الهند: عوامل النهوض وتحديات الصعود



      



  

  

2010

1431

978-614-01-0067-1

       

    : 4930181  4930183  4930218 ) 974 (+  : 4831346 ) 974 (+ 

   : E-mail: jcforstudies@aljazeera.net

         !  : (+961-1) 785107 - 785108 - 786233 " .# : 13-5574   $ 1102-2050    : (+961-1) 786230  $   %&! '  : http: //www.asp.com.lb

   : asp@asp.com.lb

                    !"   #     $% & '  () * +    )  (, - .  /+  01  2"3 /  4, )    .

                     . .

   :         

(+9611) 785107

 :           

(+9611) 786233

    ................................ ................................ ................... 7

     

    ..     !"#     $ $     $%

  ................................ ................................ ......... 15

  &$ .. ' !# ( '  

     ................................ ........................ 39

       

 ) # .. * $     + 

       ................................ ........ 67

,-  &'   .. / ) #0  & !  12

     ................................ ............................ 111

    )#  34

   ................................ ................................ 131

5

    

 3       - $ $

    ................................ ................................ .. 149

:    $%  6  !   " ................................ ................................ 177

  #5'    &-

  #5'  $ 78 9&    $;      & $;

#$ $  ................................ ............................... 195

6

 

               !   "#$   % &' & () * +  ,' *)- . /  012 34  5 6 7 8   99:  ; <*=  >?  @ 0A BC  D E    F GHI  @J>B "9 K,"# ;" @L MN1  F  6! 4"  O PJQ  R#S 34 T U:V W   (X>  Y'  >Z  ; 'E <#   ( U0[  Y0" " . B#  \ ]I* 6  "  " " _ 2 <#  0*`a `70 U ;" 2009 <*b  cd / " P"*  e f% ) W HJH PJQ  8 g ,' :  : i   T J?% PS E _"* j F# #  ": j k   >  <" (>"* kFl  0"#% f% ) 9  9 % B 9'm ;  f% E : o=>!     <p'% 0# q r o> c0B* PS *0'B <  k *0AU  >? )  kFl  0"#%  0"[: s < $ F# B _i  >?  t=*  7 k *p * 

7

*0'1 <    # B   Y `S ) k 0" F* k k pBp Nu GB  v9#% * Nu T MN  8 g GHI w2*,  #- M 0: U xu  T y0"* *  vGB .  B! S  o*= z { | wX o=>! "  . } < 4 U S 34 ) 0|%  e  zp ~ k/B o=> 0  * <p'!  \ *0# 07g T 0"!  " z=B  S 34 €  >~0  kxUB o=>!  *[    zXm ! F"U0 ‚ ƒ )% F  0 `  "  7 k  & B!| kFJ# + B T"  07g 7 0 : Y )„ 'U  | 0[a g# o=>"! 4" U +  FJ#%  0~…) &K ,7 o H  k  6"? &7 g%  |0  1!  &7   k&B"7U  B" pp%   vGB K` |N  *  >B U &X… M-n JH x*02  6 > _ T i  e f% )" c9 0Qn* . % >U *)-  GB T wX E `70* M #    \ &'  5=† ; c9 /  ! ‡ *!U  F    T . U  r )-| /1 g% Lˆ FE ‰ l o   + <*) ,"7 " F"US )b-  =! <*- U ‡Š ‹ 0"  ]I"* &U  ("  . /Œ g% rB   P o   8 47  ( U wX" `"70! . z GHI z--)  @8 g xb 6 '| " % E 4 P r4 r0a PB  8 g @ " ) 

8

(X=> PJQ  z "U: : 5b M: r4 o=>! 4 PŒ & " " :  ) .. *: F! _ip  />B!   " / b Ž zl* *: +  r )- z>* & '… r4 " >2 *)" s +  ,'  > '… 6 7 k  4 | l  0# v1 b MU   & U 7G .  /   ' #  5\0# e 4 x "b / >"# f% z % <†  | <† kr )"- "U  6N"   Q  <>  *  GB! c0 ; :Š <*= 9  ‹[ &'U &7 g% " k" . (U p 5  7   yg   r yg     (* "# (:g"‘ .  9*U  F# B /  ,Q (U ˆ &XU " "#   % < i " "  D# f% & *  d  7 k ) k  <# )  x   9{  JN| F"…)7S k&KU &: F7GS  ’ A 1*0# ’ 0 U w    &X> (U “Q ‹ 0U * *b #  34 0Ap & f% † ”  6 <#  0*`a `70 . 6 7 yŠ  ( ) T `7G| wX o=>! " r)-   *: • g f% " b .  ( ) &S  0X7 ) –U *4"  ky"Š 25   )* + kp  ’  F# # GHI 8 47 9>~S €>s ‘% k‹B=| *)" * ; & >"  34 T MN M %  9 &7 | k9 | & 8 g —N*%  <9:  k >B! v B |0" * `" 9  & pA  ˜K *" X"> "  & ) yŠ .. r)-   *: • g ."

9

‹' c0B* krp i  ko X" o=>"!      < 0[H 3,*  xu M \  W r o>" * .  0A B Š PJQ >! * <'u & ~0| ‹lB + G"QS " <i1b JU " 8>   ™s <1s 4QI *) # # 9B1 8 g  \ 52Q  k( "  0A >- (U < 2 570b k š  G1 €› " UBW 2>N" " f% F7 0† )  P= x*0?  GB F" B* + k< 0[H  *  GB! B + k8 g ~ kL"œ <>   xu ž  M 0| . f% :Š  # #  0i* r4 o X E e"9*  9   ‹p  9\ ; l  0# *N T e0"  vJ + #0 D"2{ F" . |0 f% e9*  7   ? Ÿ f%   7u >   0i ; "1 ' /  < $ , 9  i|E 9” ; 8  9 b ) ;" U F"# . HJH f% E  B  e S 34" x "=  o> : 9} l  0# <#  g# z | P PS o=>"! ‡#S wJ A  0U B |, kF) p  # B t=>" 6 7 €\ k * :Š # B l  0# < `"'0!  +  #0 zA  r4 + >- (U 4Q$ # B 34    U sQ * x| k `7 0  G[  z |   M # 99:  ; <*= 2Q < *9  >? JQ 92 W  0QS    )u ("sJ!  "a P) N1   0"†>! F"  0†>! G~ L M . 4 T   7

10

70A! *N  )>! Ÿ! T MN" 8 4"7 o=>"! T  >B U 9! P ¡U  (U '›A" <"1!   J 2# 6 7 &U  (  =! <*- 9# J>B P 34 . kwX o=>!  8! ¢ # B _ g# c0# + U  J ’> 6*p  Q 7 "¢ `"*` >" MN D# k“Š z: T ‰ Š P)   F""U0 < 0 !  9# T (|02 v ; l  0# *N T   7 k 2 )" (I" *0"=> p'% o=>! 4 P ‹: f% >: ‰ Š 2   * =B! <  7A S < g 2! 34  Ÿ  ; +  ,'   l  0# . * <J /= | GQS  o X" o=>"! " j T l  0# v    › 0"# D#S ™0A 2 . * <J > f% o=>! 4" "  " j  › 0#   (  / › 0#% 5 b 6 7 |0" P" "  r #- L*, Y0[ " 9 &U% 9 % 0i 5p7  7 k " 0"sp j0d " f% kF\! &0  <  B  <  B Š  " #% 6  Fl  0 " s ! )9a ‰›p s o> P k S  *)-  # B <*B! 6£ T 5 4U ;" <   <--) |0 P  7 k*> (U J ("  & k  › 0# —JB < ) ™# ,7 " €>" & JB ) ,7 wH / › 0#% €> o> D# k f% — T MN <0| `*|  W * #S &nA"  ¤" !

11

S E j 9:  7 k   zX… ! J 34 F| 2 T J 34 l  0# <   M 0 ¥"  D#S ™0A .

12

 א  א

  

א  א 

  ..             

Z•Za X}RC ) ∗ (

          ! " #$ %  &' ()*+ ,-. .  01  23 4 567)$8 8!- . 4 5 *$-8 593: 8 % ;) )*2< != 6!2 >? + @A 5BCD E % B-F. 4 GH? 0 + 3 I* 3!J  K$  L .    M2!8 56G$8  3!8 LN!KO (-P - B-$  3? Q  R SO T*+   )H 5UP8 0F$-%!V : S W$2X 3,YX " .= 8 5QZ [& Q% \? .= 8 2 %] "     ^W-H . _ 8 8 ^ $)  M%! `!- a-4 #W-$8 L - M-

) ∗ (       .       !  "  ! #$" .

15

`? 38 56b$  *)  L  %3 Sc L d!$%!Z@  < e!V L fW (V .  B$ 5LP [ !&* 1+!- I-=V g< 93: ;% ,J8 L hK-H i!-$ . 6&  X) "KF  $j k!*P -1))2 2400 S* e& 8 BH . BA 7V. Pj  5l L *K' B) T*+? m "K' no-, p 0+  Qq. r=sH )CD -KO ") 1V 8  0) .  !$H? L [W t' r2$ 2 Qq o, ? BN3 u G) != 1962 Ev 5^W w8? 1* 8 W. r*)x L -J r-= 5 y  l L 6!2 GH? . T*+ 63  t' a*$z 5"K' no, B)2 T*+? -8  L   iD: K2-8 %] $H  5X{ [W |) 2c 3}8 5 N T-%! . w+ L  ~ j 2 1984 8 "KV **% L *' % > T-*+  - 6- l d38 3 . 5$H M8  T*+ a4 5X)- €@P8 3$  ‚ . $ X) 8 e!-' g<   ) "!1 T8 ! ƒ  5„=' 5 0, \GH > )J=? v@P -O!8 . G+ ,Y 3>: no, (…? \GH 3A. †@v ~*‡ -2 ˆ- 3$- .   ‚X] MK X)1* *' B) 8 2‰ w  5BF L Z$  -1 . r*Š I%3 B* !W B2: PH? 8 . B*2‹ o, .8 Œ*K 700 . 000 BH 2 $ T*+ + 7 8 2400 8 iX $ ) 5X!O BH ^ 240  320 BH . no, !W ~=H 5^ ‚X] \8 T*+

16

3F$ 67& eoV L KK% !    1 -Ž 93: 8 l (V3? H . KA, $j 5IW 1 o, e!V ! PH? -*N! 4< L 5 +37 1*y‘ =  ,3!8 L hKH (P 7)$ T)J+  1$88 . 3!1Ž (3 ~=H P8 8 ‚J 7)$ )H hKH 3 ~K )H 53!’   ? 3. P8 56hK-H -8 L    no, ! I-=V: )P$-  eo-V .  & .! ! !O Œ*K 5“   “=!  82‹ P8 1* 2 7517 B-H . O%: X!V X!y .! a* 1-c -2 3F$ M%!$ W+ "@ bK . V3 X L 6. 5$by $8  L eN $ 8 L 63 (by =P 5$H M8  T-*+ 5- ƒ? ^$  ^ 5^W M8  8 -8 T-*+ ”X \GH F$%< . @K* 88?  • @Pj 37' 8 ^$+!)x  BA -)H .  8=] 37V $j ) IHX 37V $j e& 0-Z 3!  = S- L . L †p 8 K2 P8 y 1* 37' no,  ! 3bK U+? .     )D BA ~=H  56.!   ~*P-8 w- T-*+ 67&* eoV 3W8 5t@F  $HK w! ‚ 8 ,. G+ X I*N? L (V o 5e& 1V 8 T*+ G  =& :  . I*V 8 B%2  )‘ 0-  q  j )H

17

w+  g< 68 ": ^)*  "!- 712 g< K L €@y 5w  ) w! $H L ( 0-K=' | G+ eFK B*2< g< _ =‹ $c!  S$C  .   "!y K2 ~D 5^)* e& 1V 8 !$8 )F - . E  3 %‹ H 4< ˆ 3$ L  !˜, o d!*  Y ? . w@%‹ (V 8 "? 8: . L B%2  )‘ -  l 2 !=H o e 6+ 3F$ 63bK rK%  5 g<  T-*+  !- @K eN e!V L XhH .% G+  . 2 "!% 6  8 **2 !+  o, †. ) r*+ ™ !*y ( ($  % 8 92 F, . .@  SO T*+   6 Z$%  G$ do=] !=H ` ? y 5hPH  -8 -bK  8 bK L .@  .  | 8V  ! % U&G @  MK 52 =š  w+ XhH L ›!2 g< "!y! 8  j 50--  0-.@  1498 .  . œ. nc3 V8  ‡? @  w2  . (V o ^=Z ^! ^=G "!y a4 @- _ L 3F$H   #W$8 18 .!)O Bž3 8 +% _ 5 \! H w7, 8 =  )$ ? K2 5 T-*+ 6-  63 rKc "@$.X + \:  3: . o ŸZ (  T*+ 6 ! !=G M- =  . ey? o a Z$ #A F$=  r$c+ "!&  8 18 L wJ BžO ? ] 5I7’3? 6   1707 . H8 L  "&K BH. z7-, L !=G- ;-’ w+ 0-%@ 1757  % L 2  1KV S$ G+ a4 5

18

Y& \! 1 s  g: 6  0, no, ~=H 4< 5 -¡3 R |O G+ 02c . ^=G ? W o, L 23Z  8 ^. 3$ 5 8 e& ! 93: e!c  ? B, o- K2 8 eŠ l  2 1K' ,7N . I7’3? U!&  3!OG8‹ B . 6-$ "@- ) 1658 wu 1707 w ( t@F  $H BA )CD 3!OG8<  ~=H -D 6.  &V !-, ) . W$2X 6q3 do=]  ~=H w+ œ. B1 ~=H 4< 50  1750 !b 25 % „ U˜< 8 - \!% B1 =   l ) 50  08! 1 . 5 % o, 8 „- . 58j MD! I*= 53$ a4 8 -2 !- -  B1 = ~bK-y? !b 25 % g<  W. ~W2 ) 1 . 5 % a4 8 2? g<  5 . =   l  63 rKc g< 7*’‹ y 8-+ "@ 8 T*Š 2 EG   H < 5 -v X !-2 -  8? L 6hK  ž)$-8 . ~ 7-$% 87 8 ^=2 "@  3!8 = +37 =   . 63!P Y’< BJ8 ~82  ,1c  +W 19  v T*+ )$+X AZ . P X¢ 8 ,hN 3 3 i$ K2  1$+y  +37 ‚7-$% L !=G ‚%? . )* Y’‹ ~- 3 -2 ^= "@ 18  19 BF. 8 ^£ o, L EG- "@&$-%X .  a  ›!C a4 5 Q%! =  3!  & |O  "!O T*+ -8 BbZ 8 y ZW  53!  H T*+ 6 V? -8  . &* w!)‘ †P$V L !=G ›¤ )H H { 

19

(K e: 8 = V K* 5@K L eA- B-*2<  a  ›! K 93! Z . y EG 7& ? J.@  ' 8 u 0- 3: 8!)+ u ] 0V3 7N ? + #*$¡ . q: 67& 8 mK  O!8  -8 o-¥ I*% *) ] 67N w2 ) 5B 8 ^Z8 5n  + 6. ! B>O? g< + _ I-> !K> !K*-% . ¡3 *.8 L  g< (V  !=G 8? 3bK G+ y 5 q% L K= 3! 1c .  ! M% I1 !=G B l )H 5B>O? g< n B O!8 ,!*¦ l @K L $ l .  L ^=G  YF$- l 100 7 * T*+ 6 8 ! j a4 M8 5#? -+ r= -% 300 w+ L )= !-*8 1947 o w !, 5  r ~*$% . J8 I> *)+ L !=G ›¤ - 3! y!$8 B !* 5mK B1A T*+ ! !Ks 5^=2 "!O a4 5 *K2 KO - ZW- . *  l a* B,!1V ? BN3  L F 18  L .’ PH?  !*%? !K B>? X< 5 19 X +W 63!P 1$.  Y’‹ 8 Z$-8  $H B1$3!OG8< T*+ 6 wj< T*+ B,+% o 8: 5 -)* 8$  . o, ? 50- 3: 3)$%X . L J.@  V !,  V3 5^W TW2: S 5 L .’ |. 3)$-%X %] eN  3? Sc  < "{ L r.  G-H? . H 2 3§ #A* !D < 5^=)P d: ? g< a-4 -8

20

i  8 B1 8 8 6! 8 ! *$z !7 X !-=H 587- 8  . 5 < "{ "@$. 8  3: \!  )$- l o- , T*+ 2  a4 5+ M%$  M*8 L X< 518 K- @$. 8 -2: %] Sc " 8 ,hN  " . ^ )  ^= 15  17   + @A 18 hKH 4!Z= E)P "!%¨ H  < "{ T*+ = 6% ? 8 !, 5Q%!$  bK T*+ . e& MV qX M8 5w!- u #% g< r!y §3 ? 3!$- u W$2 \!2 3!-1Ž rF$ 5   ^W P8 S ! l 3-J=? . 3!' L \? " 3!1Ž a4 B+ ! ==< 78 P8 0)*2‹ .  6!bW no, AZ  S H "!© 5 D3: 6  8 02 #W- ,1- ªN X 3!K+ ‘  ~bKy? 5w! r< 3F$- no, T*+ 1+ S .  ~=H <  5^W ž3'  !$ X 7§  M$)$ r Q© 5S ! PH? N!$ L&' 12!-8 ? X< T-)J+ 1V \!% r « 51V †@v 8 )CA *K' %@ 0D3: Ÿ!* V o 8: 5¬ Q T*+ 6-. -R  4< 78 K 5|K% 8 T*+ ( 5^W 5^ 8: « W  ~=3!2 8 .

   ! "# 

R3 ?;+ 93 u & 2001  v 3   B  5 ?3 

1

03

.

w+  h 5 )= !-* 2009

Œ* 2  o, ? g<

21

iY!$ )   8

)= !* .    ` 82 %

1

16

.

^)*  T*+ 2K I ) 13 . 4 %

( 

( ^b  ) 2 . 3

%

) 1 . 9 % ( 5 =' = |$ + 2? \? -*2? d-, !1 $c37 4!K . $c37 ~=H 4< ) %3Z ( 2 oV j  L !1  5`3- -8 ~-? .% g< ,3 ~=Z-* . X &* 6h&y +s 5^$= ^, !$8 t- 3F$  )y+ 5K8!8 8 L 5‚X] 6+ YF$ . )   50-  S  L ƒ3o® !1- w@-%‹ eA- % + +Z$8 = 4!K =' C . Z  -8 $= % + s=  4!K ? 23 w!  L 1$ X 5%] Sc e!V Sc 8 hKH (7V L g< W X &* ‘ + \!% 1 %   % 8 . O  K2 - -8 !4!K- 1500 a*  B . "@ a4 5 % ’!-% $)-c! . L B18 0 -8 G-V? S$+ T*+  % . Ny ' «q3 "* Y "? w2  "@$-% - KO 8 ry8 8 ‚X] M8 3HK8? 3 B 3!$H 53!$% 4!K g< B!© @+ 6hZ ~ . ~ ? ‚  8  M)$£ L pc #D? B-, . 1  o,   8 h& X 93: + KqN 4!K r K o M2! a4 5(0c L M2! 1   . 4 : ^ % ! d, ~ r=< "!  z   =š ~=H < 5  $ L 3A 3o' R 6 8 ~=H 5 C% "WZ= H. 1c 2 g< ? 

22

"{ (V3? BJ8 L #+ *)+  ,3< -)F, i!-2 5- )H 5 K*N:  Pz . 5eFK X L y $ @K )y+ g< D< 563£ =, X L 2? I 0!= . ? + a* C "WZ=X H. T*+ I - iD? g< !=! L  t' w2 . 5 %s8 1984 #W a4 5 %2  8 PH? 53$8? 8 L 0-K,o K  g< !% ?  5K  L ^)W$   ^b*  ¯8 k‹  eFK B*2< L $    "WZ=X . $2 )H  8 5 8 ¯-8 5 t' L ! % ! + B1 )$% H8 L a4 5  ! 8 y+ g< D< 48 +% . 5 t' L  j 0-K,o K  #W F-$= )$ a4 M)2 ° 8 +%   .  H   l r=? ;by .? X   5$ - -82< g< !- K H B18 0-K,o K  T*+ w!-F . m w2 ^. iD: ~)2Z _ =N =< 6  (3Y! q 0WC ` -8 -$N )  8 B>? $ .( ; o8 i!2 g< o, \? 2     0 L  D !KD& ` ± w2 -8$= - . 08! ^ )  31  !$H? /  ":  2 G) != /  w+ EP 1984 8 PH? $2 3000 Q 0 i3!c L 0C% . ( ? ^ 53!8: ! œ. 6+ !% 8: I-* - 0)* ,1+ | % g< 5^$Zq . ? b$ o, 8@+ 8 &  (3Y %q3 IW8 0C w! r* " Œ% ,!}8 ."

23

` ^)*  ^ 2@ B$ 5\: 1V! T-*+ eA8 3$- ) ∗ ( .  L ? Zq .  19 ^. 5 % rK "@ 8 $Z 3o EG "@$.X i3Y " S  ."  5 B$ =G Q ?  ³*)+ ~˜  w-+ L 1947 ^)*  ` ^ . [ i-y g< 5 . M) g<  0)*8 8 BJ+: (7' $= 5  63 rKc B- $H . ` ^ ZqO 2‘ $H @8 | 3 ^)*  . ^ 8 $2  -$* K- 0 . 7 g< 1 L )= !*8 «N? L B$ K2 ? (-8 w-‡ / e] 1947 6 )$% n- 1-c? . *,: e ; o  1c  3!1 "@ -V, 8 . 9 !V!* 1Ž  5$H g<  8 B*8 !*8 L 14 «-N? / e] 1947 -V, -   L 5 8 . 2 8 !*8  g< $H 8  ` w!  @$% ~*+?  5 L 5. 15 «N? / e] 1947 . y 5 L )J$8 6,Ž Zq .  ~ - & 3v] B$ d . U)- 1ZW-= L . ")+? F 3 o8 +K$ )J$8 $ T*+ ^)*  ` ^ #-+ B$ .  ? < 6+ (7V? L 0¦3$ b$ L 2@ @K 8 .      =š > L r=? hN L y 5^  ^ # 8 6V V!8 - 1-c 5t 8 531  t- 3-? 3V!-V -X $c18 .. ,hN .

) ∗ ( % &'   ( )*+    .. !' , -  ! /" # 01 &' ) 2    &3   "  ! #$" .

24

1*Pz w! -!$ 63´- g< nµ ! o  K F   - 16 h  3!OG8‹ B . "@ ) 1526 u 1530 ( "? !, 1* U!&8 3!OG8< . F  o, [  ^3´  BJ8 IR L M 6h&y 6* 0, 5!? L h  XV .? -8 -8s   PH |O  PH? .  ]7- -8 3? X L  ") t . z %% %, H. 6h: ! L 1Ž -2 0% I e7. B% ‚ 5rV!$ ) =V 3± e7. BJB ( 3? )J8 B% ‚  v )J-8 -+ P-K  .`< . `< ) Œ=% dZ8!% $c3 Rahtriya Swamsevak Sangh 5 ,8 B,+!% T*+ )$)* 8! )J  L .( w3 r‹ K8 8 h  ? T*+ 0% I e7. W rD=? T*+ F  ª-  . B+7 0%, r< w3 ? ‚  8 F  h  1 w2?  K «Z= L  r=< `- . T*+ !. i7- ? 8 BN (A 3J=? w8? 8 0¡3$ | " 5E ? H "X 8+Y ~© 50% I- e7-. ? X<  (3Y! q3 3-y o- ) 1998 u 2004 ( % *‡ c 8 w3 K8 ( 6+< r8 F  T*+ 6 K8 S -V . L -*) a-* ?- -2 1989 )$% g< 6 G) / ": !=H 1992 F  ! r ~j o w! œ. 5 93: . « 56hKH D3§ 0% I e7. #2!8  !2  5A? ^=)* ^3´  K2 8   5^)*  K2 -8 Q- ^% 8 + E  M)$£ (-= . 8 5(X´, $+ 

25

? 5!7 ^ iy |* *$Z8 34 x ~=H w3 K8 H.  I e7R "!y!* %% Y1$= M  a-4 5^$-Zq B  6% g< 0% . I e7. 5w3 K8 H. !1V ~Zv  2 50% 3? )J-8 .`< . G) 8 ` L !)$-V 5`< / !=H ": 1992 X¢ M8 h8$ !82 5!? 6* L B1y8 8 ‚ 08+ ^ [ r=? $ o 5 K F)* 8-c 1527 u 1528 .  Zq # ")+? F$= B1Z$. ¶Cc: ‚X] 0 -2 q% ~*= 5a4 e+? L *K   8 + L ~K= †.: no, -  w@-+‹ . l )H 8 ,3 K8!8 B* ¶Cc: ¯8 6R ?  Zq ")+: . L 12 `3-8 / 34] 1993 L )CD  2 6+ -FZ= 6R ? K8!8 250 ³WCc . ,oZ= hFZ$ no, ? $ 8 a4 @ 8  K F  h8 T*+  H ^)*  m ; o-8 .  3? -  w? ) L 16 `38 / 34] 1993 ( 8 PH? 0 100 \G  A   L ] h-FZ L B1Z$-. ·C-c  Sc L 2! . e7. y 5 K F  h8 8 !% 6-+ -  B  g< 0-% I- ) 1998 u 2004 ( m M8 €Zb$8    Z rV!$ 4 e7.: r . ` ^ 2@ ? BN3 Zq # ")+? ? X< 5V 8 b$ ? ^)*-  G L V -8 ~-= / ›Kc 2002 L 3V!V X L kF % 8 32 + S$. e+? L a4 5 e-N !? 8 q ` .

" $ *H "

26

B p 0% I e7. -H 5do=] 3V!V X 53 S$. . 53!V 8 L ^)*  e7 Bž -2 † e- 3 . B1$ l $  (W$%X ? 8 BN T*+ ~2 .O #+ ")+? ? X< 53 L h wD ^)*  $2 L ~KK 568 + † i!2 - X!- L  B,hN ‚X]  ^)*  ¯8 . L  K F  h8 \?  1992 3V!V †.? 5 L 2002 ^$Zq ^ hKH iy |-* g< . v. H MK 2 , 8 6+ L hFZ$ -8 -+ . 6,J no, "7 8 ^O3!$8  L ^)*  m < " 5w! g< 6)$8 1 . 3!, 68 ":  1c 5   L ^b  ` ^ 2@ L . !y \? 68 IK H 5 b  hK$ PK ~ 1$% 4< 50% I e7-. ^ $  K2 8 5 by 8 )* "-)+s ~-82 - X L y 5` t 8 3? 3V!V  . L «N? / e] u G)$K% / "!*? 2008 ! 0 40 5B1+W8 b8 X 8 * (7V: L a4 5] #? ! - ° 3? . )8  M)$£ F% 50+)$VX K g< *$= 4< K ? BN3 5 KO «%? T*+ )    ~% Caste ( 6,Ž ^b  ^)*  L ,hvs «)*  z r=? X< 5Y$8 %, (! T*+  .  M)$£ ;qc I*N? ^ *V 0K 7)$ "7 8 . hPH L 4!K8 5M)$£ L KO ¸? B, 5~ "7 X -)H

27

 (V3? 8 .  m L „18 g< 0K 7)$ "!b$ .:  M)$£ L 1$! K Hs Y -)*H #-+ . < X L †. 8 ! T*+ 56K  X m d-, ~-=H 5 !8 h$ . 5= % X! GH? 0, 5t 3-? X! (3Y! q3 5~ KO 8 6?8 0, . MY!$ + …3 = ? *8  l r=? 8 BN T*+ h … hN $ ? X< 5"@$%X o8  L 0K   * -% K- ? g< 15 % ) 5  8 ! = K  - 43 % ~   5 16 % ) 5 K  % Pz ! q 8 % . L K T23? !*Pz 5 ƒG 8? 8 B1$K= 7 l < 5@K (V3? H L !+Y!$ 5- U-˜< +   3 % hN $ «Z= r< h 8 ! T*+ 5 … .  5 L K ^ k7$ †. 3 8 H 4<  6  ¦7 m- ¯Z ›%? L y †© 2 K*  ZqO T*+ A? |K 8: o, 5A M)$F)* * ^b   ^)*-  . "{ 0)*8 \ qc « r= )H 5 %  L ,’  8W V3 oC$- l < - ‚O 8 5w+‹ !+ "7-=< B$ . 8  5 Kc BH‘ K k3 8 k7$ . Z |O  L y . )$ 38 w8? 6hKH K+ w3W 0K wJ- #- - L i3-$  . 6. (  ¹b* X 2 A |O  0-Z K hvs- u 6!V!8 "7 8 ~=H < u 8 hPH L   Z |O  ~ KO 8 WCc  ) 4!K  ( œ. r z X

28

8 (  (8 r*+ Jp 5r8 T*+? KO 8 ·Cc w8? `!-*' 5T*+? KO 8 ·Cc r8 ¨z o „1W 4 ? ¯K «-Z= ( ? 1 K$     3 ~ ( ? -+ -Jp -)H T)º%: K- . PH? t 8 77 %   [O!8 8 ?  5 ==< X iD? L 8! 3X #W= YF$ X 0-8!   B1+D? L »!b*8 © ? 8!  !1V |© . 8  #s$ 53‹ \!$-  T-*+ 28 T) )*2< + @A 5-X 7 6h&y 7H8 3< © .  7)$ $  0+)$V Lv i! . eFK X L  !O!) ) eN  ( !&*  P . 8 e2? B, u  §3 u [O! e!V L XhH X L ! g< B18 63£ $-H - - e-N . Sc e!V L = 8 X L 8$ ? )H , @K g< B18  =@%  L !&  v 8$ g< e2? B 63£  X! L B1O!8 . -  3!$% ‚-$ 22 & . &*  &*  1* 2 …3 & 7*’‹ ) 5@K-* …- . L $ @K- 33 0Z? + @A \? & *‘ F . !  B* $ 18 % 0%%?   ") & 0, 5@K  -% -8 . h ? g< P $ 40 % a* !)* $ !)1Z ^O!  8 &* . t 3= XhH H$=H P8  !' X! L   "&K L *P)  S X = 8 3!K w%]  &   AZ 5,hN 3!K=8 F8 w37-8 -=XV= )*2‹ Bž&* †b$ . !)*  †b$ 5X MA (P$%  3: -&* - L . ^ hKH r  š ? g< 63c‹ 3Š

29

3: - ^$-&* .  B1Z ". ? T*+ &* !)* ± †b$ B1%!  \: )*2‹ . &* !2 ()$= d, 5  X! -8 - L -)*2‹ . = 8 X L 8$ 93 5"P  K% T-* g< 8!  T+ o 8: 5@K* 8!2 &*H  &* 9- &*H 7-*’‹ -&* "!K-2 =v …3 . d,   l r=? BN3 5 O &*H  &* 9 !D3   "{ L hP  1c 2 e!' X 8 ,hN = -8 -X ? X< rV!$ o !2 D38 . + b$= 5  $% 0Z  9Z rV!$ T*+ VF$. -8$ -8 O &*H  &* @K* . ? X< 5 , X ? L w: &* ~ 7*’‹ ? BN3 &* no± y!$ B1 z  - M- 3 . \ 10 %  % 8 5 $H v© 7*’‹ 8 ] ? 32 wC$% T*+ 63 @K  +% o 5EG †3!  g< a4 8 T*+ S!Z$ T*+  7*’‹ T*+ 6)$  xG +y L ^W- . +% )H ? o 8: 5 L 8 +y i2 9!> L 7*’‹ a* y 5)+: 8  4¥ ' 6$8 H-* 3F$  W  8  K  .  $%! &  l L =  O2!z GH? - - .  G ! $ ^*x 8 - : Ry d! B% ¸: ‚ ) I «*x ( cK  i$2X «*£ o, (A+?  I IC$ -. .

30

) 8 )H? ,   |p 18 (A+? 3$X ~!W$ 8+ o, !% «½ ž8  C$= 63 L «*£ . «*£ o, #s$ -8 545 H T*+ +Y!8  C$= q L B±C$= B$ !A-+ @K (V3? . Ry V3 B% ‚ T*+: «*£ 8? ) X! «*x ( 8 #s$ 250 $ «£ (A+? K2 8 B±C$= B$ !A+ T-*+ I K2 8 cK8 eC$= G+ « 5X! \!$8 . 8 GH? €4!Z= I «*£  56b$  *)  L " !, )H X! «-*x . ˆ   L V !=2 32<  z X " !=2 i-8 " != o, ;KW X )H 5^*£ @H r2 q3 |W K2 3% r*+  « . L  «q3 IW8 Ž «q3  L oZ$ * M ) 5EG a*  IW8  (3Y! . ? ;KW : ^  ^*£ (A+? w8? .$8 yZ (3Y! «*x L ³Y ? (3Y!* q3 B18 . ? )H 5U3 ( 8  #s$ T*+  Pz  G ±  $ ž%´8 X   ao 508! \!$-  ^= G ^-*F)* . X! \!$8 T*+ 0-  «*£ T) X! \!$8 T*+ 8!  «q3 T) )H 50$ «*£- ": Y! B% ) X! (3Y «q3 .( 1* ? )H  q3  8+ )H. X   .  5!% «½ H   «£ eC$= B$- )-  4 5 O2hK 671V: ‚ 8 ? 5 )q $ «-£ &* ^!2 4!-Z= hvs- .  ©X 8 ' V! )H 2hK %´  (A+? 3$ T-*+ ‚- \!$8 T*+ O

31

- . w! 5 X H \!$8 T*+ © ' d, 5P-   08!  ) U!¯8 3-$ .  #s$ 5 3‹ . 8 -8 630 w+ I28 92 18 B2 H `? 5-3< )-2 O-* . 5w+ ^8? X! \!$8 T*+ 0O2hK Y1' `? )- 0O2hK Y1' L E8 IW8 T*+? &- " % ^8? " - . \!$8 T*+ ^3‹ 1*P  L 63Y   ? )H X H . )  6A2 hKH T) 5$8 0qA2 wJ  M$)$ 6A 8 + n+ 5 6A2 0D2 B-% -* . ‚ % * )  * 3!$% )  B . ? )  no, I2 oZ$ %´  K2 8 ! œ. 53!$%* d1$= . I=V g< a* L 6A hKH 1%?  * 1$) ‘ X    a4 X!- . \: X 8 6A + Z$- . ) ‘ d,  53< B2 H L -3< 0qA wJ* %%: 6.! Pj - . q' =  A H L J 3‹ -)  . BH * BH 8 H 1*P-j ‚¯$-% BH-‘ d-, * 3!$% . \+ M 3 L J* BH‘ d, a4 I=V g< 8 b*W  .  ! \8 T-*+ w .: 8 +  1c 5 D hW  hvs$ 4 qA- . w+ 0Z 1975 * )  ?Š 5=N =< @K (3Y q3 eC$= ~* ?  ] ™ 8 L ¬3! . ~*+? 6! no, T*+ !2  3 o¥ - 6 @K L 21 1c .  no, "@ MA 87 8 6 6$Z oZ$ * 8 %% 2 0qA- wJ- . w+ BN3

32

$)$8 TK wJ o, ? X< 5 (A L hvs$- K$-% @$%X 8 \s ? V3 . I*  qA oZ$ $ * g< D< 63< L ,3 5 *$    1$*%  \  5@K ´c w@+‹ 1*P-z - . M$)$ +!K  =$ ‹ w@+‹ q%! sc o, 5@K L 0% d L ,!- U- - w@+‹ q% D3  e7.? I*  O2!z )$-£  X 3 1 )H * rK* )+ ƒ? . "@ r=? F% 5 ~) .  e7.: V3 -8 4< @K "@$% 8 g: 8+ ^v@P- ) 1947 u 1977 ( B  H |© V? 8 i3y o e7 !, 5[O! j´  e7.  L "@$-%X . ^ )-  1977  1980 !, 5=V e7. y e7.  2 5B  6% g< 5 D3  e7.: 8 #-© !=2 9 š M  ? r*+ H r=: #b$ o, w-8? -j´  L =N =< r2? o ¬3!- 25 !=! 1975 œ. )$% `38  C$= 1977 . 62 ~© B  g< x 6! 8 j´  e7.  j -2 =< w+ L =N - 1980 6 K8  C$= ~V? ^. a4 5 L Q B  L 3)$%X L D3  e7.: #©   * g< r!y 8 Q !% †@v  | #W$8 . 08+ ^ * L j´  e7. 0- 1980  1989 ? K2 e7. n! ] 938 #© w8? -¡ " =V . l n3  w+  C$= L \? 68  @!O B  L " =V ) 1991 V 8 j´  e7 * -H3 . w+ L 1996 

33

\? 68  C$=X j´  e7. . 08+ ^ )  1996 ›!* $D 8 +% 5‚@$q 8!   ~A . w+ L 1998 ~ + 6V %% 1KV * g< ~*y 0% I e7. H 50Oz [O! #b$ B-% 5#b$ o, L   6! !, $  -8! 1V!$- 4 w+ œ.  B- . o- !-, 2004 .  C$=X L r= X< L V  = G- 2004 ' ~ j 8+7 6b$  8$ 1K * g< "!y! 8 5Œ% ,!}8 6 [O! j´  e7. .  ?  C$= L \? 68 ,Y! Š _ u !8 2009 . #W $8 z  7. 0% I e7.  )  0% e7bH j´  e7. . )*2‹ e7.: I*N? 0)$ P   e7. r)+7$ o 0O2!z [O!- #b$- L H3-  0)$ ) 5[z 0%% rV! 4 ‚O? g< 0% I- 4 ‚O? g< 6b$  8$ 1K' L H3  e7.: I*N? 0% 0%% rV!- . 8   W$2X % ~=H < $8 I e7. -j´  e7-. W$2X © o8 a4 ± w-+ L - 1991 3 )3= 8! .  T-*+ ) e7. 8 -j´  ( W$2 53$ a4 K2 5 W$2X -H -2 5 *$• ? H$c .   '  ( #  . 8 Q « 5 T*+ & 3v] 3)$-%X d- * r 7-$% e+: qo& e!K  BbZ P8 3!) "V Š "@ 8 K  3!8 r 7-$%  5 -K  1998

34

L (!% 5 O! +  ,.3 3 d3-8 L "$-* =P ? g:   e . ^$  ^  "@ EG "@$.X T? - !' e!V 5 < "{ 5S 5H L d3  !? L !- %] Sc . o B18 ^@  r! V $8 F$ ~=H (?  L =G )$  + i * i3H !8C$-% l- . © %% *$   ~K 5^=G .3   @K- . L 5> "X ,!V 5@K (3Y!* «q3 "? $ l e& 63A. 8  ¦‹ ,J  [K . & : 18 . 8 @H ?  ¹. . 8 -H - "@ ^=G 18 . )H T%! 3!W 6$ "@ "!&  ^= 19  20 )CD %%? $©  !82? +% 5@K L  )  -) L . nc hc E& : 3!OG8‹ ) 1540 u 1545 ( e&* S 8  (V3? H Q    )CD O -8 . - ‚+ o | o-, " BJ d " ? " BJ | " 5 M8 ,. e2 $H eN L w! M  3- Q - ? Sc TW2? L 2! t@F L „=&=3= -§ $-=& + 7 8 T*+ $ 5 2500 BH . S 8 % Kc § nc hc w2 a4 -+ @A-  r) . 8 Q !% «½ "@ . w  w2 .@ !1 L  5S no, !$ !=G )$-  "!-&  "7 8  t@F  $H   "{ L  * 6. H -) .  a  SO 8 Kc z EG 3)$%X w2 -)H . 8 PH?  0D3: L = 8 3 i-$ K-

35

60 08+ ^ ) a4  a  ›! -8 B-H . b-y  a  S no, B-J8 ? ;   r=? X< 5 =G “=!   =  3!  BV8 ~- 3 (K wC$ S no $b$ K ~-*Ž ^=G- (@-V  W$2X . 53A   7&* 8 ~D 2  ~=H   1D3? T*+  - -  P 8 v „78 . hvs$ d   5w! g< %!)*8 3v] U!&  0H$ 0%3Z 0--  v 4 K 1)J8 L  ? . M8 o-, 93$- ? g: V3 -%, . & 5 7*’‹ ~+? \? Y 8 & B1Z y  5EG )$   A ? V3 r8 e   L \: *K 8 hPH L |© . &* no, +% 2 i2 L )H xG V!!  L ^W Y-Š T-*+ - L 0-K= s 8 !=  E IK o -§3 58-  a* k@+ !p !=H < 5 7*’‹ &* B-* 6h! 6!FZ i%? . ! !)  K2 8 83y O!&D != 6!2 ,3K-$+ - w- T*+ M2!$ T*+ 1P  & " 8 ,hN 6b$  X!- ! b*%: 3$= w+ 6-,8 . 8 žK*$§ ( ! V? 8 M8 qv 2Z ´8  ~-2 -2 8 6b$  X! 8 , žV$. 0-K* != 2O +8 -82< -V @K L 2 7F+ T*+ I*&$ 2 . 4 L  w )H 1853  1947 . 000

36

!   )H L B b$ V? 8  8: ›!&A- ~2!- +W =: 8 K  . ! ±3Š g?  V? -2 !8 L  1974 ~K? 5 !8 L \? e3F$ a4 1998 . KP T*+ 6,V  ) ! @ wC$% qK !  Xs 1Z2!8 T*+ . w M8 T*+ 0%%?   )$+@  rF$ 5@K L  ! @  *)  6b$  X! P8  & " V? 8 =  6b$ !' bK G ž!2 © .  3! D  ! L -,  -+ u $8 GH? Pj w!  ? œ. 50*q%< q%< 8 @* ) ∗ ( . r8!2 ;*$ V !2 tV -1* 1 . 1 V !*8 . b*%: i!=? H T*+ t' o, )$- g< D< 5 *$ 93? 3!y i!=? †.? u 93? 593? u!V .  L   SZ=‹ MZ3 D  ** !- L g< 67 "8 y œ. 58   8 . 5 % 08+ ^ 2006 u 2007 . 08    =7-8 1-c -2 2007 u 2008 5 G L  G T*+ -D  w+  2007 =78 L \? 6Y 5 K- i - 7 . 8 % K =7  no, Y  5 10 % w L U$ . w+ "@   SZ=‹ BF. MZ3 - 2009 u 2010 g< 141 . 7 ,38 67Z 5 ,  3 !* 34 % |  w + ) ∗ ( % 0-4! ( )*+    5 % " 6 "    3  &' 0' '  $ 2 78 # 01 &' 9    .

37

6cK8 . * a4 (3 0q IK \7 o 0- ,3‹ w!F1 L K8!8 8 r1-c 26 u 28 G) != / EP  2008 \? $8 g< 166 WCc . #y L 1999 ~D o w a4 5 L *' V3H "@ L $H D 1H38 ]  r- ~Z=? 2  ~=H 5h)-H !-8V 48 . 5 T*+  3 !* § 5i  ž4 H  Z*H a4 L . !)O + @A 53!' " L v 3!$ 3K-$+  1V ©  32  5GH? 0 + 0)*2< 3 I*  M% S= T*+ 1$b*-%? . BCA$ "8 L 67 ~=H < L 6hK  67 no, e. + 3K$+X L o´ ? I¦ =78 i  . «*x L )q !A+ ;KW :  T != 6!2 >:  B1 ~ «*£ o, (A+? 8 + -H < 5-8: ao )* . * ƒ: Œ M2!8 4 H ac  w!- - #- N KW 93? 5v Lv †h-§ $-)$8 5 F$-%‹    ž32 + @A 5 )CD )+ 6!2 1- 53!- 0.!  0Oz 1V4!} ! . $%X MD  oC$ T)J " ‚W-8 g< S@-=@ . 8 z X r*H o,   w8? 6P+ F. #  M)$F)* 0K #W$ s "!- *K$-  3!$- -= 8< ( ¢ r.  BN T*+ o-, 50 I¦ o ‚ !, 5i!$ T*+ )q2 6. ( 8 !%´  w T*+ r< +% r*+ J ‘  J ? .

38

 א  א

    ..    $+ ! ,

X¶}R{A XIk X}Kl} uiBk ) ∗ (

 3$ L 8? ? w$ ^-.  K8 "@$. T*+ iY$ ^$+!)x ". ,8? Z ~). 2 >? [ o,  T)J 8! 8 . 5L8 W$2 8 V3 6! 8!+ ,Š g: N T*+ 632 V!!? %3 56-,2  -+ 6!-2 *$ "8¢ 8 87R 1bc &8: e!* . ;KW X w87 ~ 8? 2  !  ?  X< *+ 8! no- L 5 * 6! 3W8 1*Pj  8! 8 =P +!)£ !  P 8 +! BA %  &V -23 1$-88 .!)O  +˜ 8 #s$ 6F$8  N!z 6!2 5w =F$8 . [ 02 «=F$ *8H l L -8? d-, ~- B8: 5!-&* "  " l 5 % l  L hKH B, S3 !+$  e 08x !1® œ. B8: no, P8 s- 6 ‹ 02 h1$ +)'    .

) ∗ (               .

39

 +˜ š B8: 8 hP-H L B% 8 1< 3 " -*2: ." 8 5~ l 32 G+ 5*2: no, E- m8N K$8 5|*2 D. 5eA-8 3- . . ~ (P$%  L )*  *2: . +˜ ?  8 9! 8 !, 5 &* aqc *2: ;*W8 !=!  2  L !)*  5r #y!  . 8 *2? ) 14 %   U˜< 8 ( g<  K8 !*y 2 B>s 1 3$    B*2< .= 8 - ) w! $H ( ":  ? L F ) @  8P  M*8 ( o ~2! 4 L K ? «=: ;$ r ? . K2 y 2 w@-%‹ -H o8 !+ 3Š S a4  5 eN e!V L XhH 8 G+ g: w@%‹ !% + 3!‘ … @)©  w@%‹ K2   63F$* W8 ~=H 0-  y: ) ™ h ( bW ¯K K T*+ & X L  ¯*  …!  93: 8  h .    - 0%% !& 08@%< †$ ¹Z$© 5=K%< P8 1*P8 - 0  \!$  T*+  P 1$!, 8 (7V Pz 0.% . s l   M8 G ? @K ‚O? T*+ !  g< !)*  . 8 !=7N !)‘  j @  c - 0-Z 8 S@=X r.!$ ~=H 5\G  r$ eFK B*2< BA- $-=& ? EP  L 08@%‹ B  6 1j  eN L K-1  @  + . B   1 ~A 3$ a4 ~* 2 $%

40

K a* $ BJ8 L 08@-%< ) +   > 8 -. + M%$  #W$8 œ ( G+  +  63!y ~*  o 5"!&  |*& "] ^F* ^3!& 8 ^)*  -18 . M%$  #W$8 L X< EG "@$.@ . !H-$ l + . @. I$H L  ~… *!  a-* "@- -- 3Z-%: " + ¶2 b " ¾  P r*. L a $   i!$* 0. "P8 5!&* 02 [ $-* O!-8 6.! .   ~=H " t dhN i t+ " 3c M 3 O " a*K$ 0H ¢ K- " ) . ~F$=? 93sH ,!W ° )H 5 *q )  a* 1$88 L 5t$- L e3-Š " ~H 4< r B § d3V B 0H a  W 8?  % L t ." r $-H L "  ‚-$H " #2!8 > "X ,!V «  "! ^. ^)*  w  8 "$  - "  3$ L B1$88 L 51$‡  .! g< !% " ? " 5hKH 5H!c? h8: 5d== 3!-V =N 5GH?  "@V 5 ." "@V ƒ.? 08!2  ƒ@ 5> \ =N P8 r*P8 GH? - 0%, -¢ B*-8 . > n]3  5I7 =3? 8? " )H. #* g< + e3+ 63< g< r%% ? KW$8 ." 8 !O 3 "7$ 1%!  L H8? 6-+ d-,   L w@%‹ rH o 0% LP 3!$- . a z , , ¿K8!8 T*+ j ?  EG 3)$%X 83!-= B-1 ^ $   (8? \ 7H  * 6!2 d3< a-%! %%  B1Z , 5P   ¿3!KV $V3 i@2 3!W-2

41

 - v " !-8  " ¿3$8? L 0-K,o  K8 37 l 4< L w@%‹ W2 g< k!! a z , 5TA8 8 H a < œ. ¿‘ k L K = 8 i ?   ‚ (± # e h&y > T*+ ‘ k M- Y3 ^$WCc \Ho *¥ =!8 ZD T*+ 5=!8 B-% L ^ ZA T*+ 1F,c 1c:  BH. *¡ k$ 5 3 1F,c hW8 r< "] h&y F% BA (‡ *2 T8$ *   r+? _ r8 B  i7$= I7 =3? r  r*+ I-*= ? - 0 *% T*+ r8 ^+Y$  r!< 0ZW ? K2 F . > ZD ^ w b* B1$,H ` I. iY!$ =!8  $ Jp 1F,c k 5GH?  "@V ;D 5^)*  X ) 5` ^)*  ^ e3$ ;8$* 78H ` I7 =3? B% ` Ab$ u !Z* !3´  n o  r+ e4  W= - -+3 % O u  8 X< (F * . & ~D  L !)*  1H  ¡3$ H-$ w+ L  B ? ^-. 1947 . !8 iy Ic w a4 L T-*+ " %   -&' " g< "@$%X TA ?   a4 5@K* (A- L 8@-%< - !-   L !8! r) L&V -- " `  0% e$ " $H ~82 . 5 ) do=]  & ( % Z qK2 1 $% 18 (V - 93: 4 L % $K )$%  Saptasindhus) ( K 3>: 93? ? . c8 @ % 2@O B$   l r1c 8 ! T*+  T*+ )q2 XWZ= H  5 - H !*-% "«= " ` 

42

0% .  `3  L 0A© e 3!*K w a4 o8 % %´  8 hKH + 8! )F$ -% 8! 8: ž  OC  8 3o‘  -8@+‹  0 * a-* i3Y - " =O " $8 8@%<  1*Pj  -1… " $H "  ^O@% 8 )$  Z.? 182  !Z*$-¡ X o- u e o, I-R u B1K> B1K*% L ^=G 8 B1.X + B,K$% .  3)$%X - no-, < - $H 6) u 0Az 0-% - u  V 8 º"N (7V i$2 #$  l 5 L ! o ^)*  Is$ 3>  T  5I-b «8 3! H B@&$% T*+ ) ¾B1$ D 5B$ -  0D3: 6. a Z$ . v @8 1c (A 8 - ~!-© o- ,   ) #-+@ ( ~j 5^)*  ` ^ ZqO e. .% g< B>sH  œ. ^)*)* L&' LN!z Y! L &K-  = % l " GH? Ev 1 . ~© B1Z=? !)*  V @K L ^q ^% 3$ ‡3 : ! E)* 08.   - % 2@ r1c o "!b$ MK$ L (K -= $  8! 1…  + H. 3!-1Ž L -)  8@-%‹ ) Nationalism Religious .( 5 8! 8 )+ i!=: B$ K2  ~ -+ - $ M8 #O$ X  -=  -8!H 5  ? 2 1V!

43

S!. Ž L ^O!  ;qc #*$• g< 6-§ -J - O!  . 1Z !A 8! ~c B$ "WZ=X    0% !A ()$=X  hW8 Q 3 g< +-% -O [ (@$%X 08! IW$ ^ ~VY . ! -1Ž 5l "  8 ,h&H 5 L $  8 5 ! 8Y? 53)$%X 88 -1ƒ? 6$-8 8!- F-$= Y$8X K*N: iD? =38 5 =)*  M8 iW- .!)O 50V3  Z 7& 5*2: 1*+ W© 2  1+y L ‚O: |O8 D WZ=X +  57H  M8  6. . 8 hKH + !  BA L $  8! H. (-V -Zq &KW- 4 )J-  ) 8@%X % 1 § C- ( + w! ,+ 7 - 500 H ?  5 )J8 w+ L )J8 + YF$ X ,+ 1951 . |O  ~=H )  + 7 X 0ZqO ! 3´KH ZW  60 o8 B2 o, MZ3 8 g< -=)P M-*8 250 y? 8 8 350  L 8 . % e7.: "@&$% F$= 0%%?  - a-4 (-V T*+ 67)* 1 ) 1  -% -K*N: #-O!  ^K !y? I  )* . 5   L  K8 -% -8! s-= 5EG 3)$%X I&$*  P 8  " c? 8  -H K 0, ƒG 8 6$Z a* L 8! no, (A-+? (-V % 8! H.   l 5 v %% 6  a* L  4   l 3)$%X 8  © g< \!% ;-) 6-$Z

44

^)*)* 8 1V! . g<   % % 8! #W ¯ †@v :  ( ? B,  v 2+ ` BA g: !*-y: . B1*Pz % = + ^  ) -=P  !4!K  . ( ? M)F$ PP 8? " 67& ^*$ " .3 ). !Z*¥ o |$+ 8 !b  !)*  B1*Pz 5!% ? )$-  % 8¨ ! (+: B, (X´, 5` 8 B1$= 3)$%X e=4? B1Zy! . ? % 8! ªK-$ V!! " Z " Hindutva) ( 87 8 2 !b ,-)+ !- - . KH8 Z W ;8@8 6. 93: ()$=X  P  B%! 8 @8 $8 T*+ % = B2 r ! K$8 ±-$8 -+)$V o ˆ ,x $ 5= 8 -,hN " r= " !)*   !b  . ^$N L P)$$ Z 1< T  ‚,: -8? : IH 0Z M)$£  \!$8 T*+ y ZW  5w!  8! iK: -+ -K " v!*8 " $  08! IW$* 2 E)*  Z .  *2: ‚1$% EP T*+ B1*‡ ^b  ^)*  8  ` 8 B1 S$+ L  Z 8 e,3< @K 6-F, . 3 !, ^)*  rV L Z r  o- " $%G2  $H " ? ^)*  T-*+ u 8  L B,+ e$ o 170 )= !*8 u g< B1*+ ‚!%s8 h-N !*.- ? )© B1* ! < $H  L B1s B,3!K2 Zp ^. r=!*% o hW  ´-8 . ;8@  *8H h1 (W2< %% 4< 0, .

45

5 ] 3 : " :  8 oC$ 0%, M)$-x L 3 64!K8 KO T% *+ ¯ g< r `- #W-À C$Z 50,X< 6K+ .!$ = !)*   " (Hc X . r< r- " Q  %sH %!% ˜ B1$*V . = $Z    L g< ,)+ !- - 5 -% 5 . 000 !*% ( g< 5 % h,˜ r!. #$* . r‹ ?   !  3N 0*+ 7-H8 `- . % !-1 $8 #q!O ^ 2Z$8 $$8 4 ^ 8 ¢ 8 r + "!. 1$WCc ~j Z*$•  ˆ 0% 3$ L =  . #q! { l 8 % 8! H.  )$ 0  H 8 ¢ 7-8 .! g< ~%  Z*$C  ¯Z - d-, ] 8 7-8 T*+? < ¦ 08, I . ° o , g< r$= 8 ~ 3 Z #q! ] hKH Zc r‹ -Fj \ 7-8 ,@+? 61c ‹ PH? -H r-‹ -= 8 ` Z #q!O Vaishnavas ) ( + % 8! ~% K? H BA ,4!Z= M%! g< a4 |O \: = i 4!K C ='H  0D3: 0*+   . )H h 1  P8 % 8 PK  = H ()+Y -Fj ° Mahavira ) =' = - ( 5Œ%  !V 3!V 54!  7j o   B,q2 * B+Y ] P8 a4 L r*P8  0V = 0C B+7 Banda Bairagi iy L r. (A ^)*  "!&  w  D . ¦ 8 =$  K 8? Harijans £ K ? ) 4!K  B%  %   ( Fj "@ 8 ‚$+X ~ 

46

" 0-   " 8 )b* 3!%: I-  r$2 ~j o = ¦1* 0+ « ‚W8 g< ´8 . w+ 0Z 5 1 œ.  % I-+@ )$-% 1998 8  ~ j ^. < != 3K$ «½ (V ) ! e3Š 2 ( *K2 d,  H´-8 3-y " %, " 1 *$j " $%, " L *K - 8 " 8@%‹ " 1 *$j  " $H " )J8 ~.$2 5 0  0-% «-*£ VHP $H ! e m ‡ (V3? G+ Kc *‡ L r h `8 (+ L rD -%8 M)' r dG$ @K . *K* K8 ( )J  «Z= ~.$2 )H e3F$ (V< r ° o   4 L «) .  93? 3K$+ *yZ B$- -)*H ~-=H w: ‹ Mother India ~K’? 2 5#q!   . < w: no, Living God % -8: !-, . 0D  " ? ] H 3K$+ ° )H ‹ w: no ( ? D . no±  % 8! V L" w: - " .! ^)*  r< (Y< -. -< . K 8 1+8 Z ~˜ M2! 93? T*+ %3)  g< 07 $  L  K F-  h8$- 1992 K8 9=? T*+ r$82< \!+ w3 r‹ . 3W8 8 ž3G8 Z- )$-% " v " 18 m 5 T-*+ 0-- + g< 68 8hN L h  O!  *.3 3N  8  % ~=H  V  . O!  "! *. O!• L hK  0*, M-8V Z-y ..." : e! ? 8 02 eK + 2 93: .8 5`b 8 V hKH )-y F-  63FR W-? ) F  .(  H ƒ´ k3 ? F  g

47

r-8 . wy: ~ !, 5 =ÁÀ F  o, MD!8 -H . )* F8 V ~b$$  ." ~=H >? \!+ ~© V  h8 + # 8:   l 8 ,Y ? H !8 *‡ g< Z „18 "!©   %  8 G 8  M  L M-2 / ›Kc 2002 ! $  w2 ^. $2 8 ! )$ V!N X L ^)*  ‚1$% `- S-. 2000  O B*-8 200 . 000 ] . ,    * e,3< P' Pj 8 2 -*) *W-Z$ P -qK b*-%: ) S3‘ YN =!% ‚!% 8 -$N -+˜ [-*+ eW ( K 5\? " c? ? 1,A X 18 =3  ^)*  D *K ey ± w2  h1$ I%? V D!$8 . G 1-c "@- / V  „ l V!N L !%: ›Kc wž )CA b%  ~=H  5w S.‹ 8 .-D: 8? oZ >sH V-  8 hPH 5!=* Z• K8 D 8! .  ~KW= Bb$2 V  " wy: " 1*+ ~*+ ? 5rK3‘ L % k3  L -% - 3!-y . †.? ~*F% 2  8   5 M)$£ L O 3 8, Z8 V!N c X! L O Y1V ? T*+ 3 S@O (!% ^ $  M8 d3 B1A «KR ? 2$ \ 8 k 8 B1-§ ? ^)*-  !  œ-. r -D . L !H3c  ` ! $  ) )H 3c M 3 -Ro  "           " [- "  !Zy L O 5% B  0-Z% " Z H 8 !, &*& #H 1Ž? bFK$8 " !8 $ " O ‚!Zy ^ .

48

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108 Page 109 Page 110 Page 111 Page 112 Page 113 Page 114 Page 115 Page 116 Page 117 Page 118 Page 119 Page 120 Page 121 Page 122 Page 123 Page 124 Page 125 Page 126 Page 127 Page 128 Page 129 Page 130 Page 131 Page 132 Page 133 Page 134 Page 135 Page 136 Page 137 Page 138 Page 139 Page 140 Page 141 Page 142 Page 143 Page 144 Page 145 Page 146 Page 147 Page 148 Page 149 Page 150 Page 151 Page 152 Page 153 Page 154 Page 155 Page 156 Page 157 Page 158 Page 159 Page 160 Page 161 Page 162 Page 163 Page 164 Page 165 Page 166 Page 167 Page 168 Page 169 Page 170 Page 171 Page 172 Page 173 Page 174 Page 175 Page 176 Page 177 Page 178 Page 179 Page 180 Page 181 Page 182 Page 183 Page 184 Page 185 Page 186 Page 187 Page 188 Page 189 Page 190 Page 191 Page 192 Page 193 Page 194 Page 195 Page 196 Page 197 Page 198 Page 199 Page 200

Made with FlippingBook Online newsletter