HOT|COOL NO. 2/2020 - "Decarbonizing"

Identifying energy demands now - and for the future For identifying heating demands, a local geographic analysis mapping district heating, individual boilers, and heat pumps were made. The analysis included energy efficiency measures and the costs of implementing energy savings in buildings. For identifying the future energy demands for industry, transportation, and electricity the consumption of today was mapped. Then it was scaled based on the Danish expectation for future energy demands identified in the IDA Energy Vision 2050.

Wind and solar Aalborg Municipality has several possible locations for wind turbines, as well as rooftops and land areas to support local solar PV installations. Most of the electricity can be sustainable and locally produced. This meaning more of Denmarks' large offshore wind capacity can be used in the Copenhagen area, with no space for land turbines. The benefits of system integration and energy storage The Smart Energy System for Aalborg is a cost-efficient renewable energy system integrating all energy sectors. The electricity produced on the wind turbines and solar cells are directed towards not only the electricity sector but also to transportation, heating and fuel demands in industry and heavy-duty transport. By doing this, it is possible to use the variable electricity more flexible due to various demand profiles and the accessibility to cheap storage. Storing energy as hot water, gas or liquid fuel is much cheaper than storing it as electricity. However, to gain this cost-benefit it is necessary to utilize the hot water in district heating, the gas in industry and thermal plants, and the liquid fuel in heavyduty transport, shipping, and aviation. As the Sankey diagram illustrates, all these couplings are used in the Aalborg Energy Vision. Electricity is converted to hot water through heat pumps and electric boilers to be utilized in the district heating network. Here thermal storages are utilized so more heat can be produced when the sun is shining and the wind is blowing – to be used later.

Identifying energy supply now and green energy for the future

Balancing energy supply and demand for electricity, industry, and transportation on a national scale is of course a national matter. But Aalborg has to level local industry demands with local supply as local industries may be unproportional in size and energy consumption. For Aalborg, to balance the local and national energy supply, the next step was to identify and qualify local and national energy supply sources. Biomass For green transition biomass is very relevant. Under the right circumstances, biomass for incineration is CO 2 neutral. But it is a limited resource too. Overutilization of biomass in Aalborg can set a limit for other cities to begin an easy renewable energy transition by biomass incineration. The Smart Energy System for Aalborg suggests 25 GJ/person energy supply from biomass similar to the level identified in The Danish Society of Engineers, IDA Energy Vision.

Sankey diagram illustrating the energy flows from supply to demand in the smart energy vision for Aalborg Municipality in 2050.

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