LoRa Alliance® End of Year Report 2020

WHITE PAPERS PUBLISHED IN 2020

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AGRICULTURE How to make the right connection for precision agriculture READ NOW >

BUILDINGS Why LoRaWAN ® is the foundation for Smart Building success READ NOW >

HOW TO MAKE THE RIGHT CONNECTION FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE

WHY LoRaWAN ® IS THE FOUNDATION FOR SMART BUILDING SUCCESS

MAY 2020

MAY 2020

INTRODUCTION The farming of tomorrow is already here: How LoRaWAN ® technology supports Smart Agriculture & Precise Animal Production READ NOW >

INTRODUCTION

sustainability and employee recruitment and retention programs and, with millennials who are used to automation and expect attractive work environments, the role of smart building applications will become of greater importance. For organizations to attract younger generations of workers, work locations, they will need to offer workspaces that attract them to come in and spend time there. Applications that enable the smooth sharing of desk space, enable individualized environmental and other controls and are maintained to a high standard of cleanliness and décor will be vital. Even so, buildings themselves remain unsmart. New buildings continue to be constructed with no reference to enablement of smart building applications forcing past, this had caused substantial challenges in terms of installing hardware, power supplies and connectivity ultimately making it both time and cost prohibitive. From a building owners’ perspective, being able to swiftly and cost effectively add new functionality to existing real estate and thereby increase its value is a key driver. The ability to add such capability at a low cost and with minimal disruption to

Water and nutrient levels, therefore, need to be managed for farms to be successful but traditional approaches of irrigation and fertilizing according to seasonal or crop- based cycles are imprecise, relying on season-wide averaging and insights gleaned retrospectively from crop yields. In contrast, a soil monitoring system can enable water consumption to be reduced by around 20%, according to real experiences from current deployments. Soil data is subject to variations in climate from year-to- year and to anomalies such as extreme weather or pest epidemics, so analyzing historical data doesn't provide all the benefits to farmers. More timely – and often real-time – information is required to enable farmers to react swiftly to changes in nutrient or moisture levels. Being able to irrigate when soil is too dry has obvious benefits in terms of yield size, but the same system can also advise that irrigation is not necessary when soil is at the right moisture level, thereby saving water. Similarly, it’s of no benefit to add nutrients to soil that already has reached the required level. However, to achieve this minimized usage of resources for maximized crop production requires far more granular detail than has previously been available. Data needs to be collected upon not on a farm-by-farm basis but on a field-by-field basis. Ideally, data collection should be even more granular, enabling insights into soil conditions in areas of fields in real-time so farmers can respond rapidly to clearly- presented data via mobile device applications.

The growing global population coupled with increased awareness of the demands agriculture places on the environment is putting farmers under intense pressure. They're required to maximize yields to feed more people while simultaneously ensuring their practices are sustainable. In addition, consumers demand cheap food, necessitating greater automation to preserve margins. There is a need to find a balance between intensive production and respect for nature and this cannot be achieved within the confines of traditional farming. Harnessing technology to enable smart agriculture has emerged to provide farmers with the tools they need to serve a 30% larger population in the future in a sustainable way that is in harmony with nature. Within smart agriculture, there are two main industries: crop production, which includes arable, orchard and vegetable farming, and animal husbandry. These have distinct requirements. This paper focuses on crop production exclusively. THE FARMING OF TOMORROW IS ALREADY HERE: HOW LoRaWAN ® TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTS SMART AGRICULTURE & PRECISE ANIMAL PRODUCTION To maximize production, resources need to be utilized effectively and, for many farms, this starts with ensuring soil quality is optimized and water is not wasted. Projections show that one-third of the world is set to be living in water stress and, with agriculture consuming up to 80% of the water in some countries while as much as 60% of water withdrawn for irrigation often does not reach the crop 1 , the situation must change urgently. NOVEMBER 2020

Smart buildings present an obvious sector of the market in which Internet of Things (IoT) enabled services can

applications to generate savings in utility consumption but this is now widening to encompass applications that support the new ways that people use the buildings they live and work in. Popular applications include room and desk sharing, individual environmental control, predictive maintenance and many others.

Costs associated with traditional workplaces have typically

JLL which outlines operating costs of US$3 for utilities, US$30 for rent and US$300 for employee compensation per square foot. Naturally, the actual cost of this varies from market-to-market but the ratio generally holds true. The employee compensation and that utility costs are the only area with room for maneuver. Historically, these are the easy wins with IoT-enabled sensors and meters being used to monitor and manage power, heat, cooling and lighting-

Low power devices with wireless connectivity therefore look particularly attractive for building tenants and owners but there is a bewildering and growing list of technological options that claim to offer this functionality for customers

However, organizations are now starting to realize that having a smart building means much more than making small adjustments to energy and water consumption. Smart building initiatives now form part of organizations’

LoRa Alliance ® and LoRaWAN ® are registered trademarks. Used with permission. ©2020 LoRa Alliance ®

www.lora-alliance.org

LoRa Alliance ® and LoRaWAN ® are registered trademarks. Used with permission. ©2020 LoRa Alliance ®

www.lora-alliance.org

INTRODUCTION

from farm to fork. With approximately 1.5 million cattle and nearly 978 million pigs being bred around the world (source: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QA), these complex demands cannot be met without the help of new technologies, such as the Internet-of-Things (IoT).

Recent extreme incidents around the globe—famine, climate change, wildfires, tornados, droughts, floods, and pandemics—remind us that farmers are facing two major challenges: to feed the planet and sustain the environment. The balance between conducting intensive or extensive

Here are a few examples of the wide variety of use cases implemented today:

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