SECTION 4: RISK ASSESSMENT
Hai l According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), hail is precipitation that is formed when updrafts in thunderstorms carry raindrops upward into extremely cold areas of the atmosphere causing them to freeze. The raindrops form into small frozen droplets and then continue to grow as they come into contact with super-cooled water which will freeze on contact with the frozen rain droplet. This frozen rain droplet can continue to grow and form hail. As long as the updraft forces can support or suspend the weight of the hailstone, hail can continue to grow. At the time when the updraft can no longer support the hailstone, it will fall down to the earth. For example, a ¼” diameter or pea sized hail requires updrafts of 24 mph, while a 2 ¾” diameter or baseball sized hail requires an updraft of 81 mph. The largest hailstone recorded in the United States was found in Vivian, South Dakota on July 23, 2010; it measured eight inches in diameter, almost the size of a soccer ball. While soccer-ball-sized hail is the exception, but even small pea sized hail can do damage. Hailstorms in North Carolina cause damage to property, crops, and the environment, and kill and injure livestock. In the United States, hail causes more than $1 billion in damage to property and crops each year. Much of the damage inflicted by hail is to crops. Even relatively small hail can shred plants to ribbons in a matter of minutes. Vehicles, roofs of buildings and homes, and landscaping are the other things most commonly damaged by hail. Hail has been known to cause injury to humans; occasionally, these injuries can be fatal. The onset of thunderstorms with hail is generally rapid. However, advancements in meteorological forecasting allow for some warning. Storms usually pass in a few hours. Warning Time: 4 – Less than 6 hours Duration: 1 – Less than 6 hours Location Thunderstorm wind, lightning, and hail events do not have a defined vulnerability zone. The scope of lightning and hail is generally defined to the footprint of its associated thunderstorm. The entirety of Wake County shares equal risk to the threat of severe weather. According to the Vaisala flash density map, shown in Figure 4.17, the majority of Wake County is located in an area that experiences 6 to 12 lightning flashes per square mile per year. It should be noted that future lightning occurrences may exceed these figures.
Wake County Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan 2019
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