Circa Summer 2018


From the Director by Ken Howard

On the cover

( Top right ) 30th Division helmet; ( first row , L to R ) Brigadier General Campbell King; US Army Uncle Sam recruiting poster, 1917; home front war medal; pilot Belvin W. Maynard and Gov- ernor Thomas W. Bickett; ( second row, L to R ) North Carolina soldier in gas mask; US Army African American recruiting poster, 1918; French Croix de Guerre medal; Kiffin Yates Rockwell, January 1916; North Carolina pilot Leonidas P. Denmark; ( third row, L to R ) nurse Madelon Battle Hancock; Imperial German soldiers, 1915; British Mark V tank, 1918; ( fourth row ) North Carolina Red Cross nurses.

This past year the North Carolina Museum of History has achieved several new milestones in its mission to reach out and serve visitors from far and wide, families, teachers, and students. Museum attendance for the fiscal year so far ( July 1, 2017, through

State of North Carolina Roy Cooper, Governor Daniel J. Forest, Lieutenant Governor

Department of Natural and Cultural Resources Susi H. Hamilton, Secretary Reid Wilson, Chief Deputy Secretary Staci Meyer, Deputy Secretary Arts and Administration


May 31, 2018) reached 428,348. Of special interest to visitors, some from out of state and from other countries, is the award-winning North Carolina and World War I exhibition, which has drawn to date more than 389,000 people of all ages—making it the most visited exhibit in museum history. We anticipate many more museum visitors in the coming summer months as additional new and exciting exhibi- tions and programs become available. Reaching across the state, museum staff created engaging opportunities to learn more about the state’s history with new outreach program- ming, including five Live Streaming programs that reached 8,400 students, online history video programs watched by 21,000 students, History-in-a-Box kits sent out to nearly 30,000 students, and podcast programs that reached nearly 2,000 people, including listeners as far away as Indonesia. As part of the WWI centen- nial commemoration, staff developed a host of online programs and resources for classroom use and will soon post a virtual tour of the exhibit on the museum website. In the meantime, membership in the Tar Heel Junior Historian Association jumped to 8,000 students covering 60 counties (totaling 182 clubs), an impressive growth from past years. Finally, our readers will see with this issue of Circa that we are moving toward a new format and design. The magazine will be presenting more stories about the history of the state, showcasing artifacts and historical photography, and highlighting past individuals who have made a difference in shaping our unique char- acter as North Carolinians. Circa , along with the museum’s exhibitions and programs, will continue to promote the state’s rich history and provide insights on how our shared history still impacts the world today.

Office of Archives and History Dr. Kevin Cherry, Deputy Secretary

Division of State History Museums North Carolina Museum of History Kenneth B. Howard, Director R. Jackson Marshall III, Deputy Director James E. Huebler, Chief Financial Officer

Circa Doris McLean Bates, Editor in Chief/Editor Obelia J. Exum, Designer Cathy East, Proofreader Eric N. Blevins and D. Kent Thompson, Photographers Michelle Carr, Hunter Diamond, Obelia J. Exum, Earl Ijames, Susan Friday Lamb, R. Jackson Marshall III, Kara Leinfelder Meyer, RaeLana Poteat, Rebecca Stiles, and Jeanne Marie Warzeski, Contributors Circa magazine, a publication of the North Carolina Museum of History, has been produced since the first issue, spring/summer 2008. The summer 2017 issue was the first digital version of the publication (no print issues were made). Beginning with the summer 2018 issue, versions will be available in print and digital. The text of this publication is available on magnetic recording tape from the State Library of North Carolina, Services to the Blind and Physically Handicapped Branch. For information, call 1-888- 388-2460. Unless otherwise noted, images used are courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History or the North Carolina Museum of History Associates. For information on making a contribution to the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation or sponsoring an issue of the print version of Circa , phone 919-807-7876 or visit Join the North Carolina Museum of History Associates, the membership arm of the museum, by visiting © 2018 by the North Carolina Museum of History

C ontents Features 4 Thoroughly Modern Models: Actresses Show the Past in a New Light 6 Remembering WWI 14 Are You Up to a Challenge? 18 Constitutional Tales Departments

North Carolina and World War I

Collecting Carolina: Montagnards, Vietnam’s Central Highlanders


10 Historical Profile 11 In the Community 12 Recent Acquisitions 16 Donor Profile 17 In Memoriam 20 Programs and Events

Like us on Facebook: NCMuseumofHistory Follow us on Twitter: @NCmuseumhistory

The Shape of Fashion Online Exhibit

Bob Schieffer: Eyewitness to History A Rousing Start for the American Revolution Speaker Series—Huzzah!

For further information on our exhibits, access

23 From the Regional Museums 24 MOHA—Museum of History Associates 26 Recognition

North Carolina Museum of History 5 E. Edenton Street, Raleigh, NC 27601 919-807-7900 • Free admission


Museum Shop Hours Open during museum hours 919-807-7835

Pharaoh’s @ the MuseumHours Mon.–Sat., 11 a.m.–2 p.m.

Mon.–Sat., 9 a.m.–5 p.m. Sun., noon–5 p.m.


Images of our actresses show users the many layers women wore in the past. Can you figure out the correct order for Angie? (C, H, F, A, D, G, B, E)

on real historical clothing and are made with period construction techniques and worn with correct reproduction under- garments. The result? Online visitors can watch Angie, Claire, and Edith dress, step by step, in the many layers worn by women in the 1860s, 1880s, and early 1900s. After each actress dresses, she demonstrates how to move—and sit down—in her new outfit. (Yes, you can sit gracefully while wearing a hoop skirt or bustle, but it does take some forethought. And yes, wearing a corset does give you very good posture whether sitting or standing.) We asked our actresses to have a little fun in the videos. At times they move sedately, emulating women from the past. But they also give visitors a glimpse of how a woman today might feel when dressed in such a magnificent, but constrictive, outfit. For example, Claire gives an exuberant booty shake in her 1880s bustle gown, which makes her backside protrude by almost a foot, before perching gracefully on the edge of a bench to show how women would have had to maneuver their bustles to sit down.

T horoughly



by RaeLana Poteat, Curator of Political and Social History

Visitors who missed The Shape of Fashion exhibit now have a chance to catch the custom-made videos and other content in an online version of the exhibit at the-shape-of-fashion. The Shape of Fashion explored the frequent shifts in the fashionable silhouette of women’s clothing during the 1800s and 1900s. In the exhibit, visitors were introduced to 10 very different “looks” and could view examples of clothing worn by North Carolinians. They could also see images of some of the undergarments that helped create those shape-contorting looks, as well as numerous period photos of Tar Heels wearing various styles. But are clothes on a mannequin and black-and-white photos really enough to get a feel for what wearing these styles might have been like? Since clothing is such a tangible part of our everyday lives, museum staff wanted to make sure visitors felt a real connection to the objects on display. We wanted to be able to, at least partially, answer the inevitable question of “What did it feel like to wear THAT?” Since most of the styles in the exhibit were extremely fitted and rather expensive to reproduce and maintain, finding a way to let each and every visitor get to play dress-up wasn’t practical. So we went with the next best option—videos of modern women getting dressed and moving around in three of our reproduction outfits. Because the arti- fact clothing in our collection cannot be worn, we have a small teaching collection of reproduction items that models wear during educational programming. These garments are based



Actresses Angie Staheli ( left ), Claire Murchison ( middle ), and Edith Berry ( right ) help inject a bit of modern aesthetic into the past during filming for The Shape of Fashion videos.


REMEMBERING WWI by R. Jackson Marshall III, Deputy Director, Division of State History Museums, and Curator of the North Carolina and World War I Exhibition

Exhibition visitors share a reflective moment.

30th Division helmet.

British poet Laurence Binyon captured the sentiments for a generation lost in World War I with lines from his poem For the Fallen : “They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old; Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning, We will remember them.” Presently, the museum is commemorating the 100th anniversary of World War I. It began in Europe in August 1914, and within weeks, European countries massed armies against one another in tremendous battles. Throughout 1915 and 1916, casualties mounted beyond all compre- hension—in two 1916 battles in France, more men were killed or wounded than the entire popula- tion of North Carolina at that time, equivalent to the entire population of Mecklenburg and Wake Counties today. Understandably, American citizens wanted no part in the awful conflict that raged overseas. By 1917, however, the United States was dragged into the European war when German U-boats attacked American ships, and bungling German diplomatic attempts to convince Mexico to go to war against the US came to light. But the United States was so unprepared for war that it took a year to mobilize, train, and ship overseas enough troops to form a large-enough army to fight in Europe. Throughout 1918 American soldiers engaged in numerous costly battles that ended with an armistice on November 11, 1918. President Woodrow Wilson and the American people hoped that US military intervention in the war and the creation of a League of Nations would ensure that WWI would be “the war to end all wars.”





US Army recruiting poster, 1918.

American feelings for neutrality. Throughout the exhibition, similar character presentations tell the personal stories of North Carolinians based on the oral history interviews of WWI veterans and their letters and diaries. Exhibit visitors also experience environmental settings, such as a re-created trench system, a field hos- pital, and a German machine-gun bunker. The end of the war is presented with a map show- ing the changing European national bound- aries, film characters, and photo murals and artifacts in a remembrance area. North Carolina and World War I opened in April 2017, and just over a year later, more than 389,000 visitors, including many students from fourth grade to college age, have toured the exhibition. Some visitors have come from as far away as Belgium, France, and Germany. Public response has been very positive. Many visitors are moved by their personal immersive experience in the exhibit, leaving with a greater understanding of the war’s destruction and lasting impact. Most seem to depart with a better appreciation of the service and sacrifice of our fellow citizens in 1918—and of their dreams for a peaceful world.

But 20 years later, fighting broke out again in Europe, igniting World War II. Ever since, warfare has been so rampant worldwide that it makes the dream for lasting peace of the WWI generation seem incompre- hensible today. To commemorate the centennial, the museum devel- oped a 6,500-square-foot exhibition to tell the North Carolina story in World War I. By highlighting bio- graphical stories, artifacts, historical photography and film, and character actors on film produced by the museum, the exhibit offers an engaging interac- tive experience for visitors. Innovative use of period actors on film presents the emotions of the Europeans driven to fight at the beginning of the war and the

North Carolina soldier film character.

Colonel Sidney W. Minor, 120th Infantry Regiment, 30th Division.

USS Zeelandia that transported 30th Division troops to France in 1918.

North Carolina congressman Walter Jones ( right ) and museum deputy director and exhibit curator Jackson Marshall ( left ) view trench diorama.

Medal issued by the city of Kinston to North Carolina soldiers.

Home front war medal with single star for a family member in military service.

World War I US Marine Corps dress blue uniform.

North Carolina nurse film character.

North Carolina nurses, Base Hospital 65, France, 1918.



Poppies symbolize the remembrance of the fallen soldiers of WWI.

Historical Profile

In the Community

Educator and Lifelong Giver, Margaret Rose Murray ( Far right ) Margaret Rose Murray and two elementary students, King and Queen recipients, Antoinette Dyer and Ahmed Exum, prepare for St. Augustine’s College’s Christmas Parade of 2004. ( Right ) Mrs. Murray and Obelia Exum take a selfie together.

( Below) Three French military medals awarded to Kiffin Rockwell ( left to right ): Medal of the Great War; Croix de Guerre; Médaille de la Victoire, 1914–1918.

Rockwell spent six weeks recovering in a hospital at Rennes, France. There, he heard vivid descriptions of air combat, which appealed to his sense of adven- ture. He then requested transfer from the trenches to France’s air service, the Aéronautique Militaire. Largely due to connections he had made while recovering in Paris, his transfer request was granted, and in April of 1916, he became one of the founding pilots in the volunteer air squadron initially known as the Escadrille Americaine. The nascent squadron came to be known as the Lafayette Escadrille, in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, hero of the American and French Revolutions. The unit’s aircraft, mechanics, and uniforms were French, as was the commander, Captain Georges Thenault. The roster contained five French pilots and 38 American pilots (including fellow North Carolinian James McConnell), serving at various times. The first major action seen by the Lafayette Escadrille occurred in May, at the Battle of Verdun, when Rockwell, in a Nieuport 11, attacked a German aircraft over the Alsace battlefield. That air fight ended with Rockwell becoming the first American pilot to shoot down an enemy plane. For this action, he was awarded the French Médaille Militaire and the Croix de Guerre. The life of a fighter pilot may have been heroic, but it was often, tragi- cally, short. While flying a Nieuport 17 on September 23, Rockwell was shot through the chest by an explosive bul- let during an aerial duel with a German two-man reconnaissance plane. He was killed instantly, the second American airman to die in combat, just three days after his 24th birthday. He was buried with military honors in Luxeuil- les-Bains, France; his remains were later moved to the Lafayette Escadrille Memorial at Marnes-la-Coquette, France, where his ashes now rest, along with those of other early American combat aviators.

Kiffin Rockwell: A North Carolinian Flies for France

by Obelia J. Exum, Graphic Design Supervisor

by Jeanne Marie Warzeski, PhD, Curator of Militaria and Ethnography

“There is an art to living, and the foremost part is giving.” Mrs. Margaret Rose Murray’s lifelong motto sums up her life as an educa- tor and longtime friend to the southeast Raleigh community. For five decades Murray has helped to educate and prepare young students for higher education. In her classroom she taught learning and strength- ened self-awareness in African American students. The mild-mannered octogenarian,

Prior to official United States involve- ment in World War I in April 1917, some North Carolinians traveled over- seas to lend support to the Allied cause even as their country remained neu- tral. They offered their services to the French Foreign Legion, the American Ambulance Field Service, the Lafayette Escadrille (an aeronautical unit), and the Red Cross. Some served in several capacities by initially volunteering in one organization and then transferring to another. One such individual was Kiffin Yates Rockwell (1892–1916), who made the ultimate sacrifice. Kiffin Rockwell was born in Newport, Tennessee, on September 20, 1892, but grew up in Asheville, North Carolina. As a child, he was inspired by tales his uncles told of daring and combat. In 1914, as the threat of war loomed in Europe, he saw a chance to partake in his own undertaking: in August he and his older brother Paul traveled overseas to enlist in the French Foreign Legion, a branch of the French army that was created for foreign nationals. Like many volunteers, the Rockwells viewed the war as more than a great adventure and more than just an effort to save France. They felt an obligation to save human- ity from evil, which Germany seemed to embody. Following basic training, the brothers were sent to the front, but Paul was wounded in December and removed from active service. Kiffin remained in the trenches through the winter. In May of 1915, he was shot through the thigh in an assault on German lines near Arras, France. After sustaining an additional wound at the front in December 1915,

National figure Rosa Parks ( center ) visits The Vital Link Preschool in ca. 1983. Courtesy of Cash Michaels.

community, and family. Murray loves for students to learn. Looking forward, Murray envisions a brand-new Vital Link. During one school year, a preschool student was creating a Vital Link University with building blocks—sparking the idea of a future version of Vital Link. Murray’s daughter, Rhonda Muhammad, adds that a new Vital Link “will have merit, value, and virtue in preparing students to be 21st- century learners and helping others and passing on to families and generations to come. The new school model is beyond me and mom; we are building a platform as an educational investment and model for future-generation Vital Linkers to learn.” Murray serves as the principal emeritus at Vital Link Preschool, which has approxi- mately 40 students enrolled. She and her daughter, Rhonda, are longtime presenters at the annual African American Cultural Celebration that the museum sponsors. Murray offers this piece of advice for living:“You have to give of yourself, and do it unselfishly.”

child graduates at grade level and above. For some students this has meant being accelerated in reading and math in kin- dergarten and elementary school. The Vital Link teaches as part of its curriculumAfrican American history, and students are not only being edu- cated, but so are parents.“We worked on a space project; a student learned of Mae Jemison, and that student took her project home and told her parents she wanted to be an astronaut. The parents did not know who Mae Jemison was, and the student shared the story. The parents became enthused and excited that their child would have so much knowledge and detailed understanding about space and an African American astronaut.” Who helped in the community during this lifelong journey? Murray’s husband, Kenneth; local community workers, gov- ernment leaders, and city officials; the na- tional community; and the international community contributed toward her efforts. But her husband was the most important. He was a builder, so when Murray spoke of the vision, it would become reality through his gifted hands. Today The Vital Link Preschool, serv- ing preschoolers from 18 months to five years old, still connects students,

A recent logo for the private school. Courtesy of Rhonda Muhammad.

Margaret Rose Murray, principal emeritus, for The Vital Link Preschool.

exemplifying wisdom, beauty, and grace, shared during our April 16, 2018, interview some highlights of her journey to becoming a “giver” in the community. “For as long as I can remember, I wanted to become a schoolteacher.” In 1964Murray and her husband, Kenneth Murray- Muhammad, started the private school The Vital Link.“We wanted to educate and be that link to home and to the community, a link to connect to all in a positive way.” The school began as Cross Link Learn- ing Center located on Cross Link Road in Raleigh. The name changed slightly to The Vital Link Is Cross Link when they moved to a larger space in Raleigh’s historic Method community in 1966. The location has been its home for 53 years. Students arrive with various academic and socioeconomic backgrounds. The Vital Link has worked diligently to see that every

View Rockwell’s story and arti- facts in the award-winning exhibit North Carolina and World War I , which remains available through January 6, 2019.

Kiffin Rockwell as a member of the Lafayette Escadrille in May 1916.



( Above ) Mrs. Murray and daughter, Rhonda Muhammad, April 2018.

Recent Acquisitions

Below, left to right: pipe and jewelry. Courtesy of Michael Little.

H onoring the H eritage of M ontagnard P eople by Jeanne Marie Warzeski, PhD, Curator of Militaria and Ethnography

Mike Little ( center ) with Prot, Kenh, Kunh, and Koch, Vietnam, 1994. Courtesy of Michael Little.

Mike Little ( center ) during his service in Vietnam with his “adopted sons,” Kenh and Prot, 1968. Courtesy of Michael Little.

The Montagnards paid a terrible price for their support of US troops during the VietnamWar: more than 50 percent of adult Montagnard males were killed fighting alongside American soldiers during the conflict. After 1975, count- less numbers of Montagnards fled deep into the jungles of Cambodia, joined by those escaping from concentration camps operated by the Com- munist government following the fall of Saigon in 1975 and a continuous stream of villagers in small bands fleeing the severe repression in Vietnam. Montagnards by the thousands died of starvation or disease or were killed by the Vietcong. Little, a Vietnam veteran, began a relationship with the Montagnards in 1968, when he served as a military policeman in the central highlands, a member of the Roadrunner platoon that provided road security along Highway 19. It was there that he formed a friendship with many Montagnard children, and despite a 26-year separation (the highlands were finally opened to foreigners when the United States lifted a ban on trading with Vietnam in 1994), that connection continues to this day. He has returned to Viet- nam nine times since then, spending time with Montagnard families that he befriended during the war. During these visits, he collected as many

In May 2016, Michael Little, of Mission Viejo, California, donated a large collection of textiles, crafts, tools, hunting weapons, musi- cal instruments, and trade goods made by the Montagnard peoples of Vietnam to the North Carolina Museum of History. Mr. Little contacted the museum after reading on our web page that the museum is “looking for objects related to the experiences of minority com- munities in North Carolina.” Eager to share the little-known history of the Montagnards as United States allies during the VietnamWar, museum staff worked with Mr. Little to bring the collection to North Carolina, where many Montagnard families have settled since the 1980s through the efforts of Vietnam veterans. Montagnard , a French word meaning “mountain people,” refers to the indigenous, largely Christianized ethnic minority living in the central highlands of Vietnam. Known affectionately to US soldiers as “Yards,” these tribes became close allies of American soldiers, particularly US Special Forces units, during the VietnamWar. They were considered tribal people, and their history is one of enduring persecution at the hands of the Vietnamese majority. The close relationship between US Special Forces, or Green Berets, and Montagnards began in early 1961 with a Central Intelligence Agency program known as the Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG). The idea was to form South Vietnamese irregular military units from minority populations in order to counter Communist Viet- cong influence in South Vietnam’s central highlands. Detachments of Green Berets trained Montagnards, drawn from the tribe dominant in the surrounding area, into CIDGs, thus creating a security zone radiating outward from each camp. As the war escalated, focus shifted from village defense to border surveillance; in 1970 most CIDGs were converted to Vietnam Army Ranger units.

cultural items as possible, realizing that their way of life was gradually disappearing under Communist rule. After the war ended in 1975, veterans like Mi- chael Little came forward to help the Montag- nard people by sponsoring them in relocating to the United States. In 1986, 200 Montag- nards were resettled in North Carolina. Today, the state is home to about 5,000 Montagnards who have begun new lives in Raleigh, Char- lotte, and Greensboro, the largest Montagnard population living outside of Vietnam. Work is currently under way for a collaborative exhibit project with the Greensboro Historical Mu- seum and Wake Forest University to pre- sent Montagnard history and culture, both in Vietnam and North Carolina. We are grateful that our museum is now home to this meaning- ful collection. Artifacts from this collection are on view in the lobby exhibit Collecting Carolina: Montagnards, Vietnam’s Central Highlanders through Septem- ber 30, 2018.

Baskets and fish trap, woven rattan. Courtesy of Michael Little.




The foundation is honored to receive this remarkable support from the community. These lead gifts are an important first step in reaching the museum’s overall endowment goal, which will enable it to continue sharing the state’s history with the people of North Carolina for decades to come. —Vic Bell, Foundation Board Chair

Are You Up to a Challenge? by Michelle L. Carr, Education Section

The North Carolina Museum of History Foundation certainly is. In September 2015, an anonymous donor made a $1 million gift to the museum’s endowment fund. At the same time, the donor offered the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation a challenge it could not refuse. If the foundation could raise an additional $1 million by September 30, 2016, the anonymous donor would double the original gift. In August 2016, the Museum of History Foundation met the challenge. With nearly two months to spare before the deadline expired, the foundation raised over $1 million through the generous gifts of several longtime supporters and local corporations. Together these unrestricted gifts bring the balance of the Museum’s endowment fund to over $4 million.

An endowment gift is an investment in the Museum of History and its future. If you would like to make an investment in our museum, consider the 1902 Legacy Society, or for more information on making a gift to the North Carolina Museum of History’s endowment, please contact Dawn Lowder at 919-807-7876 or The North Carolina Museum of History honors friends and supporters who have included the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation in their estate plans to benefit the museum’s endowment.

a strong endowment, the museum can continue offer- ing valuable educational programs that may not be financially self-supporting. And, finally, endowments offer options for meeting new challenges by supplying the museum management with greater financial flexibility. Endowment gifts benefit not only the museum; they also provide numerous advantages to the donors. Restricted gifts to the museum’s endowment can ensure that the donor’s values and priorities are main- tained for the future. Endowment gifts can also foster a sense of permanence by creating an enduring tribute to the donor or a person or persons of the donor’s choice. Perhaps most importantly, however, endowment gifts enable donors to make significant contributions to the museum’s future. An endowment fund guarantees that the museum will continue to serve the people of North Carolina throughout the 21st century and beyond.

But the foundation is not done. Its long-term goal is to raise $10 million for the museum’s endowment.

It creates an ongoing source of annual income in perpetuity.

Why is it so important to have an endowment?

Unlike one-time donations or grants, an endow- ment creates an ongoing source of annual income to use for both recurring and unexpected needs. Since the original $3 million is unrestricted, the money earned by the endowment may be used for any number of important projects, including exhibit development, educational programming, and artifact acquisition and/or conservation. Foundation board chair Vic Bell notes, “The foundation is honored to receive this remarkable support from the community. These lead gifts are an important first step in reaching the museum’s overall endowment goal, which will enable it to continue sharing the state’s history with the peo- ple of North Carolina for decades to come.” A robust endowment provides the organization with long-term financial stability. Endowments also offer a measure of independence from eco- nomic, governmental, and political forces. The state supports salaries and utilities, but little funding is provided for programming and exhib- its. It is important now more than ever to seek private funds to build a strong endowment. With

The income is used for recurring and unexpected needs, exhibit development, educational programming, and artifact acquisition and/or conservation.







Donor Profile

In Memoriam

David Hayworth by Susan Friday Lamb, Public Information Officer

The museum’s longtime public information officer, Susan Friday Lamb, passed away December 3, 2017. Susan was a lead writer for this publication, and her last contribution appears on the opposite page. We want to take a final moment to pay tribute to her and the tremendous life she lived. The page below contains quotations heard from staff members during the museum’s memorial celebration in Susan’s honor. She is missed. Rest in peace, Susan. —The Editor in Chief A T ribute to S usan F riday L amb

5 East Edenton Street Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 919-807-7876

David Hayworth didn’t have to look far for a role model while growing up. His father died before he was born, leaving his mother to raise him and his five siblings. While managing as a single parent, she ran the family’s furniture companies in High Point. Yet she remained generous and compassionate for people in need, setting an example that strongly influ- enced her son’s life. Hayworth built a successful career in the family business after completing his education at Woodberry Forest School in Virginia and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Early in his career, he invested in a long- term commitment of championing causes for children, education, cultural arts, medical research, and health care. Today, the retired businessman, who led Hayworth Family Industries with his brother Charles, continues to enrich and change lives through his significant philanthropic efforts in High Point and in North Carolina. The North Carolina Museum of History is a grateful recipient of Hayworth’s leadership and generosity. The High Point resident is serving on the Museum of History Founda- tion Board for a second term, and he has donated a substantial gift to the museum’s building campaign, part of a bold plan for an expanded world-class facility that will increase the museum’s capacity to teach about the state’s heritage. Hayworth’s contributions in his hometown and state have touched many areas of need and will benefit generations to come. “David has been a truly remarkable leader and philanthropist in the community of High Point for many years,” says Paul Les- sard, president of the High Point Community Foundation.“He was a founding benefactor of our High Point Community Foundation, which he played a key role in establishing. People have always looked to David as a wise businessman and discerning giver, and his belief in our foundation enabled us to grow and prosper.” In his hometown, Hayworth’s generous spirit is evident in his support of Youth Unlim-

Courtesy of David Hayworth.

Pure of heart, without malice. Truly, truly good.

Victor E. Bell III, chair of the foundation’s board.

ited, where he underwrote construction of a residential care home for at-risk young people. Likewise, he funded an inner-city swimming pool and swim program at the Salvation Army Boys and Girls Club. As an early investor in Say Yes to Education Guilford, an educational initiative that pro- vides tuition scholarships for any Guilford County public high school graduate, he helped move the project forward. “David’s willingness to step out front, bring credibility, and inspire others to give to the project is very typical of his leadership,” emphasizes Lessard. Hayworth’s father was a founder of High Point College (now University), and the campus chapel bears his name. With such strong ties to the institution, Hayworth has served on the board of trustees and given major donations. His other local contributions include United Way of Greater High Point, Family Services of the Piedmont, and High Point Regional Health system. In particular, he pledged $1 million to the oncology division of High Point Regional Hospital. An advocate for the arts, Hayworth has been a strong supporter of the North Carolina Mu- seum of Art, the North Carolina Shakespeare Festival, and other cultural entities. In the medical field, he has underwritten research at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, his alma mater, and helped establish a trust with the Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center in Durham. Just as his mother’s example influencedHayworth, his service and generosity inspire us today.

She gave so much. She left us with so many gifts . . . and she’s still giving those gifts.

Foundation Board Victor E. Bell III, Chair, Raleigh Wilson Hayman, Vice Chair, Raleigh Carole Symons Roebuck, Secretary, Elizabeth City John T. Church, Treasurer, Raleigh W. Trent Ragland III, Assistant Treasurer, Raleigh Lyl MacLean Clinard, Past Chair, High Point Kellie Hunt Blue Pembroke Senator James T. Broyhill Winston-Salem Christopher H. A. Cecil Charlotte Julia Jones Daniels Raleigh Samuel B. Dixon Edenton Robert C. Doherty Raleigh David R. Hayworth High Point Margaret Harry Kluttz Salisbury Betty Ray McCain Wilson Kay Anthony Phillips High Point Orage Quarles III Raleigh Joy Cox Sloan Raleigh Dr. Allston J. Stubbs III Winston-Salem Lee Lyles Webster High Point Mary Powell White Winston-Salem McKinley Wooten Jr. Raleigh Kenneth B. Howard, Director, Division of State History Museums and North Carolina Museum of History, Raleigh

I want to challenge you or inspire you as you go about your day, to try to be like Susan, and be a good person. I think that’s how she’d want us to remember her.

We’re all gonna miss her.

There’s a better me that I can get out of me because I have known Susan.

Her priorities were faith, family, and friends.

Lamb Susan I’m thankful for her. I know the hole that she leaves at this museum. A legacy of love.

Mindful. Graceful. Beautiful. Kind. Thoughtful.


She was always about you; she was always about serving others.



Foundation Staff Dawn P. Lowder, Executive Director, Raleigh


James Walker Hood served as the president of the first Freedmen’s Convention in the South, held in Raleigh, NC. He also was elected as one of the first black Republicans who served in the 1868 Constitutional Convention. Conservative Demo- crats labeled the 1868 Constitutional Convention as “Hood’s Convention.” Painting of Bishop James Walker Hood by Carlton Lucas, of Salisbury, NC.

James Henry Harris was born free in Granville County. During the Civil War, Harris migrated to Indiana. There, he was appointed a recruiting officer to enlist United States Colored Troops in 1864. The 28th USCT was among the first Union regiments at the April 1865 fall of Richmond, Virginia. Harris served as vice president of the first Freedmen’s Convention; was a member of the Raleigh City Council; and was a leader for the School of the Deaf. Harris represented Wake County at the 1868 Constitutional Convention and served four terms in the General Assembly. Racial politics was an undermining factor at the 1868 North Caro- lina Constitutional Convention. The number of black Republicans has been disputed due to racial identity. For example, Isham Sweatt, who represented Cumberland County as a Republican, is sometimes counted as a “black Republican.” Nonetheless, Sweatt identified more closely to Coharie Indian than black at the 1868 convention. A Duplin County Republican named Samuel Highsmith was reputed by conservatives to be Negro, though census records listed him as white.

popular vote. The 1868 constitution allowed all men, regardless of race or property qualifications, to vote and to hold office and called for free public schools for North Carolinians between the ages of 6 and 21. Conservative wealthy landowners continually challenged the 1868 constitution, which they termed the “radical Reconstruction con- stitution” or the Black and Tan Constitution, because it enfran- chised blacks and increased the political power of poor voters, while reducing the elite’s own power and influence. After wresting political control from the progressive Republican Party—through threats and acts of violence from groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, the unpopularity of higher taxes, and a variety of deceit- ful campaigns—in the early 1870s, the conservatives called for another constitutional convention. That 1875 convention adopted a total of 30 amendments to the 1868 constitution that, once approved by voters, reversed many of the state’s early accomplish- ments and restored power to the wealthier classes. The approved amendments also required segregation in schools and prohibited marriages between whites and blacks.

Four Reconstruction acts, passed by the US Congress in 1867 and early 1868, outlined how southern states could rejoin the Union. Basically, the states were required to adopt new state constitutions, to grant voting rights to African American men, and to ratify the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution. In response, North Carolina held a constitu- tional convention on January 14, 1868. Unlike the conven- tion held in 1865, delegates of the 1868 convention drafted a constitution that (among other things) provided for universal male suffrage and eliminated property and religious qualifica- tions for voting and officeholding. After the state ratified the 14th Amendment on July 4, 1868, its congressional delega- tion was reseated in Washington, DC. North Carolina’s 1868 Constitutional Convention largely paid heed to comments from the black community. Unlike the first, this convention was ultimately led by Republicans— who included black delegates, many familiar with the desires and goals of the Freedmen’s Conventions, and a few north- erners who had moved South to help with Reconstruction— and resulted in a new state constitution that was adopted by

Other “mulatto men” like New Hanover County delegate Abraham Galloway not only identified firmly as black but insisted on a resolution at the 1868 convention on what to call the so-called “black Republi- cans.” Galloway was deemed radical by Democrats because he called for female suffrage and compensation to formerly enslaved people. He was elected to a single term in the North Carolina Senate before he died suddenly under mysterious circumstances.

Parker David Robbins was “free issue”—meaning both of his parents were free. Part Chowanoke Indian and African American, Robbins served in the famous 2nd North Carolina Colored Cavalry, which was among the first Union regiments to capture Richmond, Virginia, at the end of the Civil War. Robbins represented Bertie County at the 1868 Constitutional Convention.

Education was a platform championed especially by formerly enslaved Republicans. It was viewed as a foundation for freedom. As a result, North Carolina’s constitution has a stronger endorsement for universal education than the federal Constitution. The remaining black Republi- cans who championed education at the 1868 Constitutional Conven- tion were Briant Lee (Bertie County); Wilson Carey (Caswell); Henry C. Cherry (Edgecombe); John Hendrick Williamson (Franklin); Cuffie Mayo (Granville); Henry Eppes (Halifax); W. T. J. Hayes (Halifax); John Adams Hyman (Warren); and Samuel Highsmith (Duplin).



Programs and Events

Bob Schieffer: Eyewitness to History by Michelle L. Carr, Education Section

Ken Howard, director of the North Carolina Museum of History, provided the welcom- ing remarks at the fifth annual North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Distinguished Lecture Series.

Named a “Living Legend” by the Library of Congress, Emmy Award–winning journalist Bob Schieffer entertained the audi- ence with stories garnered from his more than five decades of covering national affairs.

Amidst the laughter, Schieffer also had words of cau- tion for his audience. Expressing concern over the decline of local newspapers, the respected journalist advocated for the role of the independent press. He concluded by sharing advice from one of the most influential people in his life. Quoting his mother, he encouraged the audience to “Go vote. It makes you feel big and strong.” During a follow-up question-and-answer session with John Drescher, Opinions and Solutions editor at the News & Observer , Schieffer reflected current events, ranging from the #MeToo movement to gun violence. He compared the students at Parkland High School in Florida to the Freedom Riders of the 1960s, noting the students’ decision to become involved in govern- ment at a time when most people are turning away from politics. When asked about his most memorable interview subject, Schieffer immediately replied that it was the American presidents, all of them. There is just some- thing special about interviewing the leader of our country, he explained. Schieffer has interviewed every American president since Richard Nixon and moder- ated three presidential debates. However, when pressed by Drescher, Schieffer admitted that his favorite inter- view was with President Gerald Ford because “he was just a regular guy.”

Vic Bell, foundation chair, Bob Schieffer, Mary Grady Bell, and Mary Grady Bell.

During a question-and-answer session with John Drescher, of the News & Observer , Bob Schieffer admitted that although he has interviewed every American president since Richard Nixon, his favorite was Gerald Ford because “he was just a regular guy.”

Returning to a topic he had visited earlier in the evening, Schieffer gave an impassioned plea on the importance of a free press. The role of politicians is to deliver a message, Schieffer observes, while the role of the press is to check what they say and find out if it’s true. For the legendary reporter,“That’s what makes our democracy work. That’s what makes us different.” Event sponsors included the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation, the News & Observer , Sloan Family Foundation, Goodnight Educational Foundation, BlueCross BlueShield of North Carolina, Highwoods Properties, the Sherrill Fund, Mr. and Mrs. Frank A. Daniels Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth B. Howard, and Mr. and Mrs. Paul F. Hoch Jr.

with a fellow reporter, Schieffer rushed to her home, and he interviewed her as they drove to Dallas. Despite a career that stretches nearly six decades and includes eight Emmy Awards, one of Schieffer’s proud- est journalistic achievements dates to his time at the Fort Worth newspaper and his experiences in Vietnam. The paper encouraged readers to write in with names of family that were serving and promised that their reporter would find them. Schieffer received 800 letters with the names of sons and daughters, husbands and children. Over a period of four months, he tracked down 220 of them. With a slight wobble in his voice, he recalled the intense emotions of the lonely service men and women when they met someone from home. Over the course of the evening, Schieffer shared insider stories about his illustrious career and his respected colleagues, including Helen Thomas, Dan Rather, and Charles Kuralt. In one incident, he disclosed how he helped Walter Cronkite scoop Barbara Walters’s “exclu- sive” interview with President Gerald Ford.

“We live in a very dangerous time, and America is more divided than any time since 1968,” declared noted journal- ist Bob Schieffer in front of a sold-out crowd of 600 people at the 2018 North Carolina Museum of History Founda- tion Distinguished Lecture Series held in the A. J. Fletcher Opera Theater, Duke Energy Center for the Performing Arts, on May 22. He should know. With 58 years as a reporter and 46 years at CBS News, the former moderator of Face the Nation numbers among the few journalists to cover all four major beats in the nation’s capital—the White House, the Penta- gon, the State Department, and Capitol Hill. There are few key political figures of the last half century that he hasn’t met or important government events he didn’t investigate. However, Schieffer’s first major brush with history came before he began working in Washington. Bob Schieffer was a young reporter for the Fort Worth Star-Telegram the day President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. He recalled how a woman telephoned the newspaper’s offices seeking a ride to Dallas. She was Lee Harvey Oswald’s mother. Along

Schieffer promised that if Texas Christian Uni- versity won the 2011 Rose Bowl, he would wear purple socks. His alma mater won the football game, and the broadcaster has proudly worn the school colors ever since.



Programs and Events

From the Regional Museums

The Division of State History Museums includes six regional museums that maintain lively calendars of exhibits and events for all ages throughout the year. Check the accompanying website information for listings.

A North Carolina First

by Rebecca Stiles, Administrative Assistant, Museum of the Albemarle


A native Virginian, I’ve been working with the Museum of the Albemarle in Elizabeth City for over five years, and I’m still learning new things every day about the Albemarle region, more specifically Perquimans County. The postal service and locals often interchange Hertford, North Carolina, where I live, with Durant’s Neck, a peninsula in Perquimans County. After being mistaken for living in Durant’s Neck countless times, I decided to learn a little more about the people the place is named for. George Durant, who is sometimes called the “father of North Carolina,” was an attorney general and speaker of the House of Burgesses in the province of Carolina. Together with Nathaniel Batts, a fur trader, and Richard Batts, a sea captain, they explored the Albemarle Sound. By 1622 Durant was living in Virginia on a piece of property adjacent to the Albemarle Sound, which became part of the Carolina colony in 1665, and would subsequently become known as

A Rousing Start for the American Revolution Speaker Series—Huzzah! by Michelle L. Carr, Education Section

Museum of the Albemarle 501 South Water Street Elizabeth City, NC 27909 252-335-1453

gave voting rights to women in 1920; in 1964 the 24th Amendment outlawed poll taxes, removing major barriers to the African American vote. But in 1673, Ann Durant was beating many odds stacked against her to become the first woman attorney in our state. Being an attorney wasn’t Ann Durant’s only responsibility, because in George’s frequent absence, she ran their household, providing accommodations for officials attending meetings for the Assembly and Council often held at their residence. It was at Durant’s Neck, right at their settlement, that the first public structures in North Carolina, such as stocks and pillories, were built. Prisoners were also sometimes held at the Durants’

Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex 801 Arsenal Avenue Fayetteville, NC 28305 910-486-1330 MuseumoftheCapeFear


The era in American history that witnessed both the American Revolution and the founding of the American Republic is one of the most important periods in the his- tory of humankind. The eminent historian Gordon Woods has described the trans- formation ushered in by the Revolution as creating “a new society unlike any that had ever existed anywhere in the world.” To further the study and appreciation of this significant era, the North Carolina Museum of History and the North Caro- lina Society of the Cincinnati recently launched the American Revolution Speaker Series. The series debuted at the museum on February 22, with a presentation by acclaimed author Nathaniel Philbrick. Speaking before a sell-out crowd, Philbrick discussed his latest work and winner of the 2017 George Washington Prize, Valiant Ambition: George Washington, Benedict Arnold, and the Fate of the American Revo- lution . Philbrick presented an insightful exploration of the dramatic events that led to the notorious fall of one general and the gradual emergence of the other commander as a true leader.

can Revolution Speaker Series, scheduled for February 21. At next year’s event, he will discuss his forthcoming book, In the Hurricane’s Eye: The Genius of George Washington and the Victory at Yorktown . In a narrative that moves fromWashing- ton’s headquarters on the Hudson River to the wooded hillside in North Carolina, where Nathanael Greene faced Lord Cornwallis, to Lafayette’s brilliant series of maneuvers across Tidewater Virginia, Philbrick will detail the war’s final year through to its triumphant conclusion. The series is offered in conjunction with the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati. Founded in 1783, the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati is one of 13 such societies organized by Ameri- can army officers, whose descendants constitute the present membership. As the nation’s oldest hereditary military organization, the society strives to perpet- uate the ideals of those patriots who gave birth to the United States of America. For more information on the 2019 lecture, visit

With the war dragging on far longer than either side had expected, many revolutionaries began to lose faith in the cause they had once held so dear. While Arnold’s choices led him to become one of our nation’s most infamous traitors, Washington held the country together by his sheer force of personality. In exploring the complex relationship between Bene- dict Arnold and George Washington, Philbrick exposed the human qualities of both men with great empathy. A native of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Nathaniel Philbrick earned his BA in English from Brown University and an MA in American Literature from Duke University, where he was a James B. Duke Fellow. In 2000 he published In the Heart of the Sea , winner of the National Book Award, followed by Mayflower , finalist for the 2007 Pulitzer Prize in History. The Wall Street Journal described Philbrick as “one of America’s foremost practitioners of narrative nonfiction.” With these impressive credentials, it is no surprise that Nathanial Philbrick will be the featured presenter at the 2019 Ameri-

Mountain Gateway Museum and Heritage Center 24 Water Street, Old Fort, NC 28762 828-668-9259

settlement. In addition to her own work, and running her and her husband’s

Durant’s Neck. An interesting part of George Durant’s life is who he married. Ann Marwood wed

household, Ann raised their nine children. Women are capable of a great deal, and if anyone proved that time and again, it was Ann Marwood Durant. In the research and articles I reviewed,

North Carolina Maritime Museum 315 Front Street, Beaufort, NC 28516 252-728-7317

Durant on January 4, 1659, and along with her husband, settled on the peninsula of Durant’s Neck.

Although George Durant was a significant part of North Carolina history, I think that Ann Marwood Durant was significant too. On May 25, 1673, she would become the first woman acting in the capacity of an attorney in North Carolina. According to one source, she became an attorney without attending law school or taking the bar exam—neither was required in 1673. Women have been fighting for their rights for quite a while: the 19th Amendment

I found that the historical record did not include much about Ann Durant outside of being an attorney, running an intense household, and raising nine children. She outlived her husband by one year. Ann often appeared in court on her own behalf, usually to sue for debts owed to her or as a defendant in suits against her. She fought for herself constantly and stood firm when needed. Ann Marwood Durant. A North Carolina first.

North Carolina Maritime Museum at Southport

204 East Moore Street Southport, NC 28461 910-457-0003

Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum 59200 Museum Drive Hatteras, NC 27943 252-986-2995



( Above ) Historical marker noting Ann Marwood Durant’s contribution to North Carolina history. Courtesy of NC Office of Archives and History.

George Washington, courtesy National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, acquired as a gift to the nation through the generosity of the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation.

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