Physical Therapy Services of Tennessee March 2019

MARCH 2019

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EastTennessee Physical Therapy News

T he S lim S cience B ehind F asting D iets I nvestigating the H ealth T rend T hat ’ s A ll the R age

We are constantly getting referrals from orthopedic surgeons for patients who have had a total joint replacement — primarily total knee replacement and total hip replacement. There is good news from medical researchers in Canada about joint replacement surgery for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Total joint replacement surgery for RA patients dropped by half in the time period from 1997–2010. The number of patients diagnosed with RA rose during that time period but the number of total joint surgeries dropped by 51.9 percent. The researchers attributed this drop in surgeries to “improved medical treatment” consisting of new drugs to control joint inflammation, as well as earlier diagnosis and treatment. Both physical therapists and occupational therapists play a role in helping RA patients maintain a healthy and functional lifestyle through joint protection activities and specific exercises which limit undue stress and strain on the joints. The body responds to excessive stress on the joints of RA sufferers with pain, swelling, inflammation, loss of strength, loss of motion, FROM THE DESK OF Dr. Smith

If each new year brings with it a new diet plan that promises the world to those who follow it, 2019 is shaping up to be the year of fasting. If you’ve missed the hype, fasting is quite a bit simpler than other nutrition trends like the keto diet or Weight Watchers program. Instead of counting calories or limiting sugars, you just don’t eat. Supporters argue that by putting your body into a “fasting state,” you can shed pounds and damaged internal tissue, increase your energy, promote cellular repair, lower bad cholesterol, and even protect against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Chances are you have a friend or loved one who’s tried out some form of fasting and discovered dramatic benefits. But before everyone starts skipping meals, it’s important to examine the research. Writer Julia Belluz at Vox splits the fasting trend into four categories. The first, “intermittent fasting,” cuts out or drastically limits your calorie intake intermittently. For example, thousands of people follow the popular “5:2 diet,” during which you eat normally on weekdays but consume less than 500 calories on Saturday and Sunday. Second is “time- restricted feeding,” where you only eat during a four- to six-hour window each day — followers usually skip breakfast or dinner. The third category is “periodic fasts.”With this diet, extreme fasters abstain from food for several days, opting for calorie-free fluids instead. Finally, there is the “fasting mimicking diet,” which involves intaking highly limited, plant- based calories for several days each month. People who use this technique like it because they believe they get the benefits of fasting without missing out on key nutrients. The underlying philosophy behind fasting for weight loss is pretty self-evident — if you don’t eat for periods at a time, you’re bound to burn off some weight. But proponents say the diet’s success can be attributed to more complex factors as well. They argue that as the human race shifted from hunter-gatherers to world-conquering agriculturalists, we left

and a decrease in functional activity.

Contact either of our offices to speak to a therapist about RA programs.

–Danny

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It’s worth noting that fasting to lose weight can be an extremely difficult strategy to stick to, and according to one literature review, as many as 40 percent of fasters drop out of the diet. Furthermore, at least one study indicates that fasting is not superior to the average calorie-counting diets. In short, fasting is promising, but the data is inconclusive. It may help you live longer and fight off disease, but it is also notoriously tricky. The average dieter is just as well off with regular calorie counting, especially if you’re not looking to get too intense with your diet plan. Before you start skipping dinner every day, visit your doctor. If they say fasting is right for you, go for it. Just because the jury is still out doesn’t mean you can’t reap the benefits of the trend — just go into it with a healthy attitude, be safe, and understand that fasting is not magic.

Diet, exercise, and sleep are all essential to achieving your fitness goals, but you’re inevitably going to reach a plateau. Maybe it starts with noticing you’re not getting the gains you wanted, or you’re feeling sluggish on a daily basis. This is common when going through an exercise program, and one factor hindering your progress could be a lack of nutrients. The following supplements may be able to help you reach peak physical fitness. Getting enough protein is vital for muscle- building and overall health. But when you consider all the options, choosing the right protein can be overwhelming. Soy? Whey? Plant-based? A fast-release protein, like whey or soy, is best to consume directly after your workouts, and a slow-release protein, like casein, works well if taken before bed. The fast PROTEIN our evolutionary path. Before crops existed, we weren’t wired to eat three square meals every single day. Instead, we made do with what we could find, often fasting for days at a time out of necessity. In addition, some researchers who advocate fasting point out the benefits it can offer regarding disease prevention and longevity. Autophagy, the process by which the body eliminates and replaces damaged cells, is believed to accelerate during intermittent fasting. As the thinking goes, the faulty cells die first during fasting, enabling the stem cells to start regenerating key tissues. The science backs up some of these claims, but there are a few issues regarding fasting research. Most of the research behind fasting doesn’t examine its effect on weight loss, and most of it comes from animal trials, not human trials. Though there are a few human trials on fasting that show it can improve health, they have very small sample sizes and there is not enough data to be conclusive.

Has Your Exercise Routine Reached a Plateau? Try These 3 Supplements

MULTIVITAMINS

release helps with muscle growth, and the slow release prevents muscle deterioration and speeds up recovery.

Vitamins aren’t just for kids and the elderly. Many of our diets lack the nutrients necessary for muscle development and good health. A well-rounded multivitamin will add these nutrients into your body, giving you benefits at the gym and beyond. Supplementation isn’t just for gym rats. It can help anyone get closer to their goals and live a healthier life, and these three products are just the tip of the iceberg. While doing your own research is a great place to start, it’s also important to consult a fitness professional when looking for the right balance of supplements. There are many options available, and deciding the best regimen can be daunting, but once you have the proper routine, you can expect results.

PRE-WORKOUT

Sometimes you just need that extra push of focus and energy. An excellent pre-workout product delivers vital nutrients to your muscles and increases endurance throughout your time at the gym. These often contain caffeine, so anyone with sensitivity should take a delicate approach when using this supplement. While there are regulatory entities in this industry, many products are not subjected to their oversight. The FDA does not control pre-workout supplements, so users should be aware of potentially dangerous side effects, such as vomiting, jitters, cramps, headaches, and tingling extremities.

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Take a Break! ICE: Cooling treatments can also be found in cream or wrap form, but a bag of peas or ice from your freezer will work just as well. Ice should be used for short periods throughout the day. Icing treatments are best for bruised wounds and minor injuries because the cold can reduce When it comes to relieving pain, everyone has an opinion. Your mom might suggest taking pills and a nap, while your neighbor swears it’s best to walk it off. Meanwhile, yearly advancements offer more options — and opinions — for patients seeking relief. Among the plethora of available treatments, two remain constant — heat and ice. However, many people don’t know which to use, and unfortunately, the wrong decision can make your pain or injury worse. If you are unsure which method is best for you, here’s the answer to your heating or icing dilemma. HEAT: These treatments can come in several forms, such as creams, pads, and wraps. Many medical professionals suggest using heat treatment for 30 minutes to four hours, depending on what is needed to fully relax the muscle. Heat often works best for chronic pain because it supports blood flow and loosens your muscles. Heat treatments can also be used to relieve stress and tension, but you should never use heat on an open wound or fresh injury. When Do You Apply Heat or Ice to an Injury? Fire and Ice

the swelling in your blood vessels — the cause of bruising — and expedite your healing process. However, icing your chronic pain can be detrimental due to the stiffening reaction that decreases swelling. This is the opposite of the muscle relaxation you need for chronic pain relief. Eventually, heating treatments can be worked into a healing plan, but ice is a quick solution to a small problem. As with most treatments, what works for one person may not work for another. If icing an injury feels best for you and you see improvement, continue icing away your pain. Additionally, some patients find relief while rotating between cooling and heating. Regardless of your preferred method, it’s best to seek professional guidance in order to find a viable long-term solution.

Everything Popcorn

INGREDIENTS •

2 teaspoons granulated garlic

3/4 cup corn kernels

2 teaspoons granulated onion

2 tablespoons flaky sea salt

1/3 cup canola oil

1 teaspoon black sesame seeds

4 tablespoons unsalted butter, melted

2 teaspoons white sesame seeds

DIRECTIONS 1. In a small skillet over medium heat, toast sesame seeds. Shake skillet often and cook until white seeds are golden and fragrant, about 2 minutes. Transfer to a small bowl and add garlic, onion, and salt. 2. In a large saucepan, combine

until corn kernels start to pop. Once popping, continue cooking and shaking the pan intermittently until popping ceases, about 3–5 minutes. 3. Transfer popcorn to a large

mixing bowl. Pour in butter and toss to coat. Finally, add seasoning, toss again, and serve.

corn kernels and oil. Cook over medium-high heat, covered,

Inspired by Food & Wine magazine

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1500 West Elk Ave. Elizabethton, TN, 37643 423-547-4012

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P hysical T herapy S ervices , P.A.

It’s no secret that most breakfast cereals are loaded with sugar and carbs. Starting your day with a hefty bowl will inevitably give you a sugar high that crashes into a haze of fatigue not long after. What’s worse, however, is that some cereals are evenmore unhealthy than youmight realize. Do you remember the old Reese’s Puffs slogan: “Candy?! For breakfast?”Reality isn’t far off. Kellogg’s Honey Smacks and Post Golden Crisp are two of the biggest offenders when it comes to sugar content. By weight, Honey Smacks and Golden Crisp are more than 50 percent sugar. That’s more sugar than your average cake or cookie. And there isn’t muchmore nutritional value tomake up for the excess sugar. These puffed rice cereals contain less than two grams of protein and one gramof fiber per serving, which is remarkably low. Inside This Issue From the Desk of Dr. Smith PAGE 1 The Skinny on Fasting Diets PAGE 1 3 Supplements Everyone Needs PAGE 2 When Should You Heat or Ice an Injury? PAGE 3 Take a Break PAGE 3 Everything Popcorn PAGE 3 Candy? For Breakfast? PAGE 4

Sugary Cereals Are No Better Than Candy KEEP THIS OFF YOUR BREAKFAST TABLE

a serving. That said, most people don’t measure out food based on the recommended serving size. With these two cereals, the combination of puffed rice and a lack of proteinmeans you won’t feel full until you’ve overindulged. By eating twice the recommended serving (about two cups), you’ve consumed the same amount of sugar found in one can of soda. Honey Smacks is the worst of the two because it contains hydrogenated vegetable oil —one of the unhealthiest food-based oils you can consume. This type of oil keeps the cereal shelf-stable for longer, but the American Heart Association points to it as a major dietary cause of heart disease. Many other cereals are just as bad, including Kellogg’s Froot Loops and General Mills Trix. These two cereals hide behind the guise of “fruit,”whichmany people associate with better nutrition. But you won’t find balanced nutrition

in either of these cereals. Froot Loops is just under 50 percent sugar by weight, andTrix is just under 40 percent. Both cereals also contain artificial food dyes and flavorings. Trix also contains corn syrup, which has been linked to the rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. When you eat 10 grams of sugar in any form—which is in just one cup of Trix—or more, depending on the cereal, you can expect a spike in blood sugar. A blood sugar spike early in the morning can often translate to low energy later in the day. Over time, a diet high in sugar can lead to insulin resistance, which can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.

For reference, Honey Smacks lists 1 1/4 cups as a serving, while Golden Crisp considers 3/4 cup

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