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THE COVER Designing the Home of Super Bowl LVI – story on page 8
CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 10 Offshore Wind 12 Changing Practices and Mindset to Achieve Carbon Neutrality STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 13 Game Changing Venue Design Trends 15 Create a Great Sports Environment with Improved IAQ 16 A Hotbed for International Competition: Stadium Construction in the Middle East and Africa 18 Bringing a Title(town) to Green Bay 20 Sofi Stadium 21 Leave it to the Amateurs: Local Stadium Design in the United States TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 23 How The U.S. Will Deploy Intelligent Transit Networks That Enable Connected Vehicles WATER + STORMWATER 25 Coastal Storm Splits Island and Brings Communities Together 28 Protecting Commercial Properties from Flood Damage 30 Successful Flood Project Benefits Small Village and New York City Miles Away BUSINESS NEWS 33 The Changing Role of a Project Manager SOFTWARE + TECH 35 Bringing NFL’s Largest Stadium to Life with Ingenuity, Cross-Team Collaboration and BIM SURVEYING 37 Buoyed by Success 39 New Surveying Field App Makes Staking Workflows Quick and Easy
departments 6 Events 41 Benchmarks 42 Reader Index
VOLUME 8 ISSUE 3 csengineermag.com
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events + virtual Events
march 2022 GeoIgnite - Winter Geo 2022 march 1-2– Ontario & Virtual
course. The audience for this course is engineers involved in the design of wood construction projects, residential designers, metal-plate- connected (MPC) wood truss designers, engineered wood product (EWP) designers, general contractors, and building code officials, plan reviewers and inspectors. https://www.cpe.vt.edu/sdtwc/index.html The CEO Roundtable Retreat is a unique opportunity for AEC firm leaders to engage and interact with industry peers to discuss current issues facing firms today, explore industry trends and next practices, and confront the biggest challenges they face leading their firms. Zweig Group’s CEO Chad Clinehens, PE, moderates the program guiding group conversations, encouraging integration and networking, and ensuring attendees gain valuable insight, new ideas and tools – and a new network of colleagues – to foster effective leadership at their respective firms. Come prepared to discuss your biggest challenges and successes during this highly interactive session. With you in control of the subject matter, roundtable discussions strike at the heart of what you need to effect change in your organization. Past attendees of CEO Roundtable events state “there is no better forum for dialogue than with peers experiencing the same issues I am” and “the statistics provided by Zweig Group through their continual research of firms and firm leaders gives me the exact benchmarking data I need to justify change and action in my firm.” https://zweiggroup.com/products/ceo-cfo-risk-management- roundtable-2022 june 2022 CEO|CFO Risk Management Roundtable may 19-20 – dallas, tx The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm at this impactful two-day program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm leaders in key areas of firm management leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. Learning and networking at this premiere event challenges traditional seminar formats and integrates participatory idea exchange led by Zweig Group’s CEO Chad Clinehens, PE, and Zweig Group's Managing Principal, Jamie Claire Kiser. Zweig Group’s leadership team draws from our 30+ year history working with AEC firms to teach the latest approaches to managing and operating successful firms – using our comprehensive data set of industry benchmarks and best practices. The Principals Academy is like a two-day mini-MBA for design and technical professionals and is the most impactful two days you can spend learning to build your career and your firm. https://zweiggroup.com/products/the-principals-academy-2023 The Principals Academy june 16-17 – Miami, FL
GeoIgnite invites the geospatial community to collaborate by sharing their work, services, and data during Canada’s National Geospatial Conference. On March 1st and 2nd, 2022. GeoIgnite will assemble the largest online audience of Canadian geospatial practitioners, managers, senior executives, and enthusiasts for your organisation to communicate and engage. GeoIgnite was founded in 2019 in Ottawa, Canada and quickly grew to be Canada’s largest and most popular geospatial event. In its fourth year, it will organize community and industry collaboration for over 7 days of presentations, fireside chats workshops, trainings, discussions, and innovative programming. Last year, GeoIgnite inaugurated the first workshop week of events for the geospatial and geo-related sector. This year, we promise that our workshop week will be just as diverse and engaging. Once again, GeoIgnite will be virtual in 2022, allowing the audience to expand exponentially. Our event is free and open to the Canadian geospatial community through the support from our sector partners like you. https://wintergeo.com/ april 2022 XPONENTIAL exists to help you separate the signal from the noise and write the next chapter of automated innovation with clarity and confidence. Powered by the global reach of AUVSI, XPONENTIAL is the only gathering for leaders and end users in every industry to share use cases, experience new technology, strike up new partnerships, and solve real problems. Our community has been working for decades to reimagine the way humans work and live. Now, in the face of a global pandemic, we reimagined our event to provide fresh insight and connections. https://www.xponential.org/xponential2022/public/Enter.aspx AUVSI Xponential April 25-28 – Orlando, FL Discussion Topics Include: Strategy Development, Why M&A for the AEC industry?, Impact of M&A on Firm Culture, Strategic Partners (when, how, who to approach). https://zweiggroup.com/products/m-a-next-symposium-2022 may 2022 M&A Next Symposium april 28-29 – Charleston, SC
Structural Design Topics in Wood Construction may 17-18 – BLACKSBURG, VA
The twelve topics selected was guided by good practice design including consideration for how structural design and applicable codes, material properties, and well-defined professional specifications can impact in-service outcomes. Participants will earn 15-hours of continuing education credit (1.5 CEUs) and a certificate at the completion of the
AEC Executive Roundtable june 22-24 – Dallas, TX
The 2022 AEC Executive Roundtable is a unique opportunity for AEC firm leaders to engage and interact with industry peers to discuss current issues facing firms today, explore industry trends and next practices, and confront the biggest challenges they face leading their firms. Through a combination of short informative presentations and panel discussions, along with multiple topic focused roundtables, this event will allow leaders to truly find the knowledge and insight they are looking for. Zweig Group’s leadership team moderates the program, guiding group conversations, encouraging integration, and networking, and ensuring attendees gain valuable insight, new ideas and tools – and a new network of colleagues – to foster effective leadership at their respective firms. Come prepared to discuss your biggest challenges and successes during this highly interactive session. With you in control of the subject matter, roundtable discussions strike at the heart of what you need to effect change in your organization. Areas of focus will include some of 2022’s greatest challenges – the AEC workforce, risk management, governance, and more. https://zweiggroup.com/products/aec-executive-roundtable-2022 july 2022 Business Development for AEC Professionals equips professionals in architecture, engineering, planning, and environmental firms to grow the business while serving clients. Elevating Doer-Seller 2022 is hosted by three industry leaders: Chad Clinehens, PE, Dan Williams, PE, and Stephanie Warino, P.G., WV LRS, PMP. This interactive seminar presents business development techniques proven to drive value in your firm. Rooted in data and case studies, Elevating Doer-Sellers focuses on what works in today’s AEC firm utilizing practical and proven Elevating Doer-Sellers july 14-15– Houston, TX techniques that resonate across your organizational chart. https://zweiggroup.com/products/elevating-doer-sellers-2022
Commercial UAV expo september 6-8 – las vegas, nv
Commercial UAV Expo Americas is the definitive event for professionals integrating or operating commercial UAS. With top-notch education, thousands of attendees, and more exhibitors than any other commercial drone event, it’s the best opportunity of the year for anyone who needs to keep up with commercial UAS technology, trends, and developments. https://www.expouav.com/ The 2022 ElevateAEC Conference and Awards Gala registration is open for the annual in-person conference in Las Vegas, September 14-16. Celebrate the iconic black-tie awards gala 2022 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards. Register now for the AEC industry’s top IN-PERSON learning and networking event of the year. https://zweiggroup.com/pages/annual-in-person-elevate-leadership-summit ElevateAEC Conference & Awards Gala september 14-16– las vegas, nv Built for SketchUppers by SketchUppers, 3D Basecamp is where modelers of all levels come to learn and share their 3D skills. During 3D Basecamp, the best of the best share their tips, workflows and extensions. Whether you are just getting started or polishing your skills, the learning sessions at 3D Basecamp are jam-packed with knowledge that will enhance your workflow and get you modeling better in no time. Without a doubt, you'll walk away with something new. Sessions and training cover a variety of industries, topics and skill levels. We attract the best trainers and experts to be your SketchUp sherpas at 3D Basecamp. Discover what is possible when you are surrounded by people who inspire you. https://3dbasecamp.sketchup.com virtual SketchUp 3D Basecamp 2022 september 26-30– Vancouver, BC
Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals August 11-12 – New Orleans, la
Project Management February 1, 8, 15, 22 – 11am-12:30pm CT
Practical leadership skills are vital to the health and success of every company in any industry. Effective leaders motivate their teams to achieve exceptional results, inspire others to be better than they thought possible, and create an environment where their team is focused and working towards a common vision. Zweig Group’s team of management experts – who have extensive experience working with AEC firms providing solutions to the challenges facing AEC firms today – deliver practical solutions that technical professionals can put to work immediately to lead their firms to success. https://zweiggroup.com/products/leadership-skills-for-aec- professionals-2022
Project Management for AEC Professionals is a modern training for project managers led by a panel of three experts, backed by proven research on how to best train project managers to be more effective and efficient. https://zweiggroup.com/products/project-management-2023
A Stadium Fit for Super Bowls: Engineering SoFi Stadium By Luke Carothers
Opened in September of 2020, SoFi Stadium is the home of two NFL franchises: the Los Angeles Rams and the Los Angeles Chargers. Al- though it may seem like being the home of two major sports franchises might make the place a little crowded, SoFi Stadium has enough room for the two teams and then some. Located in Inglewood, California, the stadium is the centerpiece of the 298-acre mixed-use development known as Hollywood Park, which is part of a larger redevelopment effort in the area. Including SoFi Stadium, Hollywood Park features the 6,000 seat YouTube Theater, 2,500 residential spaces, 2 million square feet of retail and office space, an open-air plaza, and 25 acres of public parks. The broad scope of function, as well as the one-of-a-kind design, engineering, and aesthetic, firmly establish SoFi Stadium as not only a marvel of engineering prowess, but also a glimpse of what the future could be. Such a massive project necessitated the cooperation of several firms throughout the design and construction of the stadium. It was designed by HKS, an architecture firm headquartered in Dallas, Texas. HKS part - nered with Walter P Moore for structural engineering and a joint Turner- AECOM Hunt venture provided general contracting services. For the project’s lead engineer, HKS tapped Henderson Engineers, a national building systems design firm with headquarters in the Kansas City sub - urb of Lenexa, Kan., and an office presence in Los Angeles. Henderson, which has a wealth of experience working on stadium projects, provided acoustics, audio-video, electrical, fire protection, mechanical, plumbing, security, and telecom design services for the project. Those who watched Super Bowl LVI in February 2022 are well familiar with the iconic, soaring facade that SoFi Stadium and YouTube Theater are nestled beneath. After many commercial breaks and during a few lulls in the game, the cameras would be trained not on the field or the players, but on the outside of the stadium, lit up in the late afternoon sun or later by the lights of the playing field. It was clear that the NFL’s pro - duction teamwanted to lean on the stadium’s aesthetic beauty to leave an impression on viewers, and it worked to a large extent. However, while SoFi Stadium and the entire Hollywood Park development are certainly worthy of such praise, it is also important to note how important this project is from an engineering and design perspective. Probably SoFi Stadium’s most well known innovation is its translucent canopy that makes it the first indoor-outdoor stadium in the world. This canopy, made from a sustainable fluorine-based plastic, keeps spectators out of the elements while still allowing natural sunlight, of which the area is famous, to wash across the fans and field. The canopy’s paneling is made from ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). This glass-alternative is highly resistant to corrosion and can withstand
a wide range of temperatures. These panels are supported by a 75,000- foot cable net system, weighing 1,450 tons, that allows a portion of the roof panels to be opened and closed. This provides vertical ventilation and temperature control for the building. Ryan Starkovich, who was the project’s Lead Mechanical Engineer for Henderson, says it took the design team numerous iterations to achieve the intended result. Starkovich notes that overcoming the challenges of such a new system took collaboration between Henderson, HKS, and RWDI, a wind flow consultant who also worked on the project. The process of determining the correct design of this groundbreaking system involved determining both the stadium’s geometry and exact orientation as well as the different levels in which wind enters the structure. Throughout the design process of the canopy system, there were many questions that needed to be answered to make it a viable design. Among these questions were the opaqueness of the panels, which way the panels opened for ventilation, and how to best utilize the stadium’s location.
Mischa Haramia, who worked as the project manager for Henderson Engineers, says that one of the key ideas throughout the many different design iterations was maximizing the use of location by utilizing the constant cool breeze coming in from the Pacific Ocean. The difficulty of this process was compounded by the fact that, when moving around the outside of the stadium, the grade changes by up to three levels. To promote air movement through the stadium, fans are strategically placed based on the levels at which the wind enters. According to Haramia, this movement of air allows heat to move through the sta- dium and exit the structure vertically through the movable roof panels. This system both improves the experience for fans and protects key mechanical systems in the structure. While SoFi Stadium’s location is certainly beneficially in terms of pro - viding a constant cool breeze, the same location stands in stark contrast when seismic considerations are taken into account. The structural engineer, Walter P Moore, had to account for the extreme seismic en- vironment of Southern California, which led to the stadium being con- structed using what is known as a “seismic moat.” This means that the stadium’s underground structure is separated from the surrounding soil by an alternate wall system, thereby eliminating pressure from adjacent soil movement. While this structural system provides critical protec- tion from seismic activity, it also created challenges to venting exhaust air from the structure. The team wanted to maximize floor space and didn’t want to cut holes in the building’s exterior. As such, they opted to use the space between the building’s walls and the exterior wall of the seismic moat, using it as a plenum for exhaust air that is constantly pumped at two locations. There were additional challenges, according to Haramia, because, like the foundation structure itself, the canopy system moves independently during a seismic event. This required not only predicting how each individual system will react during a seismic
event, but also how these independent movements would affect the other systems. As spectators of Super Bowl LVI and others who have attended games at SoFi Stadium can attest to, it is a one-of-a-kind experience that re- flects the thought and ingenuity that went into its design and construc - tion. After hosting the Super Bowl this past February, SoFi Stadium will also host the College Football National Championship in 2023 as well as the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympic Games in 2028. The stadium will play host to not only the biggest events in the American sporting landscape, but also the world.
LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
March 2022 csengineermag.com
Offshore Wind By Matt Palmer
With America’s giant leap from a modest offshore wind power total of just 42MW, to a far more impressive target of 30,000MW (30GW) by 2030, it’s no surprise that this is an incredibly exciting and busy time for what is very much a rapid growth industry. We need good, talented people to meet this goal, so whether you are a young person keen to work in securing the global transition to clean energy, or a welder or engineer who wants to transfer your experience to a new industry, career opportunities are arriving thick and fast. We only have 7 turbines in the water at present, but with such fast and substantial investment, this truly booming new business sector cannot stop now. After personally spending just over two decades crawling up a very steep, obstacle-laden hill trying to make offshore wind happen, it is such a huge relief to finally be part of the revolution. We’ve come a long, long way since the anticipated 468MWCape Wind offshore wind farm, first proposed in 2001, that sadly, bit the dust in 2017. After years of painful legal disputes, having the plug pulled on it really hurt, but it has left a legacy of lessons learned that have helped pave the way for what we are about to see unfold in the next decade and beyond. Two major barriers prevailed during the Cape Wind era; a lack of un- derstanding by the public about how offshore wind would work and what it would look like; the second, very importantly, was the lack of political will. People feared visual impact, thinking that they’d see structures quite close to land. Some were told that if the wind wasn’t strong enough on certain days, then their TV sets would go off. To be fair to the public, although turbines were never going to be very close to the shoreline, technology keeps progressing, so we’re already at a stage where wind farms can now be a distant 15 miles or more offshore. In the face of some alarming evidence about the health of our planet, public opposition has very much diminished. We’ve now had a dramatic change at federal level, with a clear un- derstanding of the need for co-operation between government and the private sector, and the need for regulatory certainty. For the past several years, I’ve had the opportunity to work on America’s first commercial-scale offshore development, Vineyard Wind. This project is a major milestone for offshore wind in the U.S., and is the start of the steady drumbeat we now hear of projects making progress through the process. States from Maine down to South Carolina have embraced the change and led the charge. Further ahead there is also great potential in the Gulf of Mexico and on the west coast through floating (tethered) structures that will be required for the much greater water depths there. So, we finally have that better understanding and that all-important political will. And as I mentioned earlier, we need lots of good, talented people, who can learn from those experienced European engineers who
Wood Thilsted has been chosen to provide design foundations for more than 200 14+MW Siemens Gamesa turbines off the Suffolk coast in England.
Efficient design process is crucial - according to Wood Thilsted.
are already working here. We also need to get the supply chain fully in place. From that rather meager 42MW to the enormous growth curve of 30,000MW and beyond, we have a lot of work to do, and already, predictably, disappointingly, we have a few negative heads that have surfaced to tell us that it’s not achievable. Well, the news is that those of us who worked so hard for so long on Cape Wind never gave up and we’re certainly not going to stop now. We’re going to try like hell to hit that target and maybe even surpass it. Even if we ‘fall short’ by a few MW or GW, we won’t have failed because of the magnitude of what is set to be delivered, with huge benefits to the USA and the rest of the world. And the more we do it, and the better the technology and the workforce becomes, the more we can drive down costs. The scaling up since the early days of offshore wind is incredible. In 1991, the first offshore windfarm in Denmark had 35m diameter turbines on a 35m tower height, producing 0.45MW. Today we are dealing with turbines that have rotor-diameters of 220m or more on 140m high towers, generating a staggering 14 to 15 MW each. People
example, to build a monopile production facility at Sparrows Point, Baltimore, which is the former home of Bethlehem Steel. This new factory could later support developments all the way down the windy parts of the Eastern Seaboard. In addition, there are plans for a new monopile facility in New Jersey, as well as a major construction and staging location for offshore wind in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Next year, Dominion Energy is set to deliver the first Jones Act-compliant offshore wind turbine installation vessel, and Great Lakes Dock and Dredge is building a Jones Act scour protection installation vessel. The Jones Act (which was part of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920) is here to stay. It requires all goods shipped between American ports to be transported on ships that are built, owned, and operated by United States citizens, creating great job opportunities in our sector. There are certainly challenges ahead, but with political will behind us and a much deeper understanding of the huge benefits, there is no turn - ing back. We’ve demonstrated beyond doubt that offshore wind works, so we will be very much keeping the lights and the tv’s on. Technol- ogy for battery storage and high voltage direct-current transmission has moved on significantly. Taller structures will enable us to capture some of those very powerful winds at higher elevations. Seeing all this unfold after 20 years is extremely gratifying. With offshore wind, we can produce phenomenal amounts of clean energy. 2021 changed everything. And 2022 is already a wildly busy year for the offshore wind industry.
will be able to stand on the beach at Martha’s Vineyard, and as they look out way into the distance, see boats crewed by Americans, going out to service offshore wind farms. I hope they’ll realize that this is where their affordable clean energy comes from, and that we are now doing something quite incredible to protect our planet. Onlookers may even know some friends and family working in the highly successful offshore wind industry, because the job creation is going to be massive. With some 20 projects in various phases of development, including off the shores of New York and North Carolina, there are plans, for Secondary steel design for Japans first commercial windfarm has now been completed by Wood Thilsted.
MATT PALMER is President of leading offshore wind engineering consultancy, Wood Thilsted USA.
March 2022 csengineermag.com
Changing Practices and Mindset to Achieve Carbon Neutrality By Luke Carothers
While the AEC industry develops solutions to combat climate change, many governments are beginning to put policies into place that will facilitate future usage of these solutions. This is the case in the UK where the government has recently announced plans to be net carbon zero by the year 2050. Part of this plan includes imposing reforms on red diesel fuel usage, which accounts for nearly 15 percent of the UK’s diesel consumption and is responsible for 14 million tonnes of carbon dioxide annually. To achieve these goals, and, in many cases surpass them, professionals in the UK are looking to change not only the practices that are most responsible for carbon emissions, but also the mindset that facilitates future bad practices. According to James Maclean, CEO of Land &Water, the industry has a “massive change to go through” in the way infrastructure projects are delivered on behalf of the government in the UK. Based in the UK, Land &Water is a leading inland waterway and coastal and civil and environmental engineering company. Throughout the company’s 40-year history, Land & Water have repeatedly demonstrated the ability to find creative and effective solutions for complex challenges wherever land and water meet. One of the biggest changes in terms of practice is finding an efficient alternative for the gas-based fuel that powers much of the heavy ma- chinery. Red diesel, which is dyed red to distinguish it from regular diesel fuel, is used primarily to power work vehicles in the agriculture and construction industries. Switching from red diesel to alternative fuels such as HVO constitutes a massive shift in the current business practices. The use of red diesel is currently influenced by a tax rebate, but that is set to end in April 2022, making the price of the fuel double. Maclean and his team at Land & Water have been at the forefront of putting HVO to use. They are currently in the process of switching their fuel supply chain entirely away from gas to HVO. HVO, unlike many other alternative fuels, runs in standard diesel engines, giving the embodied carbon already invested in machine fleets a second life. Additionally, according to Maclean, his company has experienced a roughly 3 percent fuel savings by volume when using HVO instead of red diesel. This is due to HVO’s more linear carbon chain which al - lows it to burn more efficiently. The development and trialing of HVO has the potential to make the shift away from red diesel easier for the industry because it doesn’t have the same issues of filter blocking and reduced maintenance life. Maclean believes in the environmental mantra of leaving a place un- changed when you move on, and he also believes that this principle can be applied to infrastructure projects. When creating a piece of in- frastructure, Maclean emphasizes the necessity of also leaving behind a sequestering habitat. This places an importance on not only creating the piece of infrastructure, but also creating a habitat that is sustainable
afterwards and offsets the emissions from the project. This shift in the mindset of construction practices and planning is a big part of why Land & Water is leading the charge to cut carbon emissions in the UK. Part of this shift in mindset requires both planning and practice. Think- ing more strategically about how projects are delivered involves chal- lenging concepts such as design life against carbon life. For example, Maclean notes a project Land & Water completed with a government agency where they were building flood defenses. The project specifica - tions called for a significant amount of cement stabilization. Maclean and his team offered the client a much more sustainable solution that cost the same amount of money. They proposed to air dry the necessary materials and place them over the course of two summers. While this constituted a change in the project’s schedule, it ultimately saved 6,600 tonnes of carbon dioxide from being emitted during the construction process. This focus on sustainability rather than the prevailing mindset of getting a project done as fast as possible, according to Maclean, is key to achieving sustainability and emissions goals moving forward. Ultimately, the shift in mindset and practice needed to achieve these emissions goals must come from within the industry, and, as Maclean points out, many are starting to set goals ahead of the government. With many in the industry committing to carbon neutrality by the year 2030, this mindset seems to be beginning to gain traction. However, the reality of carbon neutrality is an industry-wide adoption of these new practices and mindsets, but that can only be achieved through further education and regulation.
LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at email@example.com.
Game Changing Venue Design Trends Modern venues have evolved to serve as multi-purpose year-round destinations By Bart Miller, PE
The design and construction of sports venues largely stalled in 2020 as the COVID-19 pandemic created massive uncertainty amongst professional franchises, venue developers, and local governments. For perhaps the first time, the ability of sports venues to host large crowds safely and the reliability of event-related revenue was in question. The market has rebounded in the past year based primarily on increased demand and heightened expectations for live events and entertainment intensified by the pandemic. In addition, ballooning media rights deals in professional and collegiate sports, new investment from private developers taking advantage of a favorable financing environment and the proven success of multi-purpose venues in creating new and diverse revenue streams have experts predicting a building boom over the next few years. Multi-purpose Venues and Mixed-use Developments This coming wave of new sports venues will likely continue pre- pandemic trends, which included strategies to maximize revenue both inside and outside the venue walls. The primary goal of many new projects is to deliver a truly multi-purpose venue capable of anchor- ing a mixed-use development or entertainment district to draw crowds before and after events. Venues are being designed strategically to complement and sustain surrounding entertainment, retail, hotel, and office space by attracting a wide variety of events, a diverse array of fans and customers, and maximizing the number of event dates. For example, SoFi Stadium in Inglewood, California, anchors the 298-acre Hollywood Park. The stadium is home to two National Foot- ball League teams—the Chargers and the Rams. The area currently includes five acres of green space and the 6,000-seat YouTube Theater. In time, a 300-room hotel, nearly 5 million square feet of office space, 890,000 square feet of retail and restaurants, and 2,500 residences will be constructed. With the increased emphasis on concerts and other touring acts in par- ticular, every new venue must be purposefully designed to attract and ac- commodate top performers and massive crowds, not just on game days, but throughout the year and across a wide range of events and attractions. Developers and entertainment agencies are leading many of these projects during design and construction, driving new business to the venues once complete. Texas Live! in Arlington, Texas, is an entertainment district that in- cludes a wide array of restaurants as well as mixed-use residential, and hotel accommodations that cater to a broad assortment of game day
experiences. Situated between AT&T Stadium, Globe Life Field, and Choctaw Stadium (previously known as Globe Life Park), Texas Live! is open year-round and includes over 200,000 square feet of space as well as a 5,000-seat outdoor event pavilion. Designing for Concerts Sports facilities must be designed with the fan experience in mind, but multi-purpose venues must be conceived with a speci c focus on the experience of the performers, convenient access for stage crews, and on proportioning the seating bowl to maximize and enhance end-stage performance viewing. The new 10,000-seat Acrisure Arena, a multi-purpose sports and en- tertainment venue in Palm Desert, California, is a game-changer for entertainment in the region. More than just the future home of the Coachella Valley Firebirds of the American Hockey League, the arena has been conceived as both a concert venue and a rehearsal facility for world-class acts prior to national tours, and boasts the rigging capacity, talent accommodations and loading dock access to attract premier live music performances as well as host multiple athletic events. The 270-degree seating bowl with retractable seating at the stage end is designed strategically to maximize the number of seats for stage end shows and minimize obstructed view seats commonly located behind the stage. Rather than a center-hung scoreboard, the venue also features a massive video board at the stage end to eliminate any interruptions to the continuous and highly flexible 200,000 lbs. capacity rigging grid. High-performing, high-capacity rigging grids that provide additional rigging locations and better access, support a wide variety of loading con gurations, and enable a show to be loaded and unloaded quickly are critical to ensuring that a venue can transition smoothly from one event to the next. Because concerts are becoming more immersive and dynamic, arena roof structures are being tested with each new tour due to heavier and more numerous structural loads, often loads that move, and are distrib- uted over much larger areas than ever before. Designers of long-span roofs can no longer simply plan for a one-size- ts-all, distributed show rigging allowance. Instead, they must consider a myriad of theatrical
March 2022 csengineermag.com
Photo: Kelly Gavin / Texas Rangers
lighting and sound requirements, current and future trends in rigging methods and preferences, and the importance of rapid transitions be- tween successive events. Venues that opened as recently as 10 to 15 years ago were often con - ceived with designated rigging grids concentrated over the center and end stages only, with capacities of 100,000 to 120,000 lbs. Those grids are now proving inadequate, as today’s heaviest arena shows—includ- ing Kanye West, Drake, and Game of Thrones—can exceed 250,000 lbs. with loads distributed widely across the entire venue roof structure. Many venues are now looking to increase their rigging grid capacity and coverage through detailed structural analysis, the addition of rig- ging beams, and—if necessary—strengthening of their primary roof structures. In planning a new facility, owners should consider propor- tioning their rigging grid to extend across the entire event floor, be configured for optimum speed and accessibility, and provide far more capacity than they think they’ll need. The construction costs associated with additional capacity and coverage are nominal, making it much wiser to build it now than to retrofit later. Distinct Bowl Design Multi-purpose venues must also be strategically planned and propor- tioned for a variety of uses, with a focus on alternative or uncon- ventional seating bowl configurations, premium amenities that reflect local demand and target demographics, and the flexibility to accom - modate future modifications that reflect changing fan preferences. Often this means new venues that are smaller in terms of capacity, but much more diverse in the types of premium and ancillary spaces surrounding the action. Seating bowl structures and concourses, for example, must be designed with the understanding that any section at any level may be converted in the future to something entirely new. Globe Life Field in Arlington, Texas, which opened in 2020, is a 40,000-seat Major League Baseball Park and home to the Texas Rang- ers. The seven-tier seating bowl provides distinctive front row experi- ences for each respective tier.
Photo: © Richard Ebbers, Design by Gensler in partnership with RINKA
The first row of the seating bowl at the field level is seven feet closer to the field, the second tier is 14 feet closer, and the upper bowl seating tier is 23 feet closer compared to the Rangers’ old ballpark. In order to keep fans in the seating bowl comfortable, a retractable ethylene tetrafluoroethylene roof provides a climate-controlled ballpark during inclement weather but also the ability for an open-air atmosphere dur- ing pleasant weather. The Next Generation For the next generation of fans, the ultimate game day experience is about social connection, and the challenge for sports franchises and venue designers is to constantly reinvent that experience and provide a connection to the event that cannot be matched at home. Opened in 2018, Fiserv Forum, home of the National Basketball As- sociation’s Milwaukee Bucks is a prime example of the enhanced gameday experience—even when the team is not playing at their iconic home. During the 2021 NBA Finals, the 30-acre Deer District which surrounds Fiserv Forum, was the epicenter for away-game viewing parties for Bucks fans. Attendance in the Deer District peaked when on July 20, 2021, nearly 65,000 people gathered to watch the Bucks win the NBA Championship—generating close to $6 million in revenue for Deer District businesses on a single day and over $70 million total during the Bucks’ 2021 playoff season. The trend to create unique and authentic experiences will only continue as venues conceive new strategies for attracting fans and accommo- dating a wider variety of events. Perhaps the greatest challenge for designers over the next several years is to find that balance between flexibility and authenticity—between conceiving a facility that can easily accommodate any event, but also provide a custom-designed, event-specific all-day experience for every fan that is centered around entertainment and mixed-use development.
BART MILLER is the National Sports Market Leader and a senior principal at Walter P Moore. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Create a Great Sports Environment with Improved IAQ By Chris Marasco
Sports season is in full swing for those who enjoy watching winter sports like basketball and volleyball. For those hoping to attend tourna- ments, no matter how big or small, health concerns have increased over the past few months. The Omicron variant of COVID-19 has returned the pandemic to the lead of many news cycles. Not to mention we are also well into cold and flu season. Due to the nature of many winter sports, the risk of passing airborne illnesses is higher than that of outdoor events. With players, families, and other fans crowding into interior spaces, indoor air quality should be the primary focus of facility managers across the nation. In the HVAC industry, great IAQ is defined as air with limited to no harmful particulates while also being comfortable for people to breathe. Modern mechanical HVAC units offer the best solution to provide the necessary IAQ for sporting events this winter. This equipment has the solutions to create an atmosphere where occupants are both safer and comfortable with the air quality. For some older HVAC units, there are upgrades available to enhance and improve facility IAQ. For facility and building managers, there are four areas to emphasize when it comes to improving IAQ: filtration, controlled ventilation, dehumidification, and maintenance. Each of these plays a pivotal role in determining IAQ. The Importance of Ventilation When it comes to ventilation, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that adequate ventilation is an important tool in limiting the transmission of patho- gens. This is extremely important when discussing sporting events tak- ing place indoors. To address the need for ventilation, proper HVAC systems give the facility manager the ability to control the ventilation rate at which outside air is brought in. There is a general rule of thumb that the air outdoors is fresher than indoor air because it is constantly circulating. We’ve all heard the idiom, “go outside to get a breath of fresh air,” and that statement still holds true in many areas. Facility managers should emphasize proper ventilation during indoor events to keep clean air circulating within the space. Setting ventilation rates to ensure clean air is introduced into a space while old, contaminated air is pushed out will go a long way in improving IAQ. Filtering Out Harmful Pathogens Another important step to improving IAQ is filtration. With people at - tending indoor sporting events, it is paramount that HVAC units filter out
as many particulates as possible to help prevent the spread of harmful pathogens. Before the pandemic took the world by storm, the Ameri- can Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) recommended MERV 8 or MERV 10 filters. With a more concentrated look at IAQ, the organization increased their recommenda - tion to MERV 13, which means the filters can remove 90 percent of particles between 1-10 microns in size. If your HVAC unit is compatible, it is recommended you consider using ASHRAE’s recommendation. A second instrument that can be utilized to improve HVAC filtration efforts is Ultraviolet (UV) lights. For many years, UV lights have been used in hospitals and sterile work environments as UV-C has been shown to inactivate viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Controlling the Humidity Humidity levels are another key factor in air quality indoors. If present- ing a comfortable environment is a goal, then it’s important to focus on humidity levels. Proper humidity levels can increase comfort while also limiting the amount of pathogen growth. Over the years, mechani- cal HVAC equipment has been developed to handle latent loads associ - ated with outdoor air. That is a vital step when it comes to replacing the air inside with fresh outdoor air. The sweet spot for relative humidity is between 40 percent and 60 percent. If levels go above the 60 percent threshold, the air inside a space can be sticky or muggy, which would be unpleasant for players and the crowd. In that range, mold, mildew, and organic growth would become a concern due to the moisture in the air. The potential for creat- ing harmful situations for occupants is increased when organic growth begins to form. On the opposite end of the spectrum, air can begin feel- ing dry if levels fall below 40 percent. To keep occupants comfortable and prevent organic growth, facility managers should maintain relative humidity between 40-60 percent. Maintenance No matter if you install all the necessary upgrades to make your HVAC unit the perfect IAQ system, none of it matters if the unit isn’t main - tained properly. Scheduled maintenance of the HVAC equipment will increase longevity, create optimal performance, and reduce the chances of failure. In addition, it can also maintain the warranty on the unit
March 2022 csengineermag.com
in the event a breakdown does occur. With mechanical HVAC units providing the best solution for improved IAQ, facility managers need
sporting events. If providing the best environment for both the teams and the fans is your goal, then making the necessary upgrades to your HVAC units should be priority number one.
to ensure the unit is properly maintained. Creating a Comfortable Environment
Everyone should have the opportunity to enjoy an indoor sporting event this winter, but the growing concerns about the Omicron variant and the seasonal flu can put a damper on those opportunities. That is why it is paramount for facility managers to emphasize proper or improved IAQ using controlled ventilation, dehumidification, and filtration. IAQ has a direct impact on health, comfort, and the overall experience of
CHRIS MARASCO is the product manager at Modine Manufacturing Company. Having been with the company for over six years, he once served as its application engineer. Modine specializes in thermal management systems and components, bringing highly engineered heating and cooling components, original equipment products, and systems to diversified global markets through its four complementary segments: CIS; BHVAC; HDE; and Automotive.
Compared with global markets, much of the development of sports stadiums in the Middle East and Africa was traditionally funded us- ing smaller, private-sector interests. However, this began to change in the early- to mid- 2000s when Middle Eastern and African countries began being selected to host larger international competitions. While the average venue size for the regions hover around 30,000 spectators, the stadiums being constructed to meet the needs of a changing market are capable of hosting 75,000 spectators, and that number is growing every year. This means that larger and larger projects are taking place in these regions. These projects are also not limited to simply stadium construction and redesign, but also encompass the infrastructure neces- sary to host large international events. For example, Qatar was selected to host the 2006 Asian Games as well as the upcoming 2022 FIFA World Cup, international soccer’s most prestigious tournament. Qatar had to erect a considerable amount of sporting infrastructure to host the 2006 Asian Games including a massive redevelopment of the Khalifa International Stadium. This redevelopment included doubling the stadium’s capacity to 40,000 and adding both a roof and an arch on the eastern side. Beyond hosting the Asian Games in 2006, the redevelopment of Khalifa Stadium has also made it a prime location to host other international competitions such as the 2011 Pan Arab Games, the 2019 World Athletics Championship, and the 2019 FIFA Club World Cup. This project also featured the A Hotbed for International Competition: Stadium Construction in the Middle East and Africa
Photos: ©Hill International
construction of the athletes’ village for the Asian Games as well as its subsequent renovations for other international competitions.
One of the biggest risks in investing in such large scale stadium projects is uneven cash flow associated with the semi-regular or sporadic usage that comes with hosting these events. Some stadiums are used by local professional clubs throughout the year, but, in other cases, these stadi- ums would host a singular event or a handful of events per year. As a buffer, stadiums are often designed to be multi-use facilities. In Dubai, the Sevens Stadium was constructed in 2008 with a capacity of 44,000 spectators. Since its completion, this stadium hosts an annual stop on the international HSBC Rugby 7s World Series as well as soccer events. While the stadium itself was purpose-built to host this rugby event and boasts eight pitches, it also features other sporting surfaces such as mul- tiple cricket pitches and basketball courts. This allows the stadium to expand its hosting capacity and increase off-season revenue. However, several countries are also aiming their sights even higher, looking to gain international prestige through the ultimate interna- tional athletic competition. As such, Egypt recently announced its bid to host the 2036 Olympics, which would make it the first African nation to host the games. Currently in the process of formalizing and submitting their bid to host the games, Egypt has revealed plans to build a multimillion dollar sports complex in the new administra- tive capital called the Egypt International Olympic City. According to Waleed Abdel-Fattah, Managing Director at Hill International (Africa), much of the infrastructure needed to support the games is already in place through roads and housing. This means that the recent announcement of the Egypt International Olympic City could represent a key final step in Egypt’s bid to host the games. Ogaily and Abdel-Fattah also note that, due to challenges stemming from the Covid-19 pandemic, there has been an increased need to support and facilitate the online submission of documents and thus a significant investment in new IT infrastructure. The result of hosting such large, international sporting competitions is that it introduced the public sector into the region’s sporting venue industry. Ultimately, capital is the biggest factor when it comes to cre - ating stadiums large enough to host not only local fans, but also specta- tors from around the world. According to Akram Ogaily, Executive Consultant for Hill International (Middle East) and Abdel-Fattah, the development of these larger sports venues is dissimilar to the develop- ment of similar projects in other parts of the world. Particularly in the Middle East, amongst the Gulf States, the development plans for these venues are not limited in terms of cost, with the primary goal being to create a prestige facility that “reflect the status and image of the [country].” This also means that, whereas the construction of similar projects in other parts are done in multiple stages over the course of a few years, these projects are usually completed in whole, such as the Asian Games Village Project. Additionally, new building technologies and better materials have led to not only bigger and more visually impressive stadiums, but also better functioning and more comfortable for spectators. BIM is be- ing used extensively during the design and construction phases, which facilitates coordination between the engineering systems that are used
Photo: ©Hill International
by both design consultants and contractors. In terms of systems de- signed to make spectators more comfortable and provide protection from the Sun, many new stadiums in the Middle East are utilizing new air conditioning systems and new movable roofing systems. In Qatar, Al Bayt Stadium recently added a retractable roof ahead of the 2022 FIFAWorld Cup. With a continual increase in the size and scope of venue projects in the Middle East and Africa, there has also been a similarly increasing focus on the infrastructure that supports them. Hosting large interna- tional sporting events comes with a massive influx of visitors, most of whom are short-term visitors who are not familiar with the area. This means that the infrastructure that supports these venues must be easily-accessible for both the local and visiting populations who are working and attending the event. In the view of Ogaily and Abdel- Fattah, the design and construction of this surrounding infrastructure and landscape facilities should be considered equal to the design and construction of the stadium itself, especially when larger projects are being considered. By providing sufficient parking for cars as well as access to public transportation, these projects are not only safer and more accessible, but also consider the best possible urban land uses. Much has changed in the landscape of sporting and venue design dur- ing the last three decades in the Middle East. Whether it’s soccer, ten- nis, racing, rugby, or cricket, more and more international competitions are taking place. All eyes will be on the Middle East this Fall as Qatar hosts the FIFAWorld Cup. At the same time, Egypt will be finalizing its bid to host the 2036 Olympics, hoping to learn and grow from the lessons that are learned from Qatar’s 2022 FIFAWorld Cup and other similar projects throughout the two regions. In time, proper design and maintenance of the facilities being constructed now will afford a steadier revenue stream and provide a centerpiece for future growth and investment.
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