SECTION 4: RISK ASSESSMENT
4.5.9 Severe Winter Storm
Hazard Background A winter storm can range from a moderate snow over a period of a few hours to blizzard conditions with blinding wind-driven snow that lasts for several days. Events may include snow, sleet, freezing rain, or a mix of these wintry forms of precipitation. Some winter storms might be large enough to affect several states, while others might affect only localized areas. Occasionally, heavy snow might also cause significant property damages, such as roof collapses on older buildings. All winter storm events have the potential to present dangerous conditions to the affected area. Larger snowfalls pose a greater risk, reducing visibility due to blowing snow and making driving conditions treacherous. A heavy snow event is defined by the National Weather Service as an accumulation of 4 of more inches in 12 hours or less. A blizzard is the most severe form of winter storm. It combines low temperatures, heavy snow, and winds of 35 miles per hour or more, which reduces visibility to a quarter mile or less for at least 3 hours. Winter storms are often accompanied by sleet, freezing rain, or an ice storm. Such freeze events are particularly hazardous as they create treacherous surfaces. Ice storms are defined as storms with significant amounts of freezing rain and are a result of cold air damming (CAD). CAD is a shallow, surface-based layer of relatively cold, stably-stratified air entrenched against the eastern slopes of the Appalachian Mountains. With warmer air above, falling precipitation in the form of snow melts, then becomes either super-cooled (liquid below the melting point of water) or re-freezes. In the former case, super-cooled droplets can freeze on impact (freezing rain), while in the latter case, the re-frozen water particles are ice pellets (or sleet). Sleet is defined as partially frozen raindrops or refrozen snowflakes that form into small ice pellets before reaching the ground. They typically bounce when they hit the ground and do not stick to the surface. However, it does accumulate like snow, posing similar problems and has the potential to accumulate into a layer of ice on surfaces. Freezing rain, conversely, usually sticks to the ground, creating a sheet of ice on the roadways and other surfaces. All of the winter storm elements – snow, low temperatures, sleet, ice, etcetera – have the potential to cause significant hazard to a community. Even small accumulations can down power lines and trees limbs and create hazardous driving conditions and disrupt communication and power for days. Advancements in meteorology and forecasting usually allow for mostly accurate forecasting a few days in advance of an impending storm. Most storms have a duration of a few hours; however, impacts can last a few days after the initial incident until cleanup is completed. Warning Time: 1 – More than 24 hours Duration: 3 – Less than 1 week Location Severe winter storms are usually a countywide or regional hazard, impacting the entire county at the same time. The risk of a severe winter storm occurring is uniform across the County. Extent Severe winter storms often involve a mix of hazardous weather conditions. The magnitude of an event can be defined based on the severity of each of the involved factors, including precipitation type, precipitation accumulation amounts, temperature, and wind. The NWS Wind Chill Temperature Index, shown in Figure 4.18, provides a formula for calculating the dangers of winter winds and freezing temperatures.
Wake County Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan 2019
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