individual already has. Sharing brief examples of other, similar individuals' successes at changing the same habit or problem can be helpful. In a group setting, the power of having other people who have changed a variety of behaviours during their lifetime gives the coach enormous assistance in showing that people can change.  Roll with resistance The coach does not fight individual resistance, but "rolls with it." Statements demonstrating resistance are not challenged. Instead the coach uses the individual's "momentum" to further explore the individual's views. Since individual is not reinforced for becoming argumentative, resistance tends to decrease. Individual is encouraged to develop his own solutions to the problems he has defined. There is no real hierarchy in the individual-coach relationship. In exploring individual’s concerns, coach may invite individual to examine new perspectives, but he does not impose new ways of thinking on the individual.

 Develop discrepancy

Motivation for change occurs when people perceive a discrepancy between where they are and where they want to be. Coach works to create this situation through helping individual examine the discrepancies between his current behaviour and future goals. When individual

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perceives that their current behaviours are not leading toward some important future goal, he becomes motivated to make important life changes. Of course, coach does not develop discrepancy. But he gently and gradually helps individual to see how some of his current ways of being may lead him away from his eventual goals. Advantages  A regular motivational coaching can help individuals reduce stress. A motivational coach can help individuals get their frustrations or concerns off their chest and help them focus their energies on boosting their performance. A motivational coach therefore ensures the individual’s emotional well being and health are looked after.  Motivational coaching methods can often have a filter down effect. This means that individuals in organization who are benefiting from some kind of coaching are likely to take these methods and techniques and use these to inspire others in the organization. This trickledown effect helps everybody in the organization to be a coach.  A motivational coach can boost the image of the organization. When individuals are motivated and are given due respect, they feel a sense of ownership. When

they are encouraged to think creatively and adopt ‘out of the box’ solutions, motivation levels peak. The organization presents a favourable image of itself and thus faces no problem attracting the most skilled and talented manpower.

 A motivational coach can bring about a dramatic improvement in the work culture. The organization plagued by individual disconnect, politics and bickering will find that its internal problems are sabotaging any growth plans. A motivational coach does not merely inspire and motivate, but also helps individuals to rise above petty difference to work for the common goal. Individuals learn to reduce tensions. They understand the importance of mutual

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respect and give and take in a corporate culture.  The biggest advantage of having motivational coaching can be seen in the enhanced productivity levels of individuals. Motivational coaches are trained in helping individuals hone their skills so they are better equipped to deal with market changes and adapt accordingly. Coaches don’t just teach these techniques; they are experts at getting individuals and management utilize them in workplace.

Qualities of motivational coach  Coaches have a more relaxed attitude towards life and are more aware of their

surroundings. They are more open to unexpected events which allow them to see opportunities which others may not recognize. Coaches often maintain an extensive social network.

 Coaches listen to their instincts and make good decisions without really knowing the reason. Those who consider themselves unlucky, tend to make unsuccessful decisions and trust wrong people. In general coaches’ instincts pay off unlike those people who ignore their gut feelings and regret their decisions.  Coaches persevere in the face of failure and believe that even in a tragedy; life will work out for them.  Coaches are able to turn bad luck into good fortune. This skill is considered the best predictor for survival. G.R.O.W. model The GROW model, devised by Sir John Whitmore, provides a framework for individual coaching sessions and the coaching process. The acronym stands for Goals, Reality, Options and Will, also known as Wrap-up. GROW is very well known in the business arena and also has many applications in everyday life. The particular value of GROW is, it provides an effective and structured methodology to

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set goals and solve problems. It can be used by anyone without special training. It is easily understood, straightforward to apply and very thorough.

G

Goals

R

Reality

O

Options

W

Will / Wrap-up

Goals Coach and individual agree on specific objectives. This is vital in coaching because if you don't know where you are going, you will probably end up somewhere else! The coach asks specific questions to ensure that the goal is in the best interests of the individual. Most coaches will encourage to set goals which are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic and Time bound). It enables the individual to focus his thoughts and measure his progress. This is the end point, where the individual wants to be. The goal has to be defined in such a way that it is very clear to him. Action points:  Coach and protégée agree on the specific topic and objective of the discussion.  If appropriate, they also set long term goal of the coaching program. Reality The individual needs to have a realistic grasp of where he is now. The individual asks himself following questions. Is the desired objective a realistic goal? What are the chances of achieving it? Is there someone else who has achieved this? In this section the coach will assists the individual to assess objectively his current situation and what he feels about it. This process of exploration may actually help individual to clarify his goals better. He begins to understand more deeply what

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drives him and what his sources of dissatisfaction are. If the individual is to look at all the steps he needs to take in order to achieve the goal, the Reality would be the number of those steps which he has completed so far. Action points:  Coach invites protégée to do a self evaluation.  Coach offers specific feedback and helps protégée check assumptions.  Coach helps protégée see truth by discarding irrelevant history or data. Options The coach guides the individual to come up with number of ways of achieving the goal and the individual decides which one to pursue. The coach is not there to lead people. He is there to help them explore possibilities. At this stage, the idea is not immediately to find the solution, but simply to generate as many possible alternative courses of action as possible. This kind of brainstorming coaching approach is helpful to come up with new ideas. Action points:  Coach will invite the solutions from the protégée and will be very careful when offering his own suggestions.  Coach ensures protégée has made a conscious choice as part of the action plan. Will / wrap-up The individual will only be motivated to go for the goal if he is excited and motivated by it. Coach and individual look at the possible obstacles and how these can be overcome. They try to find whether there is a secondary gain in the individual not achieving the goal. The options then need to be converted into action steps. Action points:  Coach requests protégée to commit to the action plan within a specific timeline.  Both identify possible obstacles and consider how protégée could overcome them.  Action plan must be broken down into specific achievable steps.  Both agree on subsequent follow up session.

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The GROW Model works because it ensures that there is nothing at the unconscious level which might prevent the individual from going for the goal. It checks whether the goal fits in with the capabilities of the person and purpose in life. It establishes whether the individual needs to change any current behaviours or get new skills in order to be successful. Six step model for coaching The six steps for coaching are said to be blueprint for coaches working in an organization. Step 1: Management meeting This step involves discussions between the management and the coach to agree on both contextual factors and logistical issues of the coaching process. They discuss context areas like the history of success and failure of coaching in the organization, the availability of resources to sustain the coaching process, the competencies necessary for the individual to succeed, etc. The logistical issues that could be discussed are the schedule of coaching, the assessment process, confidentiality norms, and terms of payment and engagement of the coach.

1) Management meeting

2) Initial individual meeting with the individual

4) 2 nd Session: Giving feedback and coaching

3) 1 st Session: Assessment

6) Management feedback

5) Weekly coaching involving  Recognizing, examining and

challenging any self limiting beliefs  Examining values, vision and purpose  Establishing goals  Developing an action plan  Continuing regular coaching sessions

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Step 2: Initial individual meeting

After meeting the management, the coach has to meet the person individually to discuss the coaching process, the agenda, and the time frame. He also needs to clarify any doubts and questions that the individual might have.

Step 3: First coaching session The first formal coaching session usually includes some form of assessment. The individual might show some apprehensions regarding this agenda. But the coach should reassure him and explain him the need for assessment, build rapport, and clarify his doubts before administering the assessment tool.

Step 4: Second coaching session This session generally has four phases. These include:

 Giving feedback: This is based on the assessment tool given in the first coaching session. Feedback must be given constructively. (Refer to feedback section earlier).  Coaching agreement: This involves creating an agreement or a contract that is to be signed by both the coach and the individual. This clarifies the roles of both and fosters the individual’s commitment to the success of the coaching process. This agreement is agreed upon mutually and covers areas like the overall goals and commitment of the coach, the individual’s commitment, confidentiality clauses, cancellation procedures, duration of the process etc.  Obtain agreement on issues: It is vital to obtain an agreement on the issues to be worked on in the subsequent sessions. Here the coach should also assess any resistance the individual displays, and work on reducing or eliminating it.

Step 5: Weekly coaching sessions Depending upon the duration of the coaching assignment, varying amounts of time and effort are spent on different aspects like:

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 Recognizing, examining, and challenging any self limiting beliefs (SLBs): These beliefs tend to have a negative impact on the individual’s performance at work

and are self sabotaging. Thus, these beliefs must be eliminated or modified to create a positive impact on the individual’s performance.  Examining values, vision and purpose: This is crucial while setting strategic goals. His values, vision and purpose should be similar to those

of the organization or they will negatively affect the performance. Thus, the coach has to explore these and help the individual to align them to those of the organization.  Establishing goals: The coach and an individual together move towards mutually agreed upon goals for the coaching relationship. These are clearly defined in previous stages. Coach monitors the progress of goal achievement.  Developing an action plan: Once the above step is completed, the coach and an individual together develop an action plan to reach the goals. This includes developing a strategy to move forward and to overcome hurdles.  Continuing regular coaching sessions: The regularity of the coaching sessions depends on the coaching style being used. The sessions should be regular with short intervals, during the first phase of the coaching process. Once the process and relationship is stable, the intervals can be increased depending on the availability of the coach and the individual. Step 6: Management feedback The process of giving feedback should be agreed upon by the coach and the management in the first few meetings. The ethical issue here is for the coach to decide how much he can reveal without breaching the individual’s confidentiality. Thus the coach has to balance the organization’s demands for feedback and the rights of the individual. It can be done by giving the organization feedback about the broader, organization concerned issues, and leaving out the finer details and personal issues expressed by the individual.

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Six cap coaching system There are altogether six caps under this model.  Declaring possibilities cap

This cap symbolizes exploring options and finding alternatives. Coach suggests different ways to achieve goals solve problems and handle situations. Coach may discuss the issue with the individual and make him brainstorm on different options. Issues which were not thought of before are brought to notice by the coach.

Declaring Possibilities

Drawing Others Out

Six Cap Coaching Model

Forwarding Action

Assessment

Teaching and Advising

Reframing

 Drawing others out cap This cap is helpful when the individual is reserved. The reason behind can be communication gap or unwillingness to contribute. Coach helps to bridge this gap using various techniques. He probes to find out the reason for being reserved and emphasizes benefits of expressing ideas to the individual. He helps the person to come out of his shell.  Assessment cap Putting on this cap means evaluating available options objectively. Pros and cons of each option are weighed. Implications are carefully analyzed and the best option is chosen. This is the crucial step to reach action plan.  Reframing cap This cap is used when coach encounters rigid mind-sets, wrong attitudes, inapt thinking and restrictive belief system. Coach has to reframe people’s thoughts

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and ideas in order to bring about change. This step is important for people to see other perspective of their beliefs and make appropriate modifications.  Teaching and advising cap This cap helps when coach wants people to understand and learn some essential things. Coach imparts useful knowledge and skills to the individual. This step equips the person with necessary ways and techniques that are helpful in goal achievement.  Forwarding action cap The coach is supposed to wear this cap when enough thinking and planning has been done and it’s time to take steps. Coach also suggests the starting point and way ahead. He emphasizes importance of action and instills energy to act.

MOTIVATION

A concept that is very closely related to leadership and coaching is motivation. Unless an individual is motivated to do his job, he will not maximize his potential and have a superior level of performance. Motivation means the amount, intensity and

persistence of efforts, in a particular direction, towards a particular goal.

Maslow’s hierarchy Abraham Maslow was the first person to give a model of motivation that described motivation as a series of psychological needs. These needs progress from physiological needs to safety and security needs, to social needs, to self esteem needs, and finally to the need for self actualization. According to him, a lower need has to

be fulfilled before the individual progresses to the next need. For example, if the individual does not feel safe and secure, he is not motivated to carry out some behaviour that would bring him self esteem or recognition. The diagram below explains Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

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Opportunity to handle challenging projects

Self actualization need Creativity and innovation

Pay hike, promotion, personal assistant and company car

Esteem needs Respect and recognition

Work groups, team work and office layout

Social needs Love and affection

Job security, pension and insurance

Safety and security needs Freedom from physical psychological and financial harm

Rest periods, work breaks, lunch breaks and wages

Physiological needs Food, clothing, shelter

The Porter Lawler model of motivation This model is an accurate description of what are the different factors that contribute to an individual’s performance on the job and his satisfaction with the job. They explain motivation as a process that has the following sub-equations:  Effort is affected or impacted by  How much the individual personally values the reward  The individual’s perception of the probability that his efforts will bring about the rewards he wants  Performance is impacted by  The amount of effort made by the individual

 The abilities and traits of the individual  What the individual perceives his role to be  Performance impacts  What extrinsic rewards the individual gets  What rewards the individual feels intrinsically

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 What the individual perceives as being a reward that is equal to the reward enjoyed by others in the same situation  The individual’s perception of the probability that his efforts will bring about the rewards he wants  Satisfaction is impacted by  What extrinsic rewards the individual gets  What rewards the individual feels intrinsically  What the individual perceives as being a reward that is equal to the reward enjoyed by others in the same situation  Satisfaction impacts

 How much the individual personally values the reward

Perceived equitable rewards

Value of reward

Abilities and traits

Intrinsic rewards

Performance/

Accomplishments

Effort

Satisfaction

Intrinsic rewards

Perceived effort reward probability

Role perceptions

Thus, in conclusion, this model predicts that satisfaction is determined by the perceived equity of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for high-level performance.

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INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (IDP) The IDP is developed by the individual and his supervisor. IDP is an excellent tool that supervisors can use to develop and motivate their staff. Managers who promote the use of IDPs also send a clear message that they view development as a priority. The purpose of an IDP is threefold.

1. It ensures that the individual maintains the current level of job proficiency through continued training and developmental activities.

2. The individual charts a career path. He identifies new knowledge, skills and abilities to pursue, as well as learning activities needed to reach the established goals. 3. The IDP will support the organization mission. IDPs work by helping an individual and his supervisor clarify things that are important to them and plan to achieve them. IDPs describe the areas of responsibility assigned to the individual as stated in his/her job description. They also depict the competencies needed to perform the responsibility.  Developmental activities Each responsibility area is accompanied by one or more specific developmental activities that will enable the individual to achieve or practice that competency.  Time line with milestones and dates completed Realistic start dates, end dates, and other major milestones are established for each activity. The completion date should be listed when the individual can document proficiency based on the competency, skill or ability. IDPs include:  Responsibility areas

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To work out IDP, the following processes work together:  The performance appraisal  The training needs analysis  Career development planning

The steps for making IDP 1. Find out your current position Conduct a self-assessment to determine current skills, interests and values. Do an assessment of current job strengths and areas for improvement. Ask questions such as,

 What is the most important thing for me?  How satisfied am I in my current job?  How well does my job meet my needs?

 What would be the change that I would like to bring about?  What do others think about me? How do I want to be seen?  What kind of person do I want to be? What makes me happy?

2. Identify the desired position for you Once you have reviewed your current position, begin to examine the options available. Ask questions such as:  Do I want to move up or over to a new organization?  Do I want to enrich my present job and develop new skills? If so, which ones and why?

Talk with the supervisors and see what options are available. Interview, collect information, and ask others about their perceptions of you. Do a reality check. Match your needs with your options. Think about what the customer needs, how the organization is planning to meet customer needs, and what the demands and risks are.

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3. Decide the path that you are going to follow After deciding the desired position, identify developmental areas. Determine your barriers. Identify the sources of the barriers and determine the need and actions to overcome them. Ask questions such as:  What specific skills, knowledge and abilities do I possess?  What do I strengthen now to meet where I am? What do I strengthen for future assignments?  What are the barriers in my path? What do I need to overcome the barriers? Where do I need to change? 4. Know your current level of job competency? You may need to conduct a job analysis to determine the job-related tasks that are necessary for the successful performance on job. These tasks can then be used to identify the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities needed. Once identified, the individual and the supervisor can determine the areas within which improvement is needed. Ask questions such as:  What is the purpose of your current job? What are the major duties and responsibilities involved?  What special requirements are necessary or helpful to know? What all individuals should keep in mind while making IDP Identification of personal goals 1. Identify the assignments or job duties you would like to complete this year. 2. Define your short-range (1 year) goals. 3. List future activities that you would like to accomplish. 4. List possible career paths open to you. 5. Define your long-range (1 - 3 years) goals. 6. Ask yourself, are my goals realistic? How strong is my desire to achieve these goals?

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Are my goals compatible with my strengths and weaknesses? Are my goals compatible with the parts of my job that I like and dislike?

Identification of organizational goals 1. Identify organizational core competencies. 2. Identify career field core competencies and career ladders. 3. List long-range training opportunities that provide rotational assignments or developmental assignments outside your chosen career.

Identification of objectives 1. Read your job description. 2. Read your most recent performance appraisal.

3. Read your office/division mission and function statement. 4. List specific job activities that you enjoyed in the past year. 5. List specific job activities that you did not enjoy in the past year. 6. Identify elements of your job where you excel. 7. List those elements of your job where you believe performance could be improved. 8. List those activities within your office/division that are interesting to you. Identification of development activities 1. List the ten most common tasks that you perform. (Tasks are single activities that cannot be meaningfully broken down into smaller elements). 2. Identify the knowledge, skills and abilities that are needed to perform each task. 3. Identify and prioritize the knowledge, skills and abilities you need to strengthen. 4. Identify short-term development activities that will help you acquire the needed knowledge, skills and abilities.

Model for career planning This model follows the following steps:

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 Knowledge of work environment: This involves studying both the work environment of your organization as well as of other organizations.  Knowledge of self: This step involves introspecting about one’s abilities, traits, values, vision, purpose and individual goals.  Integration of knowledge of self and the organization: Here the individual should compare the knowledge of self and of work environment, and assess whether there is a match between the organization and self. If there is a match, then the individual should proceed to the next step. If not, he has to work on aligning the self with the organization by working on whatever aspect is deficient.  Goal development: Here, the individual develops goals, with the help of his supervisor/coach, which are based on the last step. The organizational goals should be acceptable to the individual. These can be broken down into component personal goals.  Method for taking action: In this step, the individual constructs a plan or a strategy to reach the goals agreed upon in the previous step.  Individual development plan: The last two steps lead to development of an individual development plan. Career planning process The career planning process is said to be a cyclic one because it is continuous and occurs throughout the career of the individual. A diagrammatic representation of the process is given below.

Scanning the environment

Self assessment

Marketing oneself

Developing a strategic career plan

Creating a career vision

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CONCLUSION Coaching has become the reality in this highly competitive business world. It equips employees with the necessary knowledge and skills to serve the organization to the

best of their capabilities. It develops their skills in both professional as well as personal realms. It is also connected to the change in the organization that enables the employees to adapt to different challenges and changes to fulfill the current organization visions and values.

Coaching also helps employees understand their relationship in the overall scheme of the organization. They understand how important their tasks are and how they can work towards becoming better employees and persons while serving in the organization. The coaching is generally focussed towards motivating employees, uplifting their morale and increasing their productivity. The benefit of coaching is it ties a positive knot on the mind of employees. It also makes the employee feel more important and part of an organization. Coaching fulfills the balance between achieving organizations goals and personal growth of the professional.

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