C+S September 2023 Vol. 9 Issue 9 (web)

Civil + Structural Engineer is the best source of news and information for the engineering industry. Thank you for reading!

VOLUME 9 ISSUE 9 csengineermag.com

publisher Chad Clinehens, P.E. | 479.856.6097 | cclinehens@zweiggroup.com media manager Chad Coldiron | 479.200.3538 | ccoldiron@zweiggroup.com Editor Luke Carothers | lcarothers@zweiggroup.com Cover Margot Moulton | mmoulton@zweiggroup.com

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Civil + Structural Engineer (ISSN 23726717) is published monthly by Zweig Group, Fayetteville, AR. Telephone: 800.466.6275. Copyright© 2023, Zweig Group. Articles not be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of Zweig Group. Unsolicited manuscripts will not be returned unless accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Subscriptions: Annual digital subscription is free. To subscribe or update your subscription information, please visit our website www.csengineermag.com/subscribe/ or call 800.466.6275.

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csengineermag.com September 2023



THE COVER 8 Seattle Aquarium: Major Upgrade to City’s Waterfront CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 10 Trendsetting: New York City and Indigo River 12 Carbon Capture & Sequestration: An overview and guide to its economic incentives 14 Address Cement-Related Carbon During Design to Achieve Net Zero 18 The Kids are Alright: Kennesha Garg and her Mangrove-Inspired Solution for a Greener Future TECH + SOFTWARE 20 AI Technology Transforms Public Agency’s Asset Management Project Timeline 22 Tech-enabled safety and Compliance 24 Disaster response planning around the globe 26 The Future is Now: Robotics and Automation in the Construction Industry WATER + STORMWATER 28 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Applications and Benefits STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 34 Thinking Outside the Steel Box: How the Tent Industry Is Currently Solving On-Site Construction Staging & Storage 36 Vibration Isolation for Norfolk House Development 38 Mass Timber in the United States: Part II departments 6 Events 32 The Acoustics of Megabuilds 33 Paradigm Shift: 555 Greenwich

39 Benchmarks 40 Reader Index

Columns LOOKING BACK, MOVING FORWARD 4 Shifting Course: The White River and Table Rock Dam Luke Carothers INDUSTRY INSIGHTS 5 Coming Soon: ElevateAEC 2023




September 2023


Located near the southern border of Missouri, Table Rock Lake was created in 1958 when the eponymous dam was constructed across the White River to control flooding and generate hydroelectric power. Designed and built by the US Army Corps of Engineers over a four year period starting in 1954, Table Rock Dam–so named for an overhanging rock formation one mile downstream–created a 43,100-acre lake with a shoreline that stretches roughly 800 miles through the surrounding Ozark hills. Long before the White River’s waters filled the shores of Table Rock Lake, however, it cut a defined path through the Ozarks–beginning in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas and snaking into Missouri before flowing southeast into the Arkansas River and eventually the Mississippi. Before any stagecoaches, trains, or roads appeared in the Ozark Hills, the White River served as the region’s only means of transportation. The region’s first settlers made their way through the region’s hills and valleys on flat-bottomed boats. These early settlers cut out homesteads for themselves along the White River where it breathed life into the first American settlements in the Ozarks. As the 19th century progressed, these small homesteads grew into settlements along the river. Barges and flat-bottomed boats moved goods and people up and down the river, supporting several modest settlements that would grow into cities. Eventually, these boats were replaced by smaller steamboats, which further increased the region’s ability to support a growing population as the flow of trade and passengers moved up and down the White River. Several of these towns and cities further enhanced this transportation system by dredging the river to support even more steamboat traffic. Eventually, the flow of goods and people was shifted to growing railroad networks, and, at the start of the 20th century, the importance of the White River as a source of transportation activity had been greatly reduced. By the turn of the century, the once-small towns and settlements that had been carved out along the river’s plains had grown into thriving economic centers for the region. And, whereas the river once carried the promise of economic prosperity, its flow had come to threaten these growing towns with devastating seasonal floods. Construction of the dam was authorized by Congress in the Flood Control Act of 1941, but the project’s start was delayed by both World War II and the Korean War as well as the construction of nearby Bull Shoals Dam. Work eventually began on Table Rock Dam in 1954 when the Little Rock District of the Corps of Engineers arrived in October. The plan was to create a combination concrete gravity dam and earthen embankment. The concrete section of the dam would be a little over 1,600-feet long, requiring 1.23 million cubic yards of concrete. Still more, the earthen portion of the dam would be over 4,800-feet long and contain 3.32 million cubic yards of fill. Table Rock Dam would also feature a 531- foot long spillway with ten crest gates for the control of overflow water. Shifting Course: The White River and Table Rock Dam Luke Carothers looking back, moving forward

Table Rock lake dam White River - Branson MO

Completed at a total cost of around $65 million, Table Rock Dam formed one of dozens of man-made lakes that began to dot the Ozarks. Whereas the Missouri and Arkansas Ozarks had once been a region devoid of large lakes, the construction of dams like Table Rock over the course of the 20th century transformed the region physically and economically. By the latter half of the 20th century, Table Rock Lake was but one of several large bodies of water that leapt into existence in the region. The result was a massive boost to the resort and tourism industries as the region suddenly had thousands of acres of lakeshore that previously didn’t exist. On Table Rock Lake, the US Army Corps of Engineers built 14 campgrounds and opened it up to the building of commercial marinas. The massive influx of tourism supported the growth of the town of Branson, which now hosts upwards of 5 million visitors per year. In the relatively short period of time that American towns and cities have existed in the Ozark region, there has been a tremendous shift in the relationship between these communities and the rivers that cut the first paths through it. As society’s needs shifted, so too did this relationship. What didn’t change, however, is the ability for these rivers to provide a means and reason for people to enter the region. Where once this function operated as a result of transportation, it has now shifted to being the destination–opening the Ozarks to another generation of awestruck explorers.

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com .


csengineermag.com September 2023

Industry Insights

Coming Soon: ElevateAEC 2023 By Liisa Andreassen

The opening of the ElevateAEC conference is just two weeks away, and the really exciting news is that there’s still a chance to attend. So, if you’ve got some wiggle room in your calendar for this largest in- person gathering of industry leaders and award-winning firms, book it now. The event is scheduled from Sept. 13-15 and will be held in Frisco, TX (the new headquarters of the Professional Golf Association – PGA) at the newly-opened Omni PGA Resort. This highly-rated resort is located amongst the beautiful rolling hills of the former Fields Ranch and is just minutes from downtown Frisco. Conference attendees will be greeted with legendary Texas hospitality and unmatched luxury throughout the resort–a venue that provides an ideal place to network, learn and have a little fun to boot. So, let’s dive in and see what inspiring and innovative things are planned for this year’s ElevateAEC conference. It’s your last chance to join in. 10 Reasons to Attend the Sixth Annual ElevateAEC 2023 1. You’ll join like-minded people who all seek to “elevate the industry.” 2. You’ll listen to inspirational keynote speakers. This year’s opening keynote speaker is Harry Clark, best-selling author of Mistakes Millionaires Make. See a complete list of speakers here . 3. You’ll get to partake in collaborative panel discussions and share problems, solutions and ideas. 4. You’ll learn from the industry’s best and brightest how to implement strategies and tactics for everything from new ways to drive performance and efficiency to recruitment, retention, remote work and more. 5. You’ll get to choose from 16+ educational sessions to help you with specific items on your to-do list. Recruitment and retention strategy questions? We’ve got answers. Want feedback on your ownership transition plan? We’re listening. Interested in switching up your leadership strategies? We’ve got some ideas. 6. You’ll network, connect, and collaborate and likely make some new connections to last a lifetime. 7. You’ll meet nearly 30 speakers from across the industry working in a variety of capacities from presidents/CEOs and CFOs to HR directors, marketing and communication directors and venture/ innovation officers. Here’s a complete list of speakers and events .

8. You can add a strategic leadership coaching program to your conference ticket. (See details below). 9. You’ll enjoy some fun recreational activities. Play a little golf; rejuvenate at the spa; or sip on a poolside cocktail. 10. You’ll be part of a movement – one that’s transforming the industry – one step at a time. And, if those aren’t enough for you… there’s more. A Strategic Leadership Coaching Program Focuses on Self- Awareness This year’s ElevateAEC 2023 conference kicks off a new leadership program targeted to top leadership to help them improve social and cognitive skills through strategic self-awareness. It’s funded through a research grant and will be offered free of charge to Elevate attendees (excluding a $195 fee for an online assessment). Goals of the program include: • Fostering strategic self-awareness. • Equipping leaders with evidence-based cognitive and behavioral tools to enhance their ability to analyze situations, make decisions, and execute strategies. • Improving overall well-being. • Improving resilience, grit and coachability. An Iconic Black-Tie Gala Honors 2023 Award Winners While learning is the primary focus of the ElevateAEC 2023 event, we know how to make time for some fun too – and we do it with flair. During this year’s black-tie gala, we’ll honor the 2023 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Excellence in Client Experience, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures, and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards.

So, ready to book it? It’s easy. There are a few different ticket options available. Book your choice here . If you have questions or are interested in getting a group rate, contact: events@zweiggroup.com or call the Zweig Group team at 800.466.6275 .


September 2023


events + virtual Events

September 2023

BIBM Congress September 27-29 – Amsterdam

The 24th BIBM Congress will take place in Amsterdam! The congress will be held in the Dutch capital—the “Venice of the North.” The congress will be under the slogan “Green | Digital | Resilient | Precast Concrete Solutions.” Congress language is English. https://bibmcongress.eu/

Driving Value through Project Delivery: How Effective Project Management Can “Lift All Ships” for your Clients and your Firm" September 5 – VIRTUAL Discover the true meaning of project value and unlock your project managers’ potential to drive performance for your business. This interactive session uncovers the secrets behind how clients perceive value in engineering providers. Gain invaluable insights into the core domains that drive value and acquire a simple framework for setting and exceeding expectations from the start. https://www.acec.org/course/driving-value-through-project-delivery- how-effective-project-management-can-lift-all-ships-for-your-clients- and-your-firm/ Reserve your seat at this highly interactive event designed to provide M&A education and practical application through interactive roundtable discussions, thought leadership from expert panelists, and focused networking to connect leaders from across the country. You will end the day better informed about the opportunities for M&A as a growth strategy. https://www.zweiggroup.com/products/2023-m-a-next-symposium M&A next Symposium September 12-13 – Frisco, TX Registration is open for the annual in-person conference in Frisco, September 13-15. The 2023 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Excellence in Client Experience, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures, and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards will be celebrated at the iconic black-tie awards gala. https://www.zweiggroup.com/pages/annual-elevateaec-conference Business of Automated Mobility Forum: Flight Path to UAM September 27-28 Join SAE and AUVSI, along with industry and government stakeholders, for collaborative discussions to accelerate the evolution to a safe and efficient low-altitude transport system. Engage on the critical topics to realize the potential of UAM, including regulatory outlook, vehicle development and production, operational management, UTM, safety, and security. https://www.auvsi.net/bamforum/home ElevateaEC conference & Awards Gala September 13-15 – Frisco, TX

SEAoT State Conference SEPTEMBER 28 - 29

The Structural Engineers Association of Texas is hosting their annual conference in Houston, TX. This two-day premier structural engineering conference in Texas features world-class speakers and panelists discussing various technical topics, industry challenges, and business practices. Look for Zweig Group's Kristin Kautz as she speaks about The State of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in AEC. https://seaot.org/2023-state-conference/

October 2023 Chief Strategy Officer Roundtable October 11-13 – Fayetteville, AR

The CSO Roundtable Retreat is a unique opportunity for AEC firm leaders to engage and interact with industry peers to discuss current issues facing firms today, explore industry trends and next practices, and confront the biggest challenges they face leading their firms. Come prepared to discuss your biggest challenges and successes during this highly interactive session. With you in control of the subject matter, roundtable discussions strike at the heart of what you need to effect change in your organization. https://zweiggroup.com/products/chief-strategy-officer-roundtable The Fall Conference is ACEC’s signature business-focused event designed to give engineering industry executives the unique opportunity to network with their peers, gain insights from tailored education sessions, and hear from inspirational keynote speakers. Look for Zweig Group consultants on the exhibit floor for a complimentary speed consultation session; and catch Kyle Ahern and Shirley Che at their breakout session: A modern day AEC professional's guide to ACEC 2023 Fall Conference October 15-18 – Austin, TX

Employee Experience (EX). https://conference.acec.org/


csengineermag.com September 2023

November 2023

2023 SE3 National Symposium: Engagement and Equity in the Structural Engineering Profession NOVEMBER 7 – ANAHEIM, CA This half-day program is the second Structural Engineering Engagement and Equity (SE3) Symposium to be held in conjunction with a national engineering conference since the 2019 NCSEA Summit. The event welcomes engineers of all levels, business owners, human resource managers, and anyone within the AEC industry who is interested in promoting dialogue on engagement and equity in the structural engineering profession. As part of this program, attendees will participate in five separate sessions focused on various aspects of engagement, retention, diversity and inclusion. They will learn about SE3 initiatives and activities, hear from industry panelists on the state of our profession, and acquire practical strategies and best practices for improving retention within their organizations. Look for Zweig Group's Director of Learning and ElevateHER, Shirley Che, as she delivers one of the main stage sessions: ElevateHER, A Path to a More Engaged & Sustainable AEC Workforce. https://www.ncseasummit.com/special-program/ preconferencesymposium2023 Meet the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations in the happiest place on earth to network and learn with the happiest engineers around. Interact with and learn from leaders in the field, curious problem solvers, and expert speakers. Stay current on advancements and best practices in structural engineering and building and design codes—in education sessions and in the Exhibit Hall. Discuss technical, business, and industry challenges—and work toward solutions in a collaborative community. Look for Zweig Group's Kyle Ahern and Shirley Che at their breakout session: A modern day AEC professional's guide to Employee Experience (EX). https://www.ncseasummit.com/ NCSEA Summit NOVEMBER 7-10 – ANAHEIM, CA

Minds & Machines: Dominating the Convergence of AI Intelligence and Strategy in AEC November 2-3 – Nashville, TN Zweig Group’s T(AI)SK FORCE will be hosting a two-day symposium to deep dive into AI integration and operations. Our immersive seminars and workshops equip AEC leaders and managers with understanding, insight, and intelligence to identify and act upon AI opportunities within their organizations. We liken AI to a marathon that never ends. No matter if you walk, run, or sprint, this will be your first step to getting in the race. This training provides a high-impact, hands-on learning experience that is designed to help emerging and current leaders be at the forefront of the AI technological revolution. AI is not a trend or fad, it is a fixture. AI is here to stay. https://zweiggroup.com/products/minds-machines This is the unmissable global event for the lifting industry; almost 100 exhibitors, over 1,500 industry professionals attending, two days of knowledge sharing and training, as well as the celebrated LEEA Awards. The annual event hosted by the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association, the leading global representative body for all those involved in the lifting industry worldwide, is your chance to connect with your customers, meet new clients and do business. The show attracts end users from a wide range of vertical markets, including oil and gas, energy, offshore, road & maritime transport, construction, utilities, rail, renewable energy, civil engineering, entertainment and manufacturing, and more. https://liftex.org/liftex-liverpool-2023 LiftEx 2023 November 21-22 – Liverpool


September 2023


Seattle Aquarium: Major Upgrade to City’s Waterfront

PERI Delivers Highly Efficient Shoring Solutions for Aquarium Addition By PERI USA

Seattle aquarium is one of the city’s premier attractions, bringing in more than 850,000 visitors per year. During the transformation of Seattle’s central waterfront, planners decided to build a new 50,000-square-foot ocean pavilion exhibit space for the aquarium that would feature sharks, rays, and other animals. The roof of the pavilion would transform into a public plaza that overlooks the Seattle oceanfront, complete with walkways and greenery. To accommodate construction, the city of Seattle temporarily shifted the roadway near the aquarium, placing it in close proximity to the construction site. That meant formwork closest to the roadway spanned over two lanes of traffic. With an active highway below the construction site, safety for workers became paramount. To manage these challenging circumstances and meet the unique design and performance requirements for the addition, the project team turned to the expertise of PERI USA for custom scaffolding, formwork, and shoring systems. “With the challenge of the location of this project, it was necessary that parts of our systems would have to span over the roadway”, said Barry Humphreys, sales engineer at PERI. “PERI UP scaffolding extended over the highway parallel to the side and allowed us to meet restrictions that required a narrow width while being cost effective.”

.............. Janicki Industries Contractor ..................... Turner Construction Location ........................... Seattle, WA Products PERI UP SKYDECK MULTIFLEX VARIOKIT Customer’s Benefits 1. Allows shortest assembly and cycle times with minimum formwork sets 2. Maximum adaptability to suit project- specific geometries 3. Lightweight, easy to handle components Designer and Supplier of Form Solution



September 2023

A Roadmap for Innovation and Safety For the core of the building, planners selected 21,000 square feet of VARIOWall Formwork as the primary vertical wall formwork supporting the main tank wall. The girder wall formwork components allow the crew to adapt to the flexibility for any project specifications. The VST Civil Heavy Duty shoring system became an important component in certain areas of the building to support heavy transfer of central loads. The heavy shoring tower can be easily raised and lowered when loaded with the design of the head spindle and mobile hydraulics. Heavy duty shoring towers and wide-span lattice girders can be systematically assembled with bolted connections and pre- assembled tower segments. VARIOKIT is compatible with the PERI UP scaffolding system, allowing access points, and working platforms to be installed quickly and safely. PERI UP (3,400 square feet) supported the roadway protection and allowed for a wide range of ledgers and decks with different lengths to change direction during installation. PERI UP can be quickly and safely mounted with a gravity lock and self-locking decks. By inserting the wedge head into the rosette, the wedge drops by the force of gravity, quickly locking, Installation adaptability allowed the product to suit the project-specific layout of the building, delivering maximum performance. “PERI UP allows us to achieve a taller height and form while keeping flexibility in our design,” Humphreys added. “At those heights, ensuring safer installation of products allows us to be more efficient with shoring at those heights.” 5,400 square feet of MULTIFLEX was used on the horizontal slab of the tank, providing the ideal solution, freedom of position, and spacing for lower rising points that supported the complicated ground plan. Providing additional flexibility on high load bearing for large spans, MULTIFLEX fits into complicated ground plans, as well as forming operations in confined spaces. Lastly, SKYDECK , a panel slab formwork system, allowed the project team to eliminate utilizing any plywood. Eliminating the use of plywood keeps construction costs low while supplying a safe, efficient shoring system. SKYDECK is available on the market with no system component weighing more than 35 pounds in combination with systematic assembly and integral, rentable plywood. Making Waves Construction on the Seattle Aquarium began In July 2022. The expansion is scheduled to be completed in December 2023.


September 2023 csengineermag.com

Environmental + Sustainability

Throughout its long and storied history , New York City has consistently played the role of trendsetter for American culture. Its location on the Atlantic Coast made for a diverse, ever-changing city where new and old ideas melded together to reverberate trending shockwaves throughout the fabric of American society. While its geographical location has been a boon to the city since its founding, the coming effects of climate change are directly poised to severely impact it. In keeping the spirit of innovation that has long beheld New York City, it has responded to the looming threat of climate change by positioning itself as a leading center for the research, development, and implementation of climate solutions. As the city continues to adapt to climate change, it has become clear that, rather than relying on traditional solutions, new approaches must be developed. One New York City firm demonstrating a new approach is Indigo River. Trendsetting: New York City and Indigo River By Luke Carothers

Indigo River has demonstrated the ability to use a “multi-pronged approach” when developing flood mitigation and climate adaptation recommendations. Taking a holistic approach to these concepts, Indigo River works with local stakeholders to identify the most appropriate solutions for each community. The result is plans that are both resilient and sustainable. The team has demonstrated this approach on projects like Wildflower Studios, where they worked with the client and design consultants to develop a comprehensive Flood Resiliency Strategy that included both permanent and temporary flood mitigation solutions. According to Dena Prastos, Indigo River’s founder, the plan for the Wildflower Studios project featured the construction of wet and dry floodproof spaces, as well as the creation of Flood Emergency Action and Response plans for the Operations team. Another example of this



September 2023

multi-pronged approach is Indigo River’s work with a private asset management group to evaluate their national portfolio. To complete this evaluation, Indigo River utilized Coastal Risk Consulting’s RiskFootPrint Report, which resulted in a ranking of their properties and assets in terms of which are most vulnerable to natural hazards. According to Prastos, they are in the process of developing site- specific plans for those that are most vulnerable to flood hazards with plans including recommendations for both permanent and temporary solutions. Included in these site-specific plans are solutions such as the creation of new floodwalls, the phased reprogramming of spaces, and the development of deployable systems for flood events. In developing these recommendations and deploying solutions that are both resilient and sustainable, Prastos and Indigo River are a major part of the ever-increasing push towards flexible climate change solutions. This approach allows Indigo River to help communities become more resilient to flooding–protecting people, property, and the environment from the devastating effects of flooding. However, as Indigo River and others continue developing these multi-pronged approaches, Prastos is quick to point out the inextricable link between our continued ability to respond to climate change and the capacity to develop the next generation of workers in the AEC industry. Within this relationship, Prastos notes the importance of things like economic transformation, education and training, innovation and research, green jobs and workforce, and interdisciplinary collaboration. To respond to climate change, communities must transition to low-carbon economies and adopt sustainable practices. There are significant economic opportunities opened up by this transition, and, with this, new opportunities for job creation. For Prastos, “developing the next generation of workers with the necessary skills, knowledge, and innovation capacity” will be crucial to such a transition. As new opportunities are created in areas like renewable energy, clean technologies, sustainable agriculture, resource management, environmental sciences, and green infrastructure development, new workers entering the industry must be equipped with the expertise in such fields, which necessitates a solid foundation of education and training. Prastos believes that education and training systems need to adapt to provide relevant learning opportunities. To do so, programs must integrate climate change and sustainability into school curricula, vocational training programs, and higher education. Prastos further points out that including climate change and sustainability into these programs is a way to foster an industry that supports innovation and research. Responding to climate change requires innovative solutions in order to mitigate its impacts and adapt to its effects. Included in this is a solid investment in research and development, supporting entrepreneurship, and promoting collaboration between academia, industry, and government. More than just focusing on workers entering the industry, Prastos believes that training should also be focused on workers already within the industry. Inevitably, as our societies transition to these low-

carbon economies, workers already in the industry have to contend with existing jobs being transformed or becoming obsolete. Prastos points out that managing this workforce transition effectively is crucial for social and economic stability. This transition involves providing re-training and re-skilling opportunities for workers in carbon-intensive industries, which will ensure their smooth transition to emerging green sectors. This alignment of labor market policies will help governments create a just and inclusive transition that protects workers’ rights and promotes decent work. Ultimately, within these factors, addressing climate change will require collaboration across sectors and disciplines. In the same way that companies like Indigo River have demonstrated the positive impact through multi-pronged approaches to flooding, companies can also have a positive impact on sustainability by building teams that possess strong interdisciplinary skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, collaboration, and effective communication. Prastos believes that, by promoting collaboration between different fields of expertise, we can “foster holistic approaches to climate change and develop innovative solutions that consider multiple perspectives.” In building a team at Indigo River that encompasses a wide set of specialties and disciplines centered around a clearly-defined vision, Prastos says they are able to be more proactive in finding work and identifying new and innovative partnerships. So far, Indigo River has partnered with numerous organizations that are positively influencing a shared vision of an environmentally-conscious future like the Billion Oyster Project, NY Harbor School, Waterfront Alliance, Rock the Boat, PlusPool, One15 Community Dock, and the Reti Center. In developing these partnerships, Prastos emphasizes the importance of being a team player, which helps different various parties to compromise and collaborate. Within New York City’s leading position in climate change research and solutions is work being done by companies like Indigo River. By demonstrating a holistic approach to not only developing solutions and recommendations but rather continuing this approach through its commitment to partnerships and workforce development, Indigo River and founder Dena Prastos are a major influence on the trends and actions needed to respond to climate change in a way that is equitable and just. If the history of New York City as a trendsetter continues, it’s only a matter of time before these ideas become more widely adopted.

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor of Civil + Structural Engineer Magazine. If you want us to cover your project or feature an article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com .


September 2023 csengineermag.com

Environmental + Sustainability

Carbon Capture & Sequestration: An overview and guide to its economic incentives

By Dave Palmerton, SCS Engineers, Project Director

2. Transportation: CO2 is captured and then transported to the storage site by pipelines, trucks, or ships. 3. Injection: At the storage site, the CO2 is injected into a suitable geological formation at a supercritical state. Injecting the CO2 as a supercritical liquid reduces the volume by over 99 percent allowing more effective use of underground pore space. 4. Monitoring and Reporting: After the CO2 is injected, the storage site is monitored to ensure that the CO2 stays underground and not leaking back into the atmosphere. Monitoring can include seismic reflection surveying, groundwater monitoring, integrity testing, and other techniques which help detect potential leaks. This information is then reported to the regulatory agency that issued the permit. 5. Post-Injection Site Care: The specific post-injection tests required for a CO2 injection project will depend on regulatory requirements, the project design , and the specific characteristics of the reservoir. Economic Incentives: Various economic incentives and funding sources can be used to develop CCUS. These incentives are offered under different programs but are important to consider as funding sources when embarking upon a potential CCUS project. Carbon pricing is one of the potential policy tools that address greenhouse gas emissions and promote CCUS technologies. Other policies, such as direct government funding for CCUS research and development, tax incentives for carbon capture projects, and regulatory mandates for emissions reductions, also promote carbon sequestration efforts. In the United States, there are several tax incentives available for carbon capture projects:

The Biden Administration Infrastructure Plan's robust commitment to carbon capture, utilization, and storage technologies has set the stage for significant strides toward environmental sustainability. President Biden has set an ambitious goal for the US: to achieve a carbon pollution-free power sector by 2035 and net zero emissions economy by no later than 2050, according to a TheWhiteHouse.gov fact sheet. In April, the administration released a new National Innovation Pathway Report, highlighting the Biden-Harris Administration’s strategy for accelerating critical clean energy technologies. According to the White House, the Administration is advancing a three-pronged approach to prioritize innovation, demonstration, and deployment to scale the technologies needed to achieve its carbon pollution-free electricity sector goals. What is Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS)? CCUS is the capture, transport, and geological sequestration of carbon so it is removed from the biosphere. Once the CO2 is captured it can be transported by various methods and stored within underground geological formations, such as those comprising depleted oil and gas fields, or in deep ocean water. Carbon capture, utilization, and storage are one of the key technologies under development to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. The CCUS process generally includes five steps: 1. Capture: CO2 is captured from industrial sources using various methods, such as post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, or oxy-fuel combustion. It is then compressed for transport and sequestration. Post-combustion capture is the most prominent method of carbon capture and storage (CCS) since it is the largest source. This method is favored because it can be retrofitted onto existing power plants and industrial processes. This method has been deployed commercially at several locations around the world.



September 2023

Section 45Q Tax Credit: This tax credit provides a monetary incentive for CCUS projects. The credit provides up to $85 per metric ton of CO2 captured and permanently stored, and up to $60 per metric ton of CO2 captured and used for enhanced oil recovery or other purposes. The credit amount significantly increases for direct air capture (DAC) projects to $180 per metric ton of CO2 permanently stored and $130 per metric ton for used CO2 In 2022, changes in the Section 45Q Tax Credit reduced the capacity requirements for eligible projects: 18,750 metric tons per year for power plants (provided at least 75 percent of the CO2 is captured), 12,500 metric tons per year for other facilities, and 1,000 metric tons per year for DAC facilities. Finally, the 2022 changes include a seven-year extension to qualify for the tax credit, meaning that projects have until January 2033 to begin construction. Companies who seek eligibility for the tax credit must also propose a facility which will capture at least 100,000 metric tons of CO2 per year. The tax credit is limited to twenty-five million metric tons of CO2 per year. To qualify for the Section 45Q tax credit, a project must also meet other criteria: • Eligible facilities: The tax credit applies to specific types of facilities that capture CO2, such as power plants, industrial facilities, or direct air capture facilities. • Minimum capture thresholds: Facilities must capture a minimum amount of CO2 per year to be eligible for the credit. This threshold varies depending on the type of facility and its purpose (e.g., electric power generation, industrial manufacturing, or direct air capture). • Secure storage or utilization: Captured CO2 must either be securely stored in geological formations, used as a tertiary injectant in enhanced oil recovery, or used in certain commercial applications, such as producing chemicals, plastics, or carbon-based building materials. Reporting and monitoring: Companies claiming the credit must also adhere to reporting and monitoring requirements set by the Environmental Protection Agency to ensure the proper storage or utilization of CO2. Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) Depreciation: This depreciation allows businesses to quickly recover the costs of their capital investments in CCUS equipment and reduce their tax burden. Industrial Source Carbon Capture Project Credit: This credit provides up to 30 percent of the cost of qualifying carbon capture equipment, up to a maximum of $3,000 per metric ton of CO2 captured and stored.

New Markets Tax Credit: This credit provides financing for qualifying community development projects, including CCUS projects in designated low-income areas. The availability and terms of these tax incentives depend on the specific project and the current regulatory environment. Additionally, other forms of government support, like grants and loans, may also be available to support carbon capture projects. Several states have also implemented other types of carbon pricing policies, but require state- specific research to understand the available programs. By meeting these criteria and following the necessary guidelines, businesses can take advantage of the tax credits available for CO2 capture, thus offsetting the costs associated with implementing CCUS technologies. SCS Engineers offers technical consulting services to help businesses and governments assess the feasibility of implementing these technologies, evaluate potential sites for storage or utilization, and navigate the permitting process. The company offers holistic teams to oversee system designs, provide guidance throughout the licensing and permitting process, and remain involved as collaborators throughout the construction phase. Choosing an appropriate partner for such initiatives ensures access to the necessary expertise, resources, and professional networks to enhance successful implementation. As various stakeholders unite around shared goals to advance carbon capture, they lay the groundwork for a more sustainable future for all. Dave Palmerton, PG , is professional geologist and Project Director at SCS Engineers’ Environmental Services Practice. He has handled numerous strategic and technical environmental issues for Fortune 100 companies across the United States. Dave’s extensive knowledge of federal and state regulatory requirements has enabled him to successfully negotiate with agencies on his client's behalf. His recent publications include “Funding Accelerates Efforts to Plug Abandoned Wells” in The American Oil and Gas Reporter and “The Science, Funding, and Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage” in Coal Age. SCS Engineers solve environmental management, solid waste, hazardous waste, and Superfund problems. SCS has a long history of assisting industrial, commercial, and institutional organizations, military facilities, federal-to-local governments, and tribes, in identifying and implementing appropriate environ - mental management practices.


September 2023 csengineermag.com

Environmental + Sustainability

By Kristin Dispenza, Advancing Organizational Excellence Address Cement-Related Carbon During Design to Achieve Net Zero Cement has historically been so far upstream in a building’s supply chain that designers, engineers, and building owners ignored the details of its production. But changes in the industry are leading designers to take a cradle-to-cradle perspective. To say there has been an increase in the pace of product innovation is an understatement. While innovations offer welcome solutions to existing problems, they also require a change in the approach to project delivery. With so many construction materials offering new formulations and new benefits, early collaboration between suppliers and designers is an important way of bridging knowledge gaps and ensuring that products are being optimized, contributing maximum benefits to project outcome. “In some ways, this is breaking the culture,” said J. Ignacio Cariaga, Commercial Sustainability Director, Northwest Region, Heidelberg Materials North America. “Owners and designers have always been somewhat removed from materials and suppliers. But it’s time to go beyond seeing cement and other building materials as a commodity and see them as a solution to removing embodied carbon in the built environment. It’s a more holistic approach.” When it comes to the production of cement and concrete, many innovations center on improving sustainability. Several factors have combined to bring sustainability to the forefront of design and

The CCUS project currently planned for Heidelberg Materials North America in Edmonton, Canada, is expected to result in the world’s first full-scale implementation of CCUS at a cement plant. (image courtesy Heidelberg Materials North America)

construction. Investors and their financial partners have become increasingly focused on a company’s performance in sustainability, which is a key factor not only in its public perception but in its overall success. Conversations around Scope 3 emissions (in which emissions not produced by a given company are nevertheless considered part of that company’s responsibility) are also informing organizations’ decisions. This has driven the goal for many organizations to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions in their built structures—that is, to balance the amount of project-associated CO2 released into the atmosphere by removing an equivalent amount. World governments are taking the lead in pursuing net zero, with more than 140 countries having stated their intention of reaching net zero and many of them setting a deadline of 2050. Some efforts focus on government operations and some on changing regulations and codifying carbon reduction goals into local building codes. Many members of the private sector, too, are setting goals to reach net zero. “On the west coast, big tech companies are leading the way pursuing net zero projects,” said Cariaga. The net zero approach is inherently performance-based. With its focus on outcomes rather than prescriptive solutions, it allows owners, engineers and designers the flexibility to try new approaches and systems, many of which work in concert to achieve optimal energy



September 2023

performance. Such flexibility is needed, since going “the last mile” in energy optimization can require inventive solutions. “The closer you get to achieving a truly net zero project, the more carefully you have to look at all the material inputs involved. This is where it makes sense to do comprehensive calculations, starting early in the design phase, comparing a variety of materials and looking at the full range of life-cycle considerations,” said Larry Rowland, Sustainability Market Manager, Heidelberg Materials North America. Many organizations are, in fact, casting a wider net to improve their sustainability outcomes and targeting areas of their value chain where the most improvement can be made. By most estimates traditional cement manufacturing is responsible for about 7 percent of all man-made CO2 emissions. This means the concrete, which is so vital to practically any project, can represent a significant percentage of the embodied carbon in a finished building. Therefore, improving a project’s sustainability by addressing the CO2 contributions of cement and concrete can be a good place to begin.

industry has already seen extensive adoption of portland limestone cement, in which some of the clinker in ordinary portland cement is replaced with ground limestone, a change that significantly reduces the embodied CO2 of the cement. Concrete producers are also improving sustainability by using supplemental cementitious materials such as slag, fly ash, and other materials, often in combination with portland limestone cement. A carbon-reduction approach that will be critical to decarbonize cement manufacturing over the longer-term is carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). “CCUS helps owners and designers reduce their reliance on carbon offsets by using cement that has a substantial reduction of embodied carbon in the first place,” said Cariaga. The CCUS project currently planned for Heidelberg Materials North America in Edmonton, Canada, is expected to result in the world’s first full-scale implementation of CCUS at a cement plant. “When operational, cement produced at the Edmonton facility will be net zero carbon,” said Cariaga. “This is important to concrete producers, allowing them to potentially achieve net zero concrete. Moreover, the net zero cement from Edmonton CCUS could potentially enable owners–private and public–across North America to achieve substantial reduction of embodied carbon in their projects.” Another important shift is the adoption of digital solutions throughout the cement supply chain. Digital transformation in the ready mixed concrete industry is moving quickly, and the trend is certain to continue since artificial intelligence (AI) is making its way into everyday workstreams. AI and other cloud-based tools help optimize carbon by providing greater transparency than ever before. The tools enhance inventory and mix management, trucking logistics, fleet optimization, and more. “Pairing this with real-time concrete strength from Giatec SmartRock® equips our contractors to make informed decisions. We give them eyes on their concrete as it’s arriving and inside their concrete as it cures. The vision will be to give real time insight into our product that will provide opportunity/transparency into the embodied carbon and performance characteristics of the concrete matrix which will provide many new enhanced values to our customers,” said Erica Flukinger, Digital Director, Heidelberg Materials North America. Cement and Concrete: Their Role in a Building’s Life Cycle Life-cycle assessment is another way to support performance-based outcomes. “An important area that isn’t being accounted for is embodied carbon related to maintenance needs. The sooner we can begin data collection on this category of carbon emissions, the better, because as the saying goes, ‘what gets measured gets managed,” said Cariaga. Life cycle cost analyses (LCCAs) are useful for capturing all costs associated with a building project—not only its construction, but its cost to operate and even its eventual disposal or recycling use. LCCAs capture the efficiencies associated with longevity of a

Assessing Cement- and Concrete-Related Carbon

Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs), which are third-party- verified against industry benchmarks, represent one tool making carbon intensity measurements easier. EPDs for cement and concrete compare the embodied carbon impacts of different mixes and materials, allowing owners and designers to measure the environmental impact. EPDs have been instrumental in bringing material suppliers on board earlier than ever before. Nevertheless, EPDs are mostly helpful in assessing carbon generated during raw materials sourcing, product manufacturing and construction—the traditional parameters for measurement. Working with suppliers’ representatives on project-specific designs allows the team to take carbon calculations to the next level, identifying carbon inputs up through turnkey and building operations. “The opportunity is for the team to build on the transparency that’s being achieved by using the EPD. EPDs open the door for the supplier to be engaged early in the design of a project. By working together— and by acknowledging that all the traditional concerns such as schedule and constructability are still critical—we can provide market driven solutions to meet an owner’s sustainability goals,” said Rowland. For example, by working together, materials suppliers and structural engineers can identify ways to reduce the total amount of concrete in a structure. The use of high-performance concrete can reduce floor thicknesses and/or lessen the volume of concrete required for columns, for example, thereby lowering the carbon intensity of individual building elements. Since the volume of concrete is closely tied to slab depth, it is a big driver of embodied carbon, achieving a one- or two- inch reduction by using a high-performance material. This can be the case even if the high-performance material is, itself, of higher carbon intensity than an ordinary mix. Carbon-Reducing Formulations, Manufacturing Processes and Digital Transformation Cement manufacturers are also working hard to lower the carbon emissions associated with cement production. The construction


September 2023 csengineermag.com

material or system, or of the building itself. Longevity and durability are critical considerations, since building once is the best way to reduce carbon intensity. LCCAs also factor in building strategies that improve resilience in the finished structure. Resilience is defined as a structure’s ability to recover after a disruptive event, and it can reduce future reconstruction costs as well as health and safety costs, and the costs associated with not being able to use the structure during rescue, recovery, and rebuilding. To quantify resiliency benefits, some LCCA tools include not only historical climate data but climate forecasts. These can inform resiliency objectives in terms of resistance to heat, precipitation, flooding, rising sea levels, and more. Cement and concrete suppliers have a role to play here, as well, helping achieve designs in which concrete lowers the energy burden for heating and cooling, for example, or calculating the benefits associated with lowered repair, replacement, or health and safety costs. Achieving net zero and other sustainability goals, especially considering the aggressive timelines for results by 2050 or even earlier, requires a multi-pronged approach on the part of everyone in the industry, from designers to suppliers to contractors to owners. It needs a holistic perspective that looks at the entire span of a system, from cradle to grave, and ideally back to cradle again, through reuse and recycling. A truly circular approach is what will ultimately enable realization of a net zero future.

Kristin Dispenza is a Senior Account Manager with Advancing Organizational Excellence, developing trends articles, case studies and other PR materials. She received a Bachelor of Science degree from The Ohio State University College of Engineering/School of Architecture and has more than 25 years of writing and editorial experience.

The CCUS facility in Edmonton will accommodate an absorber tower and a mile- long, 12-foot-diameter flue gas pipe that will connect the main plant to the CCUS operation. (image courtesy Heidelberg Materials North America)



September 2023

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