IBR Eradication leaflet series
ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health
IBR An information leaflet for Irish farmers
Vaccination is a key part of many control programmes for IBR
Animal Health Ireland, 2-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27 IBR ERADICATION PROGRAMME
AHI gratefully acknowledges the financial and other contributions of our stakeholders.
Animal Health Ireland, 2–5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27 IBR ERADICATION PROGRAMME
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Please refer to the disclaimer on the last page regarding information in this leaflet.
IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) • Is caused by a herpesvirus (Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BoHV-1)) also known as IBRV (IBR virus). • Virus is spread mainly by close contact between animals. • Airborne spread of virus may occur over distances of up to 5m. • May also be spread by semen from infected bulls, using contaminated equipment and by people who have recently handled infected animals. In this document we will refer to any infection with Bovine Herpes Virus-1 as IBR, even though some infections are not associated with obvious respiratory disease. Infections with IBR result in losses in production, animal welfare issues, potential trade barriers and reduction of the genetic pool available to AI stations. Clinical signs associated with (but not unique to) IBR: • Dullness and reduced appetite. • High body temperature. • Rapid and loud breathing, sometimes with coughing. • Inflammation inside the nose and in the pink of the eye (conjunctiva) or less commonly on the lining of male or female reproductive tracts. • Fluid discharge from nose and eyes. • Inflammation of the throat (pharyngitis). • Sudden reduced milk production, abortion, nervous signs (normally only in young calves). Note that some infections may be subclinical i.e. show no obvious signs of disease but impact on production. IBR in the herd
Introduction of ‘apparently healthy’ but latently infected carrier animals is the most common way of introducing the virus to a herd. Latently infected animals have been previously infected with IBR, recovered from the disease but remain carriers for life. During periods of stress the virus can be reactivated and these animals will then spread the virus to susceptible comrades. These in turn will become latently infected when they recover from the disease. The IBR virus then persists within the herd by way of latently infected carrier animals.
The discoloured, thickened and uneven lining of the trachea of an animal that has died from IBR. The inside of a healthy trachea should be smooth and a light pink colour.
This cycle allows the virus to remain indefinitely within a herd. Figure 1 illustrates how latently infected animals spread infection to susceptible animals in a herd.
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Figure 1: Spread of IBRV within a herd following reactivation and shedding of virus from carrier animals.
‘Apparently’ healthy latently infected carriers (antibody test positive)
Newly infected animals
What should I do about IBR? Dealing with IBR usually requires a long term approach working closely with your own veterinary practitioner. If uncontrolled, IBR usually persists indefinitely in a herd (because all infected animals become ‘latent carriers’ for life). Latently infected animals are almost always detectable by antibody testing. However, some animals (younger animals with maternally derived antibodies and vaccinated animals) may be antibody positive without having been infected and farmers should review all test results with their own veterinary practitioner. Other sources of infection such as introduced animals or neighbouring stockmust also be consideredwhen formulating a control plan for IBR.
‘Apparently healthy’ animals can in fact be latently infected carriers making IBR control difficult. One of these animals is a latently infected carrier.
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There are four key steps to the herd’s control programme:
For more information, see the more detailed ‘IBR in Cattle’ information leaflet click here . Vaccination
Vaccination will be an important component of many control programmes. All vaccines licenced for use in Ireland are ‘Marker’ vaccines. Using the appropriate (gE) test, it is possible to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals, allowing the success of a control plan to be monitored. ‘Marker’ vaccines may contain either live or dead (inactivated) vaccine virus. Decisions on vaccination strategies should be made in conjunction with your own veterinary practitioner. NOTE: Vaccinating an animal already infected with IBR will not remove an established latent infection. IBR in herds that breed bulls for A.I. and semen collection centres Control of IBR in herds aiming to send bulls to semen collection centres requires additional careful planning and should be discussed in detail with the herd’s veterinary practitioner. Please also consult AHI information leaflets providing guidance to herds with potential beef or dairy AI sires for further information click here . This leaflet is an extract from the IBR in Cattle Information leaflet for farmers, advisors and vets which is available from the Animal Health Ireland website click here .
Animals that have antibodies following infection or vaccination (with ‘Conventional’ or ‘Marker’ vaccines) against IBR cannot enter semen collection centres in Ireland
THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN PREPARED BY THE ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND IBR TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP. Michael Gunn (Chairperson), Emma Campbell (AFBI), Charles Chavasse (Zoetis), Stephen Conroy (ICBF), Doreen Corridan (Munster Bovine), Bosco Cowley (MSD Animal Health), Niamh Field (Teagasc), William Fitzgerald (RVL, DAFM), David Graham (AHI), Laura Garza Cuartero (CRVL, DAFM), Maria Guelbenzu (AHI), Elizabeth Lane (DAFM), Donal Lynch (Veterinary Ireland), Joris Somers (Glanbia Ireland), Sam Strain (AHWNI). INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY All images contained in this leaflet are the property of AHI, or have been included with the permission of the owner. Please seek permission from AHI if you wish to use these images and provide the correct attribution of ownership when reproducing them. If reusing any other material in this leaflet, please attribute AHI as the source. IMPORTANT NOTICE - DISCLAIMER This leaflet is issued and shall be read only on the basis that it will not relied upon by any person as a basis for any act or omission or otherwise without obtaining professional veterinary and health and safety verification and advice and that no liability or responsibility to any person is accepted or shall be incurred, and no recourse or claim by any person will be made, by or against AHI,any stakeholder, collaborator, officer, agent, subcontractor or employee of AHI, any member of the Technical Working Group, any contributor to, author, publisher, distributor, reviewer, compiler or promoter of or any other person in respect of or in connection with the leaflet or the contents thereof or any matter omitted therefrom.No representation or guarantee is given, whether by AHI or any other such person, that the contents of this information leaflet are comprehensive, up to date, or free from error or omissions, nor that the advice provided is appropriate in every particular circumstance. The contents of this information leaflet are not intended to be a substitute for appropriate direct advice from your veterinary practitioner. Appropriate veterinary and health and safety advice should be taken before taking or refraining from taking action in relation to the animal disease dealt with in this information leaflet. The contents of this leaflet may be updated, corrected, varied or superseded from to time by later publications or material on the AHI website and reference should be made to that website accordingly.
Any references in this booklet or links in the AHI website to external websites or other resources are provided for convenience only and the contents thereof are not to be considered as endorsed thereby.
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