Circa Spring 2019

Circa Spring 2019 • Volume 12, Number 1 North Carolina Museum of History

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From the Director by Ken Howard

Artist Ernie Barnes created this acrylic-on-canvas painting, The Drum Major , in 2003. Courtesy of the Ernie Barnes Family Trust. On the cover

North Carolina is fortunate to have produced so many people who have actively participated in the history and culture of our state and our country. In this issue of Circa , we feature three such individuals. Madelon “Glory”

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State of North Carolina Roy Cooper, Governor Daniel J. Forest, Lieutenant Governor

Department of Natural and Cultural Resources Susi H. Hamilton, Secretary Reid Wilson, Chief Deputy Secretary Staci Meyer, Deputy Secretary  Arts and Administration


Office of Archives and History Dr. Kevin Cherry, Deputy Secretary

Hancock from Asheville, the most decorated nurse in World War I, worked close to the front lines to help save the lives of hundreds of wounded soldiers. Winston-Salem native Lawrence Joel, an army medic, received the Medal of Honor for treating 13 wounded soldiers while under enemy fire and wounded himself. Ernie Barnes, the first professional American athlete to become a successful art- ist, preserved the culture he knew growing up in Durham in his paintings for all to see and appreciate. We are also fortunate to have people who, through their philanthropic efforts, help protect and preserve our state’s history and culture. This issue introduces us to the latest recipients of the NC Museum of History Foundation’s Philanthropy Awards, people who believe in educating the public on the history of our great state. Our World War I exhibit, the most-visited temporary exhibit in museum history, continues to draw on-site visitors. By the time you are reading this, over 620,000 museumgoers should have learned what it was like for those North Carolinians who fought in the “war to end all wars.” Because of the exhibition’s popularity, we extended it through Memorial Day, May 27, 2019. If you have not seen this award-winning exhibit, plan to visit before it closes. As always, we greatly appreciate the support you give to the museum. All our exhibi- tions and educational programs are funded through private donations, including funds raised by the Museum Foundation and our membership organization, the Museum of History Associates (MOHA). Please help us protect and preserve North Carolina history by donating to the Foundation or joining MOHA.

Division of State History Museums North Carolina Museum of History Kenneth B. Howard, Director James E. Huebler, Chief Financial Officer Don Pendergraft, Associate Director for Regional  Museums Circa Doris McLean Bates, Editor in Chief/Editor Obelia J. Exum, Designer Cathy East, Proofreader Eric N. Blevins and D. Kent Thompson,  Photographers Doris McLean Bates, Christine Brin, Michelle L. Carr, Cathy East, Obelia J. Exum, Charlie Knight, Kara Leinfelder Meyer, RaeLana Poteat, and Luz Rodriguez, Contributors Circa magazine, a publication of the North Carolina Museum of History, has been produced since the first issue, spring/summer 2008. The summer 2017 issue was the first digital version of the publication (no print issues were made). Later editions are available in print and digital. No winter 2018 issue was printed. Circa is normally published two times per year by the North Carolina Museum of History, 5 East Edenton Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Published articles do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Natural and Cultural Resources or any other state agency. The text of this publication is available on magnetic recording tape from the State Library of North Carolina, Services to the Blind and Physically Handicapped Branch. For information, call 1-888- 388-2460. Unless otherwise noted, images used are courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History or the North Carolina Museum of History Associates. Approximately 5,000 copies of this publication were printed with private funds through the generous support of the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation. For information on making a contribution to the foundation or sponsoring an issue of Circa , phone 919-814-7076 or visit Circa could not be mailed without the kind support of the North Carolina Museum of History Associates, the membership arm of the museum. For additional information or to join, visit © 2019 by the North Carolina Museum of History


C ontents

One Giant Leap

Features 4 North Carolina Artist Ernie Barnes 6 The Most Decorated—”Glory” Hancock 8 The Philanthropy Awards 12 North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Distinguished Lecture Series, 2019: Presidents of War 14 A Conversation with R. Jackson Marshall III Departments 13 Historical Profile 16 Pictorial Essay

North Carolina and

Freedom! A Promise Disrupted: North Carolina, 1862–1901

18 Programs and Events 20 Personal Perspective 22 MOHA—Museum of History Associates 25 From the Regional Museums

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Classic Barnes figures in his paintings are direct North Carolina references, such as the shoeless basketball player on a dirt court with a peach basket for a makeshift hoop ( below ), or the pool player leaning over the pool table with his cue ( Left ) San Diego Chargers no. 61. Barnes played five seasons as an offensive guard with the New York Titans, San Diego Chargers, and Denver Broncos. Courtesy of Ernie Barnes Family Trust.

stick aiming at the ball. Upon close ob- servation, in his paintings of a billiard hall, barbershop, or a boxing gym, Barnes put the names of his alma maters Hillside High and NCCU on posters within the artwork. Rival schools were also noted. Barnes’s art is distinguished by its uplifting, positive perspective, even when the work is controversial. In the painting A Study for a Woman of Color , a determined African American woman is in the center, moving forward courageously with her head held high, de- spite some offensive language in the background. This image serves as a teachable moment to those unfamiliar with the harsh reality of the Jim Crow era in which Barnes lived. The art of Ernie Barnes continues to inspire his viewers to live a humanistic, creative life. To his classmates and others who knew “June” Barnes from“The Bottom” section of Durham and “Ernest” Barnes Jr. at segregated Hillside High School and North Carolina College, they’re finding their friend is also the first professional American athlete to become a noted artist. The North Carolina Roots of Artist Ernie Barnes is available through May 27, 2019.

( Above ) The Sugar Shack was inspired by a dance party Barnes saw as a preteen at the Durham (City) Armory in the early 1950s. Copyright Ernie Barnes Family Trust. ( Inset ) Ernie Barnes, 2001, by Peter Read Miller.

N orth C arolina

Although he lived across the country in Cali- fornia, Barnes cherished his visits to his home state, and his affection for North Carolina remained close to his heart. It was strengthened daily perhaps because his parents continued to be a part of his life. Until she passed away in 2004 just shy of her 99th birthday, his mother, Fannie Mae Geer, called him every evening from Durham before she retired to bed. They would share bits of their day and say “I love you.” And Barnes regularly honored his father, Ernie Barnes Sr., whenever he framed a painting in weathered wood, symbolically referencing the picket fence that enclosed their Durham family home.

Through pop culture, many people are familiar with the ener- getic dance hall painting The Sugar Shack by Ernie Barnes that appeared on the 1970s Good Times television show and on a Marvin Gaye album cover. Because of the current museum exhibition The North Carolina Roots of Artist Ernie Barnes , more North Carolinians are proudly discovering and embracing Barnes as a beloved native son. T by Luz Rodriguez, Trustee, Ernie Barnes Family Trust

After departing North Carolina College (now North Caro- lina Central University) in 1960, Barnes left Durham to play professionally in the National Football League. It was the first oc- casion he spent time outside the state. After five seasons as an of- fensive lineman, Barnes retired from the NFL at age 28 and settled in Los Angeles to devote himself to art. 019.

High Aspirations , 1971. Copyright Ernie Barnes Family Trust.





Hancock riding a camel, undated.

Glory Hancock tending to wounded soldiers in Belgium, ca. 1915.

by Charlie Knight, Curator of Military History “Glory” Hancock

Shadow box of Glory Hancock’s medals.

Croix de Guerre, Belgium.

It was while in New York that she met British army officer Mortimer Hancock; the two were soon married, and off she went to Europe and Asia. Madelon, already a colorful character, enjoyed the exposure to new parts of the world. She was quite taken with the wildlife she encountered and often took unusual animals as pets. Newspaper society pages told of how she cleared a New York restaurant when she brought her pet rat to dinner. Madelon joined a British medical unit and was at a field hos- pital in Belgium within days of the beginning of World War I. Although surrounded by unimaginable destruction and occa- sionally being subjected to artillery fire and poison gas attacks, Madelon endured the horrors of war and helped to care for hun- dreds, if not thousands, of wounded young men from both sides. “I’m just hanging on from day to day trying to hold out as long as the war does,” she wrote her father in late 1918. “We have lots of German wounded in [the hospital], such nice mannered boys most of them. . . . Poor devils they don’t want to fight any more

than our soldiers do.” She was known as “Morning Glory” to her patients, a nickname she shortened to simply “Glory” and enthu- siastically adopted. For her efforts during the war, she received awards from England, France, and Belgium and—with 12 total decorations—became the most decorated woman in history. After the war, she returned at least once to visit her friends and family in North Carolina. She was living in Nice, France, when she died in 1930 and is buried in Cannes. Although such an important figure in North Carolina’s history, the Museum of History had little in its collection relating to Glory Hancock—until recently. In September, her extended family gathered from both sides of the Atlantic to present the museum with Glory’s medals, World War I scrapbook, and a large collection of letters and photos. This exceptional collection deals not just with the war but with the entire life of one of the state’s most exceptional figures.

“Ambulances for miles almost touching each other. A continual stream. Hundreds [of wounded] come in and are operated on & are sent on every hour. I’ve never seen such wounds & so many deaths.” That was how nurse Madelon “Glory” Hancock, of Asheville, recalled the human carnage resulting from the fighting in Europe in October 1918. If anyone could attest to the toll taken by the battles of the Great War, it was Glory Hancock, for she had been working at field hospitals near the front lines since the war began in 1914. She may, in fact, have been the very first North Carolinian to enter the war. Born in Florida in 1881, Madelon Battle Hancock grew up in Asheville, where her father, Samuel Westray Battle, a former US Navy officer, was a successful physician whose patients included the Vanderbilts of nearby Biltmore Estate. Madelon attended St. Mary’s School in Raleigh, and later nursing school in New York City.






The Philanthropy Awards by Michelle L. Carr, Education Section

2018 PhilanthropyAward Presentation

The 2018 Philanthropy Award Recipients, from left to right: Ann Baggett Goodnight, Senior Director of Community Relations of SAS; Dr. James Howard Goodnight, CEO of SAS; James Bradley Wilson, CEO Emeritus, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina; and Betty Ray McCain, former secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina also received the award which was accepted by CEO Patrick Conway, MD. T e 2018 Philanthropy Award recipients, from left to right: A n Ba gett night, Senior Director of Community Relations of SAS; Dr. James Howard Goodnight, CEO of SAS; James Bradley Wilson, CEO Emeritus, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina; and Betty Ray McCain, former secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Res urces. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina also received the award, which was accepted by CEO Patrick Conway, MD.

“We make a living by what we get; we make a life by what we give.” —Sir Winston Churchill

dedication to cultural vitality, the organization has developed a long and beneficial relationship with the North Carolina Museum of History. Blue Cross NC’s generosity has helped to create engaging exhibits and to support educational programs and community celebrations. Blue Cross NC has also made generous gifts to the museum endowment and capital cam- paign. As the former CEO of Blue Cross NC and chair of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina Foundation, Brad Wilson has dedicated much of his professional life to the practice of servant leadership. Under his guidance, Blue Cross NC strongly supported the museum’s endowment and capital campaign, while also playing a critical role in the development of numerous exhibits and educational programs. This active corporate engagement indicates Brad’s understanding of the important role the museum plays in preserving and sharing the North Carolina story.

have had a charitable impact on North Carolina that cannot be overstated. The Museum of History, fortunately, has been counted among the many cultural organizations to benefit from their philanthropy. In addition to the Goodnights’ generous con- tributions to the museum endowment, they have also supported exhibitions and programs with strong educational components, such as the Tar Heel Junior Historian Association Discovery Gallery and the Distinguished Lecture Series. The final recipient of the 2018 Philanthropy Award was Betty Ray McCain, who served as the secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources from 1993 to 2001. Dur- ing her tenure as secretary, McCain strove to make the state’s cultural heritage more accessible to all its citizens. Among her many achievements as secretary, she oversaw the completion of the current North Carolina Museum of History building and ac- quired major funding for the excavation of the ship Queen Anne’s Revenge . McCain remains one of the state’s most vocal champi- ons for the study and promotion of North Carolina’s history.

Although British statesman and noted author Winston Churchill voiced the words above decades ago, they easily could have been the inspiration behind the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation’s third presentation of the Philanthropy Awards held on October 23. The gala evening honored one remarkable organization and four extraordinary individuals whose generos- ity, commitment, and vision have significantly contributed to the promotion and understanding of North Carolina history—Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina, its CEO emeritus J. Bradley Wilson, founder of SAS and noted education advocates Dr. James Howard Goodnight and Ann Baggett Goodnight, and former secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain. More than 300 people gathered at the Carolina Country Club in Raleigh to pay tribute to the award recipients. First Citizens Wealth Management sponsored the ceremony, and WRAL anchor and reporter David Crabtree served as the event’s master of ceremonies. In his opening remarks, he observed that all the honorees shared a great love for North Carolina history, coupled

with the profound desire to give back to the community in meaningful ways—which led to their selection as 2018 Philanthropy Award recipients. The celebratory event featured a keynote address by North Carolina State University chancellor Randy Woodson. “Educational and cultural organizations can accomplish many good things,” he noted,“but they cannot be truly great without the support of philanthropists.” Dr. Woodson also remarked that within each community of philanthropists, select donors exist who truly embody philanthropic leadership. These are the individuals and organizations who continuously give to create positive changes in their chosen communities, and the 2018 recipients exemplify this philosophy. Each honoree has made—and continues to make—a lasting impact on North Carolina through the generous giving of time, talent, and treasures. For more than eight decades, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina (Blue Cross NC) has been improving the health of North Carolinians. With a

As visionary leaders, education advocates, and arts supporters, Ann Baggett Goodnight and Dr. James Howard Goodnight



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Philanthropy Award Presentation Co-Chairs Alf and Lee Webster and Mary Powell and Dunlop White.

Established in 2012, the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Philanthropy Award recognizes individuals and organizations for their outstanding con- tributions to the preservation, study, or understanding of North Carolina history. Qualities honored by this award include providing visionary leadership in promoting new research and study in the history of North Carolina; deepening the understanding of, and appreciation for, the history of our state through excellence in writing or scholarship; and providing exceptional commitment, service, and support to one or more history museums, historic sites, or other repositories of the history of the Old North State. The 2018 honorees join a distinguished list of award winners. Previous award winners include Julia Jones Daniels, Frank Arthur Daniels Jr., the State Employees’ Credit Union, the late Anna Wood Ragland, the late William Trent Ragland Jr., Louise Robbins Broyhill, and Senator James Thomas Broyhill. Leadership, education, service, and support—these are the hallmarks of the Philanthropy Award, and they are also the qualities that best describe the indelible impact the recipients, past and present, have conferred on the Museum of History

over the years. The awards ceremony aptly honored their tremendous generosity.

5 East Edenton Street Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 919-814-7076

The North Carolina Museum of History Foundation would like to extend a very warm thank-you to First Citizens Wealth Management for sponsoring this remarkable event.

Make a Gift

Victor E. Bell III, chair of the foundation’s board.

To make a gift to the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation, please visit and click on “Support.” You may also contact Dawn Lowder at 919-814-7076 to make a gift by phone, or mail a gift to: 5 East Edenton Street, Raleigh, North Carolina 27601.

Foundation Board Victor E. Bell III, Chair, Raleigh Wilson Hayman, Vice Chair, Raleigh Carole Symons Roebuck, Secretary, Elizabeth City John T. Church, Treasurer, Raleigh W. Trent Ragland III, Assistant Treasurer, Raleigh Lyl MacLean Clinard, Past Chair, High Point Kellie Hunt Blue Pembroke Senator James T. Broyhill Winston-Salem Christopher H. A. Cecil Charlotte Frank A. Daniels III Clarksville, TN Julia Jones Daniels Raleigh Samuel B. Dixon Edenton Robert C. Doherty Raleigh David R. Hayworth High Point Margaret Harry Kluttz Salisbury Betty Ray McCain Wilson Kay Anthony Phillips High Point Orage Quarles III Raleigh Joy Cox Sloan Raleigh Dr. Allston J. Stubbs III Winston-Salem Lee Lyles Webster High Point Mary Powell White Winston-Salem McKinley Wooten Jr. Raleigh Kenneth B. Howard, Director, Division of State History Museums and North Carolina Museum of History, Raleigh

Museum Director Ken Howard, First Citizens Chairman and CEO Frank Holding Jr., and North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Chairman Vic Bell at the awards ceremony.

During his keynote address, NCSU Chancellor Randy Woodson praised the honorees and spoke of the importance of philanthropy to cultural and educational organizations.

WRAL anchor and reporter David Crabtree served as the event’s master of ceremonies.

Executive Mansion Fine Arts Committee Chair Jennie Hayman, NC Department of Natural and Cultural Resources Secretary Susi Hamilton, and North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Board member Wilson Hayman.

Foundation Staff Dawn P. Lowder, Executive Director, Raleigh



North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Distinguished Lecture Series, 2019

A Medal of Honor similar to the one Lawrence Joel received. Courtesy of the Congressional Medal of Honor Society, Mount Pleasant, SC.

by Michelle L. Carr, Education Section Presidents of War

To purchase tickets, access; call 1-800-745-3000; or visit the Duke Energy Center box office on South Street. The program is presented by the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation and the News & Observer , with additional support from the Sloan Family Foundation, the Goodnight Educational Foundation, Highwoods Properties, Mr. and Mrs. Everette C. Sherrill, Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth B. Howard, and Mr. and Mrs. Paul F. Hoch Jr. For more infor- mation, call 919-814-6986.

The New York Times has called Michael Beschloss “easily the most widely recognized presidential historian in the United States.” On Tuesday, May 21, the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Distinguished Lecture Series will feature noted his- torian and best-selling author Beschloss sharing insights from his latest work, Presidents of War . He spent 10 years researching and writing the book, which reveals the epic story of all the American presidents who have waged major wars. Presidents of War provides gripping tales and brilliant inside analysis into the leadership secrets of towering figures in American history. The program will take place at the A. J. Fletcher Opera Theater, Duke Energy Center for Performing Arts, in downtown Raleigh.

Sergeant First Class Lawrence Joel. Courtesy of the United States Army.

Gallantry Above and Beyond: SFC Lawrence Joel by Charlie Knight, Curator of Military History The United States Army offered 18-year- old Lawrence Joel a way out—out of a life of poverty in Winston-Salem. A life where he had to hunt for coal along the railroad tracks to heat the home he shared with his parents and nine siblings. A life where he skipped school because he didn’t have clothes to wear. He likely never imagined that the army would recognize his service with the nation’s highest military decora- tion, the Medal of Honor, presented to him by the president at the White House. After enlisting in 1946, Joel served in France, Germany, and Italy as part of the occupation forces after World War II. He left the army in 1949, married, and then reenlisted in 1953. As an airborne medic, he was used to treating noncombat injuries. But that changed when he was sent to Viet- nam in early 1965. After four months in theater, he and his company were fortunate, seeing little action and losing only one man. Then came a pa- trol to Bien Hoa on November 8, 1965, to search for Viet Cong forces, an action Joel said should have been “fairly routine.” His

Lawrence Joel ( second from left ) receives the Medal of Honor from President Lyndon B. John- son ( second from right ) in 1967. Also pictured are Vice-President Hubert H. Humphrey and Joel’s wife, Dorothy. Courtesy of Arlington Cemetery.

American since the Spanish-American War to receive the Medal of Honor. Joel retired from the US Army in 1973 with the rank of Sergeant First Class. He died in Winston-Salem in 1984 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. The Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Winston-Salem is named in his honor.

company encountered a Viet Cong unit that vastly outnumbered them. For hours they engaged in a firefight in the jungle. Casualties mounted, and Joel sprang into action to care for them. He was shot once in the leg but continued to treat his wounded comrades. He was struck again in the same leg and ran out of medical supplies but continued to work. While officers shouted for him to get down, he hobbled around on a make- shift crutch. When the fighting finally ended more than 12 hours later, he had treated 13 wounded men. Joel spent the next three months in hos- pitals in Saigon and Tokyo. On March 9, 1967, Lawrence Joel received the Medal of Honor, presented to him by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The citation read, in part,“His meticulous attention to duty saved a large number of lives and his unselfish, daring example under most adverse conditions was an inspiration to all.” Joel, however, said only,“It was just my job.” He was the first living African

Cover of Beschloss’s latest book. Courtesy of The Crown Publishing Group.

Michael Beschloss is a presidential histo- rian and best-selling author. Courtesy of Washington Speakers Bureau.



( Right ) The museum has a copy of Joel’s Medal of Honor ceremonial program in its collection.


The team at the World War I exhibition opening reception, April 6, 2017.

A staged photo for a museum educational film, ca. 1990.

The Governor’s Award ceremony, October 23, 2018.

Jackson as the chief curator with the curatorial staff, 1994.

Staff celebrate the acquisition of the Salisbury lunch counter, 1989.

“Jackson is someone I have depended on for solid advice and counsel on managing the museum since I became the museum director in 2007.” —Ken Howard

A C onversation with

When asked to expound on the influence that his grandfather Roy Jackson Marshall had on his life, Jackson shared the following words:

by Obelia J. Exum, Senior Graphic Designer, and Doris McLean Bates, Editor in Chief

Jackson’s 50th birthday party, 2007.

“I know a lot of you here now are familiar with my grandfather’s story; he was a World War I veteran, because we’re in the middle of the World War I centennial. He was very, very influential on me, but it’s not just him. His whole generation was very influen- tial. I grew up around a lot of old-timers. The last of the Victorians, at church and family reunions, on the farm. . . . I would spend my summers with my grand- father and on the farm. And he would take me around and visit different people, or people would come and visit him. . . . Most of my age were out playing ball or something, [but] I’d be sitting at the feet, literally, listening to the old folks telling their stories. So, it was him telling stories about family history, his history, the community church, . . . community history. “My other grandfather, who you all are not familiar with, was the caretaker at the family home church and cemetery. And I would spend summers working with him in the cemetery, and as we would work, he would introduce me to people who were out there, and he would tell me about their lives. . . . So, my appreciation for history did not come from the classroom, from teachers. . . . It came from people, just regular folks, telling me their stories.”

Longtime museum employee R. Jackson Marshall III, deputy director, retired December 31, 2018. Before he left, we con- vinced him to talk with us about his tenure. In this interview, hear his thoughts on a number of professional and personal topics.

We asked how artifacts can tell effective stories. “There are many artifacts, and . . . my goal or desire would be that just about everything we have in the museum collection, we can appreciate it for what it is; not just as an object—certainly like a beautiful piece of pottery or quilt—but it’s who made it. What is the story of everything we have here? . . . What’s the humanity behind this object? “There are some objects we have . . . that Fred Olds collected that we have no information on. It’s just an object. We discovered that with even the World War I exhibit; [there are these] helmets that have bullet holes in them or [some kind of damage]. He may have known everything about the story, but it died with him because he didn’t write it down. But . . . if you put [any] object on the table in front of you and just sit quietly with it, it is speaking to you. It’s just speaking in a whisper, and you may not even quite hear what it’s telling you. It has a story; there is a history. . . . Listen and see if you can understand at least some fragment of its story, and then try to tell that. . . . You look at Ernie Barnes’s paintings, and you can appreciate any one of his pieces of art. Like, wow, look at this. Look at the energy. . . . You can appreciate it more if you know his story.”

“My goal, at the time, was to simply have a job with benefits and to work here maybe five years, and then . . . leave and go on back to graduate school and get a PhD and go into teaching. That was my career plan,”

Jackson said. He began working at the museum in 1987.“I started off as a research historian, moved up to head of research, then chief curator, and then head of Curation and Collections Management. Then assistant administrator. That was the title at the time. . . .Head of Design. I moved around throughout the organization. And then when Ken [Howard] got here, he wanted me to come back into management as the deputy director. . . . [When Jackson first arrived, the museum] was going to be a stepping-stone towards teaching in a college program. That was my goal, to do research and writing and teaching. That was my primary focus. I think, now looking back 31 years, this . . . probably has been a good place for me because I got to do, still do, some of that. I still could do some research and writing and teaching, which is what I wanted to do, only it was not in an academic world. It was in a public history world; it was here at the museum.”

A scene from a living history workshop, ca. 1996.

Pictorial Essay

Pictorial Essay

A man prepares to ride four miles to his home in Linville Gorge, Burke County, ca. 1910.

Historical Scenes from North Carolina by RaeLana Poteat, Curator of Political and Social History Did you know that the North Carolina Museum of History has thousands of old photographs in our collection? Photos offer a unique view into the past and allow us to learn more about the lives of North Carolinians. When the museum was founded in 1902, photographs were a part of its initial collection. The institution collected photos to tell our state’s history— images of well-known places, community celebrations, and Tar Heels from all walks of life. Many people in the photo collection have been identified, but others remain unknown, as seen on these pages. Today, our collecting focus has shifted. We concentrate on acquiring early images and photos that relate to other objects we collect. But we still rely on our photograph collection to help us interpret the stories of North Carolinians. Which of these images catch your eye?

“The Great Snow of 1899,” Fayetteville Street, Raleigh, Wake County, 1899.

A group of students, posing with their covered wagon “school bus,” probably Ashe County, 1920s.

A girl from the late 1800s.

A man examines a patch of dahlias, probably Burke County, early 1900s.

St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, Edenton, Chowan County, around 1900.

A woman, probably in Tarboro, around 1900 . A woman, probably in Tarboro, around 1900.

A woman of the late 1870s to early 1880s.

A family portrait, late 1880s– early 1890s.

Marshburn’s Beach, White Lake, Bladen County, late 1920s.

Twin boys, 1920s.



A man and woman gazing on a cliff, either Avery, Burke, or McDowell County, early 1900s.

A man at his hunting and fishing camp, either Avery, Burke, or McDowell County, early 1900s.

Two boys with their catch, early 1930s.

Programs and Events

Programs and Events

A group performs at a recent African American Cultural Celebration.

First Annual City of Oaks Pirate Fest 2018

Longleaf Film Festival 2019 The fifth annual Longleaf Film Festival took place Friday, May 10, and Saturday, May 11, 2019. The festival featured films that demon- strated a Tar Heel State connection—through the people involved in making them, through their subject, or through their location. Long- leaf is a free-to-attend festival that highlights the best of historical and contemporary stories through narrative and documentary features and shorts. Festival coordinators seek to reflect the diversity of talent and imagination throughout the filmmaking world and—as a place that helps tell the stories that connect us The North Carolina Museum of History hosts several noteworthy and popular events throughout the year! Honoring Our History through Festivals

Many costumed pirates of all sizes invaded 5 East Edenton Street for the first annual City of Oaks Pirate Fest September 22, 2018. The daylong event offered excited attendees a plethora of “arrr- some” live performances and hands-on activities. Over 5,900 visitors participated in the free festival, which had been organized to mark the 300th anniversary

of the time that the pirate Blackbeard roamed the Carolina coast and met his death there at the hands of the Royal Navy. Festival offerings

ran the gamut to pass along the history of pirates in North Carolina: sea chanteys with pirate bands; sword fights and swashbuckling games; professional living history perform- ers; hands-on demonstrations with authentic pirate artifacts; and engaging activities that in- cluded face painting, pirate trivia, balloon artists, and making pirate hats, flags, and telescopes—in addition to feasting at local food trucks. The event was sponsored, in part, by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina and KIX 102.9 FM, Carolina’s Greatest

Hits. The 2019 festival is planned for September 14.

all—they believe that the North Carolina Museum of History, the host, is in a unique position for showcasing those films. The 2019 festival sponsors included the Museum of History Associates and BigRentz. The 2020 festival is tentatively planned for May 8–9.

A frame from the film 2 by 2: There’s a Thin Line Between Love and Hate . Produced by Mark Playne, it won first place in the Narrative Short Best Comedy category. Courtesy of the 2018 Longleaf Film Festival.

18th Annual African American Cultural Celebration 2019

23rd Annual American Indian Heritage Celebration 2018 Festivalgoers crowded the museum to participate in the 23rd annual American Indian Heritage Celebration November 17, 2018. One of the museum’s largest events, the festival had an attendance of 6,951. Visitors took in the engaging artists, dancers, and other perform- ers; participated in workshops and craft activities; and found out more about North Carolina’s American Indian population. The free annual festival was sponsored, in part, by the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs; the City of Raleigh, based on recommendation of the Raleigh Arts Commission; Food Lion; United Arts Council of Raleigh and Wake County; Triangle Native American Society; MOHA, the Museum of History Associates; IBM; Locklear Roofing; and the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. For a fourth consecutive year, the festival was also named a Top 20 Event by the Southeast Tourism Society. The annual American Indian Education Day took place Friday, November 16, serving 6,528 students and their chaperones from schools across the state, including 2,500 viewers from 37 counties who participated via livestream. The 2019 festival will occur November 23.

The museum recently honored the contributions of African Ameri- cans to North Carolina. The 18th annual African American Cultural Celebration took place Saturday, January 26, 2019. This free festival, one of the museum’s largest events, celebrated culture, kinship, and community and served as the museum’s annual kickoff to Black History Month. The 2019 theme was “The Ties That Bind.”The festival was sponsored, in part, by the City of Raleigh, based on recommendation of the Raleigh Arts Commission; United Arts Council of Raleigh and Wake County; the North Carolina African American Heritage Com- mission; MOHA, the Museum of History Associates; AARP; Wells Fargo; Progressive Business Solutions; Tar Heel Political Action Com- mittee; the North Carolina Writers’ Network; MW Prince Hall Grand Lodge F&AM of NC Inc.; and Carmax. For the fourth consecutive year, the festival was named a Top 20 Event by the Southeast Tourism Society. The 2020 festival is scheduled for January 25.



Programs and Events Recent Acquisitions

Personal Perspective

Background : A plate can hold memories, as well as food. This one—by Thomas Haviland, of New York, in the popular Rosalinde pattern (ca. 1940s)—belonged to the author’s grandmother. Below : The author shows off one year’s effort to re-create her grandmother’s famous cake. The boiled fudge icing set up just right that year, but the taste of the cake could not match her childhood memories.

recipes to prevent the daughter-in-law from ever achieving the same culinary fame. Not that my mom—of the Betty Crocker cake-mix generation—didn’t dutifully try a thousand times. As kids, we’d sit with her at the old picnic table in the backyard and use hammers to pound away at the ugly, bumpy, bright- green hulls covering the walnuts we’d gathered in paper grocery bags from beneath someone’s tree—I mean, we made that cake from scratch! It was a miserable job that would stain our fingers yellow for days. Mom once told a neighbor that the only way to really hull black walnuts was to put them out in the street and run over them with the car. As the generations turned, I tried to keep this family food tradition going. But even though people blessed my cake with positive reviews, I knew in my heart it didn’t taste right. My brother, John, came close once or twice. Our family had accumulated various scribbled derivations of the recipe, with notes, addendums, and tips. But something always eluded us. “What does she mean by ‘ sour but- ter milk’?” we asked each other.“Isn’t all buttermilk sour?!” . . .“Maybe we aren’t pinching that ‘pinch of salt’ hard enough!” we joked. I came to believe that muscle memory must have informed her art, as surely as it elevates the Nutcracker ballerina or the March Madness basketball star. Or maybe there was something magi- cal about her plates. Or in the hint of wood smoke that lingered in her house whether it was winter, summer, spring, or fall. The sound of her voice in my ear as she served me a slice big enough for a child to climb. How I wish I’d known back then to approach this cake as a historian or anthropologist—to watch her work and write down every step, to record the oral history, to observe the things unwritten. But I was young. I thought that she—and her cake—would live forever.

I gave up trying many years ago, tiring perhaps of the expensive ingredients, in- tense labor, and disappointing results. But something happened as I was writing this. I dug out my mother’s old green cook- book, which had been packed away for more than a year. I flipped through it, just to see what might be saved among the pages. And I was startled by what I found: a small, fragile scrap of paper, tucked into a plastic sleeve. It was a brief typed copy of THE recipe—only here, modestly named “Chocolate Cake.”Was this “the original recipe” my mom always said she had? Questions arose. Why typed instead of handwritten? And by whom? My grandmother was a farmer’s wife. I can’t picture her typing. But my mother had worked in her father’s roofing business till I was born. I still have the monstrous black typewriter that once sat in his shop. Could she, as a young bride, have typed up instructions—perhaps conveyed to her orally over the phone? Had she left out something in her haste? The scrap of paper nearly fell apart in my hand: it could easily be 70 years old. Look closely at the recipe and the instructions.“What instructions?” you ask. Exactly. No need to check the back either. There’s a mere line of instruction for the icing. Why no instructions for the cake? All I can conclude is that step-by-step her day—since any housewife worth her salt would have known how to put togeth- er a cake from scratch. The mystery to why my cake never tasted like hers lies somewhere in those untyped words. But somehow, instead of feeling discouraged, I feel curiously challenged. Make me , the recipe taunts. I dare you. Well, I inherited her hands, and some of the vintage plates on which she served this cake. Perhaps I can reach back in time— instructions would have seemed superfluous to my grandmother in

Food Traditions: Find the History in Your Holiday by Cathy East, Historical Publications Editor How is history recorded? What stakes history to the timeline of a nation, a state, or a community? Statues and artifacts, history books and lectures do much to display and debate our past. But for many of us, history—family history—is recorded not in history books but in cookbooks. These priceless heirlooms are often tattered and worn, stuffed with accumulated recipes torn from“ladies” magazines, written neatly on recipe-box index cards, or hastily scrawled on the back of an envelope and shared. The pages are sometimes embellished with splattered samples of the food that would be served up on dinner tables and holiday buffets. A lot of people just don’t cook as much as they used to. In a world hyped up by Twitter, Facebook, and hourly breaking news, many of us chomp our way through our busy weeks relying on microwaved meals, home delivery kits, frozen pizza, or takeout Chinese. (Al- though all those cookbooks do make lovely decorations on a kitchen shelf.) But when holidays spring up on the calendar, and slow us down, we hunger for more. We want food that sus- tains our spirits, as well as our bodies. For holidays, we want our food traditions. Even teenagers who might otherwise be in their rebellious stage will go on strike if their traditional childhood favorites don’t appear on the holiday table. Give me liberty—but how could you not make Aunt Ila’s sweet potato pie ?! The only cookbook the author ever saw her mother use: a well-worn copy of The American Woman’s Cook Book by Ruth Berolzheimer, originally published in 1939. The copyright page is missing, but this edition is probably from the 1940s. There were several editions and bindings, including the 1942 “War- time Edition” Victory binding, published during World War II. The back section of that edition included “Wartime Cookery” (retained in the edition at right), which offered tips on how to feed a family during rationing. It also included a dedication to General Douglas MacArthur.

through my mother’s cookbook, into my grandmother’s mind—and find my past.

In the commemorative landscape of my childhood memo- ries, one marker stands out: my grandmother’s dense, moist Black Walnut Chocolate Cake. On our seasonal pilgrimage to the country, the dessert beguiled us from the finish line of many a holiday meal. It looked ordinary enough, but you’ve never tasted any- thing like it. I’ve never found anything close in any grocery store or bakery. No one in our family has been able to re-create it. My dad credited the honesty and integrity of my grand- mother’s ingredients—backyard eggs and local cream butter—and her “old-timey” methods, which held the old cooks’ wisdom. My mother, on the other hand, swore that my grandmother had intentionally sabotaged all her

This small artifact of mine may be of little interest to most scholars of North Carolina history. But it reflects the kind of puzzle that often intrigues and

challenges our curators, as artifacts—bits and pieces of our history—come into the museum’s possession. As you plan and bake for this year’s many holidays, take a moment to lean in more closely, with a historian’s eye: What recipes and food traditions linger in your family— out in the open or hidden away in some cup- board or drawer? What do you know about them? How can you find out? Who needs to hear their stories?



Top : A tattered, splattered artifact of one family’s holiday food tradition. Inset : A ca. early 1900s wood- en butter mold with a fern design to mark the finished pound of butter, from the museum’s collection. Above : The author ( right ) celebrates her second birthday with her big sister Cheryl and another one of her grandmother’s wonderful treats—a traditional Easter lamb cake, covered in coconut.

MOHA—Museum of History Associates

MOHA—Museum of History Associates

MOHA Membership We are grateful to the more than 2,200 members whose love for North Carolina shines from the mountains to the coast. With your support, the Associates can provide funding for the museum’s award- winning exhibitions, outstanding

Spring Frolic 2019

and the Whites with custom artwork, again by Tommy Mitchell, and shared with the room how instrumental Lyl and Mary Powell have been in the growth and sustainability of our organization and the museum as a whole. Shortly after, the honorees shared their many heartfelt thanks, which shone with their enormous appreciation and true commitment to ensure the museum’s future for generations to come, their love for the state of North Carolina palpable in every word. During dinner, Leland Little took over center stage to lead the crowd in an event- ful and lively live auction filled with such treats as private chef dinners, a vacation home formerly owned by Dennis Quaid in Montana, and a trip with Bailey’s Fine Jewelry to New York City! But the crown jewel of our live auction is, and always will be, the Fund-A-Need portion. Fund-A-Need addresses the museum’s need of financial support for specific edu- cational and outreach programs, includ- ing travel grants, History-in-a-Box kits, the Tar Heel Junior Historian Associa- tion clubs, and film and digital resources that are used and shared all over the state. Last year, we reached more than 108,000 students with those endeavors alone. In the five minutes that flew by as members and donors raised their bidder numbers to support these important and crucial programs, we were able to raise nearly $50,000! Moments like that call for a full-blown celebration, which is what the rest of the evening was! Lyl Clinard’s grandmother’s dessert and Mary Powell White’s cosmo were the perfect complements to the suc- cess of the evening. Coupled with music and the after-party portion of the event, Dance Only, which began at 8:30 p.m. and welcomed an additional 200 guests, it was a night to remember—and to not soon be forgotten! We are humbled and thankful for the dedication of our members to what we do and how MOHA supports the museum— we could not be more excited to do it all again next year! Save the date: April 25, 2020, will be Spring Frolic’s 22nd year!

5 East Edenton Street PO Box 25937 Raleigh, NC 27611 919-814-7050

community and educational outreach, and artifact acquisition and conservation. That is no easy feat. This year, we welcomed over 460,000 visitors to the museum. You made that possible. From every smiling guest, to every bus filled with excited students, to every beaming grandmother teaching her grandchild about days gone by, to every classroom engaging in a LIVE! streaming program, the museum is an important place in the state’s cultural land- scape. We invite you to continue the legacy that your involvement fosters for those who walk through our doors. It is a great time to be a MOHA member!

Bill Hamlin, 2018–2019 MOHA Board Chair

Spring Frolic 2019 honorees Mary Powell and Dunlop White.

Spring Frolic 2019 honorees Lyl and Aaron Clinard.

Spring Frolic 2019 by Kara Leinfelder Meyer Thank you! To all those who sup- ported this year’s Spring Frolic, in person or from afar, we are so grateful for your support. Together, we raised $225,000 for the mu- seum’s exhibitions and educational and community outreach programs. Together, we continue to tell the dynamic and unique story of our beloved state. A special thank-you to our Spring Frolic 2019 Committee Chairs: Amy Brooks and Buck Copeland; Sally and Charles Corpening; Joan and Ran Johnson; and Billy Wilson. You did an incredible job! Thank you, too, to Spring Frolic Sponsors: Mary and Martin Boney; David Hayworth; Mary Charles and Robert Boyette; and Martha and Ken Howard. Also, we extend thanks to our exceptional Silent Auction Chair, Caroline Plummer, as well as to our Board and the many commit- tee members that spanned the state in celebration of our honorees, Lyl and Aaron Clinard and Mary Powell and Dunlop White. It was a great honor to celebrate the Clinards and the Whites, whose con- tagious enthusiasm for history has energized us all over the many years that they have served in various ca- pacities for both the North Carolina Museum of History Associates and

MOHA Board and Executive Committee 2018–2019 Bill Hamlin, Chair Gray Styers, First Vice Chair Anne Daniel, Second Vice Chair Karen Vaughan, Secretary Stephen Later, Treasurer Bill Duke, Assistant Treasurer Su-Su Corbitt, Audit Franklin Freeman, Human    Resources Becky Johnson, Membership Jan Johnson, Public Relations Martha Marshall, Membership Charlie Silver, Board Development Christine Weason, Financial    Development MOHA Staff Lynn Brower Director, Retail Operations Pam Critoria Controller Hunter Diamond Director, Special Events Carol Grossi Database Manager Kara Leinfelder Meyer Associate and Creative Director Danielle Shuirman Membership Director Sophie Weston Special Events Coordinator For information on upcoming events, visit Lynda Blount, At-Large Jane Howard, At-Large Edwina Shaw, At-Large

Spring Frolic 2019 honorees Lyl Clinard ( left) and Mary Powell White.

Spring Frolic 2019 Co-Chairs ( L to R ): Billy Wilson, Sally Corpening, Amy Brooks Copeland, and Joan Johnston.

the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation. It was a magical night, full of good friends coming together for a great cause. The honorees stood—flanked by pieces of exquisite sculpture from this year’s featured artist, Tommy Mitchell— in the foyer of the Carolina Country Club greeting over 250 guests. Classical music drifted through the hallways as the excitement for the evening’s festivi- ties rose. Once seated in the ballroom, guests had the opportunity to reflect not only on their philanthropic passion for our museum but to share the senti- ment for the Spring Frolic honorees. The co-chairs presented the Clinards


Museum Director Ken Howard and daughter, Kathryn Howard.

Spring Frolic 2019 Silent Auction Chair, Caroline Plummer, and incoming MOHA Vice Chair, Stephen Later.



Background image: detail of Tommy Mitchell sculpture

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