2022-04-01 CoHE R V1

GWO Control of Hazardous Energy (CoHE) Refresher Training

Publication date: April 4, 2022

GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard V1

1 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................... 3 2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS................................................................................................. 4 3 COHE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES............................................................................... 8 3.1 Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module .................................................................................................. 8 3.2 Electrical Safety Refresher Module ...................................................................................................... 9 3.3 Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module .............................................................................................. 9 4 REFERENCE LIST.............................................................................................................. 10 5 GENERAL REQUIREMENT TO GWO COHE REFRESHER TRAINING STANDARD ............. 11 5.1 Overview............................................................................................................................................ 11 5.2 Target groups .................................................................................................................................... 11 5.3 Aims and objectives........................................................................................................................... 12 5.4 Duration of GWO CoHE refresher modules....................................................................................... 12 5.5 Validity period.................................................................................................................................... 12 5.6 Course codes ..................................................................................................................................... 13 5.7 Participant prerequisites for the GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard ....................................... 13 5.8 Physical demands .............................................................................................................................. 14 5.9 Design of the activities in the CoHE Refresher Standard................................................................... 14 5.10 Recommended media for the CoHE refresher modules .................................................................... 16 6 GENERAL RESOURCES REQUIRED TO DELIVER GWO COHE REFRESHER MODULES..... 18 6.1 Instructor/Participant Ratio ................................................................................................................ 18 6.2 Training facilities ................................................................................................................................ 18 6.3 Training Staff...................................................................................................................................... 18 6.4 Equipment ......................................................................................................................................... 18 7 UNDERSTANDING GWO LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND TAXONOMY ............................. 19 7.1 Learning objectives ............................................................................................................................ 19 7.2 Learning activities .............................................................................................................................. 19 7.3 Participants Assessment and evaluation ............................................................................................ 20 7.4 The GWO Taxonomy Framework ...................................................................................................... 21 8 MODULE 1 -BASIC SAFETY COHE REFRESHER................................................................ 24 8.1 Aims and objectives of the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module..................................................... 24 8.2 Duration of the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module ....................................................................... 24 8.3 Instructor to Participant Ratio ............................................................................................................ 24 8.4 Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module Timetable ............................................................................... 25 8.5 Detailed description of the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module..................................................... 25 Introduction to the training........................................................................................ 25 Hazardous Energy assessment and learning activities .............................................. 28 Training review........................................................................................................... 29 9 MODULE 2 -ELECTRICAL SAFETY REFRESHER ............................................................... 32 9.1 Aims and objectives of the Electrical Safety Refresher Module ......................................................... 32 9.2 Duration of the Electrical Safety Refresher Module ........................................................................... 32 9.3 Electrical Safety Refresher Module - Instructor to Participant Ratio................................................... 33 9.4 Equipment for Electrical Safety Refresher Module ............................................................................ 33 9.5 Electrical Safety Refresher Module Timetable ................................................................................... 33 9.6 Detailed description of the Electrical Safety Refresher Module......................................................... 34 Introduction................................................................................................................ 34 Lesson 2 - Hazardous electrical safety assessment and learning activities ................................. 37

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Training review........................................................................................................... 39 10 MODULE 3 – PRESSURE FLUID SAFETY REFRESHER .................................................... 41 10.1 Aims and objectives of the Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module ................................................. 41 10.2 Duration of the Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module ................................................................... 41 10.3 Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module - Instructor to Participant Ratio ........................................... 42 10.4 Equipment for Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module..................................................................... 42 10.5 Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module Timetable ........................................................................... 42 10.6 Detailed description of the Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module................................................. 43 Introducton ................................................................................................................ 43 Hazardous pressure fluid assessment and learning activities .................................... 46 Training Review.......................................................................................................... 47 EQUIPMENT LIST .................................................................................................. 50 TEMPLATE DESCRIPTION FOR A PERMIT TO WORK ............................................ 54

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1 L IST OF A BBREVIATIONS

CoHE GWO

Control of hazardous energy

Global Wind Organisation

PPE

Personal protective equipment

WTG

Wind turbine generator

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2 T ERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Term

Definition

Hazardous Energy

Any energy (electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, gravitational force…) that could cause injuries to personnel. Any task performed on an electrical installation that requires specific electrical knowledge to be performed safely and correctly. Examples: Install components, alter a circuit, take electrical measurements, replace a component, create an electrically safe work condition. Qualified Electrical Person with specific training in the job and experience in high voltage. Work Instruction approved by the company responsible for the work described, according to its internal processes. Normally done with its corresponding Risk Assessment that will include the control measures for all risks identified. Before starting each job, the employee in charge of the job must conduct a job briefing with the employees involved. The briefing

Electrical work (definition and examples)

The qualification requirements for working on High Voltage systems

Approved work instruction

Pre-task or job briefing (toolbox talk)

must cover such subjects as: - hazards related to the job - work procedures involved - special precautions - energy source controls - personal protective equipment requirements

Establishing an electrically safe work condition (when and how to establish.)

When? Whenever someone is required to enter the Limited Approach Boundary to do other tasks different than ‘visual inspection’ and whenever someone needs to enter the Restricted Approach Boundary for other tasks different from ‘switching’ or ‘measuring’ How? 1. Determine all possible sources of electrical supply to the specific equipment. Check applicable up-to-date drawings, diagrams, and identification tags. 2. After properly interrupting the load current, open the disconnecting device(s) for each source. 3. Wherever possible, visually verify that all contact points of the disconnecting devices are fully open, or that draw-out type circuit breakers are withdrawn to the fully disconnected position. 4. To mitigate for activation spring failure in circuit breakers equipped with spring activation, the spring must be released prior to opening the breaker or prior to using the breaker as the isolation point. 5. Where the possibility of stored electrical energy exists, this

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must be isolated or insulated. Where this is not possible the energy must be dissipated by using an approved tool rated and designed for the purpose. 6. Verify absence of voltage to verify that the circuit parts are de- energised. 7. For low voltage circuits with the possibility of induced voltage, apply short-circuiting earth connections rated for the fault current. 8. Apply lockout/tagout devices in accordance with the local legislation and specific company procedure and rules. Depending on the configuration of the circuit it may be necessary to perform this step prior to steps five to seven. Electrical components or parts capable of being inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person that is by not being enclosed or insulated (e.g. IP0X, IP1X) Limited Approach Boundary Is the closest distance that an Ordinary Electrical Person can approach exposed energised conductors without escort. An Ordinary Electrical Person may be escorted within the Limited Approach Boundary by a Qualified Electrical Person but may never enter the Restricted Approach Boundary. All persons in the Limited Approach Boundary must wear the minimum PPE for electrical work. All tools that enter the Limited Approach Boundary must be insulated for the equipment’s voltage. Restricted Approach Boundary The Restricted Approach Boundary may only be entered by a Qualified Electrical Person. All parts of the Qualified Electrical Person that enter the Restricted Approach Boundary must be insulated from the equipment’s voltage. An Energised Electrical Work Permit is required to enter the Restricted Approach Boundary, unless performing switching or taking measurements.

Exposed electrical parts

Approach boundaries

Minimum arc flash PPE

Minimum: - Safety glasses

- Non-melting clothing (including underwear) with long sleeves and long pants (small parts of melting materials are acceptable but should be reduced to the minimum possible, ideally eliminated, for example elasticated waistbands) - Safety shoes with non-melting materials (acceptable exceptions are the sole and shoelaces)

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The requirements for tools to be used for testing for the absence of voltage

Have limited functionality and be with fixed test leads or be multi-meters with an audible alert function to warn the user in the event the meter function selector and test leads positions are not compatible. Test probes must be selected to match the physical requirements of the test point and be in accordance with local electrical regulatory requirements. Non-contact voltage detectors are for use only with non-contact voltage portals or for double checking that the lockout boundary is in electrically safe work condition. Non-contact voltage detectors are not allowed for test-before- touch verification. Mandatory when performing energised work (in extraordinary circumstances under an approved special permit) that requires using the tools inside the Limited Approach Boundary or Restricted Approach boundary. a. Always visually inspect the batteries and capacitors before starting work; look for signs of distress and leakage. b. Take precautions to guard battery terminals against short circuiting by covering the terminals with insulating tape or insulating mats. c. Ensure all batteries and capacitors are correctly and securely mounted. d. Ensure the batteries and capacitors are wired with the correct polarity as per the wiring diagrams and that all terminals are tight. e. Defective batteries and capacitors must be disposed of in accordance with local legislation. F. Insulated tools approved for the rated voltage must be used when working around live, exposed conductors Compressible (e.g., nitrogen) and non-compressible (e.g., hydraulics) fluids under pressure. An isolation device shall ensure a reliable disconnection or separation from an energy source.

When to use insulated (voltage- rated), approved tools?

Safe handling of batteries and capacitors

Pressure fluids

Isolation point

Test point

Point used to measure energy.

Live known source

Energy source where you know the level of energy (e.g., as part of a circuit, socket, or a hydraulic check/test point). A work instruction approved by a specific company according to their procedures. Equipment that is suspected to be damaged and must be treated with more caution than equipment in its normal condition.

Approved work instruction

Deranged equipment

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Worked example

A worked example is a step-by-step demonstration of how to perform a task or how to solve a problem.

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3 C O HE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1 Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

Note: The following roles are for general reference and are not fully aligned with any standard or safe system of work. These definitions were made for the sake of creating this global training standard based on the common ground of different recognised standards.

Responsibilities (limitations to what can and cannot be) A person who has demonstrated skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of equipment and installations specific to their work and has received safety training to identify the hazards and reduce the associated risk. Examples of responsibilities: performing isolations and testing, creating a safe work condition for others to work under, lead and supervise work parties. A person who is not a Qualified Person and does not have any responsibilities, given that this person generally needs control, instruction, and supervision to carry out assigned working activities Additionally, a person who can be instructed to apply their personal lockout equipment in accordance with a company specific Lockout-Tagout programme, procedures, and rules. A person designated to be in charge of a particular lockout. Examples of responsibilities: • For the Lockout-Tagout in the place of work • To ensure everyone working under the lockout applied follow the particular rules. • For the use of group locks, personal locks and other Lockout-Tagout equipment.

Role

Qualified Person

Ordinary Person / Unqualified Person

(Safe isolation) Authorised Person (role and responsibilities)

This role has been trained in establishing a safe work condition through the application of Lockout-Tagout practices including:

• Isolating the equipment or system • Attach all locking devices and tags

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3.2 Electrical Safety Refresher Module

Responsibilities (limitations to what can and cannot be done)

Role

Qualified Electrical Person

Performs electrical work. Needs to have been trained or instructed on the task and the equipment. Examples of responsibilities: • Switch off, switch on, test absence of voltage, replace a

component, establish an electrical lockout. • Lead and supervise electrical tasks e.g.:

o Performing a pre-task briefing prior to work on electrical systems. o Acting as a supervisor for Ordinary Persons working on or in the vicinity of electrical systems.

3.3 Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module

Responsibilities (limitations to what can and cannot not be done)

Role

Qualified Pressure Fluids Person

Perform pressure fluids tasks. Needs to have been trained or instructed on the task and the equipment. Examples of the responsibilities of a Qualified Pressure Fluids Person are: • Performing isolations and testing for the absence of pressure in accordance with existing documentation to be able to safely carry out specific tasks like component replacement. • Creating a safe work condition that enable other workers to work safely on pressure fluid systems. • Lead and supervise pressure fluids tasks e.g.: o Performing a pre-task briefing prior to work on pressure fluid systems o Acting as a supervisor for Ordinary Persons working on or in the vicinity of pressure fluid systems.

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4 R EFERENCE LIST

This reference list are the references of relevant standards and norms that were used to create the GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard:

• EN 50110 - Operation of Electrical Installations • NFPA 70E - Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace • WTSR - Wind Turbine Safety Rules

Note: Please use the terms and definitions from the GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard instead of the terms and definitions used in the referenced standards and norms above. The terms and definitions in the GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard were made for the sake of creating this global training standard based on the common ground of different recognised standards. Participants could end up working under any variety of safe system of work, so the language and terminology have been chosen to be as applicable as possible across the most common systems of work.

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5 G ENERAL R EQUIREMENT TO GWO C O HE R EFRESHER T RAINING S TANDARD

5.1 Overview

The GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard is divided into the following three modules:

Basic Safety CoHE refresher

Electrical Safety refresher

Pressure Fluid Safety refresher

5.2 Target groups

Target Group for the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module This module is targeted at candidates working in the wind industry where they are exposed to the risk of injury related to hazardous energies. Target Group for the Electrical Safety Refresher Module This module is targeted at candidates whose scope of work will involve performing isolations and testing for the absence of voltage (in accordance with existing documentation) to be able to safely carry out specific tasks like component replacement, servicing and planned corrective maintenance on low voltage 1 electrical systems. Additionally, this person will also be responsible for establishing an electrically safe work condition, as e.g. a Qualified Electrical Person (NFPA 70E), Electrical Skilled Person (EN50110), Authorised Technician (WTSR), to enable others to work safely on low voltage electrical systems. Note: The GWO Electrical Safety Refresher Module and Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module are aimed towards improving the candidates´ ability to “work safely” with electricity and fluids under pressure. This means that the two modules are not aimed at improving candidates´ technical knowledge, skills and abilities regarding electricity or pressure fluid systems. Candidates should already possess these technical knowledge, skills, and abilities before attending the modules. Similarly, it is not the intention of the GWO CoHE standard (or these the two modules) to promote the acquisition of advanced knowledge, such as troubleshooting. Target Group for the Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module This module is targeted at candidates whose scope of work will involve performing isolations and testing for the absence of pressure (in accordance with existing documentation) to be able to safely carry out specific tasks like component replacement, servicing and planned corrective

1 Low voltage as defined and classified by the local legislation

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maintenance on pressure fluid systems. Additionally, this person will also be responsible for establishing a safe work condition to enable others to work safely on pressure fluid systems.

Note: Candidates, who already possess the intended knowledge, skills, and abilities of the GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard can apply for merit using the GWO merit process.

5.3 Aims and objectives The GWO CoHE Refresher Standard will enable participants to manage the risks related to hazardous energies in the wind industry and act safely when in the vicinity of hazardous energies or when working on systems and equipment containing hazardous energies. 5.4 Duration of GWO CoHE refresher modules The approximate total contact time for completing the stand-alone modules in this CoHE refresher training standard is estimated to be 7 hours 30 minutes. This is based on the time estimates given in the module timetables and summarised in table 5-6 below. However, the contact and total training time will vary for each individual participant based on their ability level and the suggested design of learning activities in the CoHE refresher modules. Durations stated in the table below are meant as guidance for anyone delivering the training. Variations between individual module duration are to be expected and acceptable to enable each participant to achieve the aims and learning objectives of the CoHE refresher modules If the Electrical Safety and Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Modules are delivered as part of a combined training, the common elements of introduction and evaluation may be combined, reducing the total contact time.

Modules

Approximate Duration

Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

1 hour 10 minutes

Electrical Safety Refresher Module

4 hours

Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module

2 hours 20 minutes

Table 5-4 - Duration of the GWO CoHE Modules

Maximum Duration Per Day

Contact time

8 hours

Total training day

10 hours

Table 5-4.1 - Maximum durations for training days

5.5 Validity period The CoHE training refresher modules are valid for the period stated in the table below. Certificates and training records shall be renewed before the end of a given validity period. A

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certificate or training record can be renewed up to two months prior to expiry and maintain the original certification date by uploading the previous certificate’s valid until date in WINDA. If a certificate or training record is renewed outside of two months of expiry, it must carry the new date of certification. The validity period is automatically calculated in WINDA by entering the course completion date.

Course/Modules

Certificate Validity (Months)

Basic Safety CoHE Refresher

24

Electrical Safety for Qualified Person Refresher

24

Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher

24

Table 5-5 - GWO CoHE Certificate validity periods.

5.6 Course codes

Module

Course Code

Basic Safety CoHE Refresher

BaSC-R

Electrical Safety Refresher

ES-R

Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher

PFS-R

Table 5-6 - GWO CoHE Refresher Module course codes

5.7 Participant prerequisites for the GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard

Medical fitness All personnel participating in the GWO CoHE training modules shall be medically fit and capable of fully participating. Specifically, the participants must be made aware of the risks and hazards related to completing the specific CoHE modules. Training providers shall have a procedure that requires participants to sign a statement stating that they are medically fit to participate in the training modules and that they do not suffer from any medical illness that will prevent them from fully participating in the training modules or subject them to hazard or risk or are under the influence of any impeding substances like narcotics or alcohol. Participants’ signatures testifying to their medical fitness shall be collected prior to the start of the GWO CoHE refresher modules. Training and experience prerequisites The participants shall possess valid CoHE certificates or training records in WINDA for the relevant refresher modules prior to attending the CoHE refresher trainings. There are additional prerequisites to attend the Electrical Safety and Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Modules.

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The participants must have completed the Basic Safety CoHE and the BTT Electrical Module before attending the Electrical Safety Refresher Module. Also, it is strongly recommended that before attending the Electrical Safety Refresher Module, participants have some applicable working experience with electricity supervised by a Qualified Person. Similarly, the participants must have completed the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module and the BTT Hydraulic module before attending the Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module. Also, it is strongly recommended that before attending the Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module, participants have some applicable working experience with pressure fluids supervised by a Qualified Person. 5.8 Physical demands The GWO CoHE Refresher modules do not have any specific expected physical demands. However, if there is any doubt regarding the medical fitness of any participant, the training provider shall stop training the participant, and seek a physician’s advice. Note: Practical exercises shall be designed and delivered solely to meet this standard, and shall not place any physical or mental demands on the participants other than those required to meet this standard 5.9 Design of the activities in the CoHE Refresher Standard After the introduction in all three modules, the suggested design of the activities in the CoHE Refresher Standard is to start each of the three modules with challenging, realistic assessment activities for the participants i.e. most likely scenarios that require the participants to make the same decisions and take the same actions as the participants would need to do on the job and to meet the learning objectives. This will allow the instructor to assess each participants ability to meet key learning objectives from the original CoHE Training Standard such as establishing a safe working condition in multiple pressure fluid situations or scenarios from a WTG environment (e.g. “show me how to establish a safe working condition here” in simple to very difficult scenarios) By assessing each individual participant ability level, it will be possible for the instructor to provide additional focused and specific learning activities for the participants, who show a gap between their abilities and the desired learning objectives of the CoHE Refresher Standard. These focused and specific learning activities are meant to improve these participants´ performance and should be facilitated for the participants until they have closed this gap and have reached the learning objectives of the CoHE Refresher Standard. Examples of the learning activities could be worked examples demonstrated by the instructor followed by guided and independent practice activities with feedback for the participants. Participants, who in the assessment activities demonstrate and are assessed by the instructor to have achieved the learning objectives of the CoHE refresher standard, can complete the training at this point i.e., are not required to spend any more time or receive any additional specific training unless the participants are interested in learning more. This means that all participants will be enabled to reach all the learning objectives according to their individual ability level while ensuring that already fully capable participants spend the

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minimum amount of time engaging in training in what they can already do. In addition, through this design, the refresher trainings will focus more on application as opposed to just information which makes the training more active and less passive for the participants.

The flow of assessment activities could look like this:

23

Suggested steps before the refresher training: 1. Create challenging, realistic assessment activities that are increasingly challenging for the participants e.g. scenarios. The activities should ask participants to make the required decisions and take the required actions that they need to make to reach the learning objectives. a. Within each assessment activity, it would be beneficial for the participants to have the possibility of failing (catastrophically) and be sent back to the start of that activity to try again. This allows reinforcement and practice until the participants can reach the learning objectives. 2. Identify the minimum information that participants need to know to complete those activities.

2 Donald Clark, 2021 3 Cathy Moore, 2017

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3. Make that information available as an optional link or resource in the activities. Let people pull the information when they need it. 4. Prepare specific, focused learning activities such as worked examples and more practice opportunities in the case that a participant shows a gap between the abilities and the desired learning objectives of the CoHE Refresher Standard. During CoHE Refresher Modules training: 1. Facilitate the created challenging, realistic assessment activities for the participants e.g. scenarios:  If a participant makes all the correct decisions and take all the right actions regarding, e.g. which safe working practices to use and decide on all the right and realistic actions without any guidance or support, the participants should be able to complete the refresher in the approx. time duration or in less time.  Optional information and guidance should again always be available as a link or resource, so if a participant is interested in learning more, they can pull the material to them. 2. Once participants make their decision and act, consider showing the necessary information in the feedback i.e. first show the consequence of their choices and actions (e.g. what would happen if the participant failed to identify and avoid a safety hazard). Then show the information that the participant should have used, thought about, or looked at. 3. If a participant does not demonstrate the needed abilities or do not reach the learning objective(s), makes mistakes or needs guidance to correctly complete an activity, the participant should be provided with individual, specific, and focused learning activities to improve their performance and reach the learning objectives. These individual focused and specific additional learning activities should be provided to these participants until they have reached the learning objectives of the CoHE Refresher Standard. Examples of these individual focused and specific additional learning activities could be worked examples demonstrated by the instructor followed by more guided and independent practice for the participants to enable the participant to improve and reach the learning objectives. These additional, individual learning activities will very likely lead to additional contact time for the participant than what is listed in the approx. time duration in the CoHE Refresher Standard. 4. Repeat as needed.

5.10 Recommended media for the CoHE Refresher Modules The GWO CoHE working group strongly recommends that the CoHE Refresher Modules are facilitated through a digital media (i.e. facilitated as digital trainings) to make the refresher trainings more efficient while reducing productivity and travel costs for the participants. The GWO CoHE working group believes that digital training can enable the participants to reach the learning objectives successfully in the specified time. This is based on the working group

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experience with digital trainings which is underline by numerous studies. In short, if the training is designed effectively, it does not matter if the training is a e-learning, VR training or analogue training

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6 G ENERAL R ESOURCES R EQUIRED TO DELIVER GWO C O HE R EFRESHER MODULES

The training provider shall ensure that staff, facilities, and equipment are in place to support the training of participants.

6.1 Instructor to participant ratio

The table below shows the maximum number of participants permitted (per instructor) in an instructor-led training for each of the three modules: Modules Instructor Participant Ratio

Theory (introduction)

1:12

Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

Practical (assessment and learning activities)

1:8

Theory (introduction)

1:12

Electrical Safety Refresher Module

Practical (assessment and learning activities)

1:4

Theory (introduction)

1:12

Pressure Fluid Safety Refresher Module

Practical (assessment and learning activities)

1:4

Table 6-1 - GWO CoHE instructor to participant ratios

6.2 Training facilities

All training facilities shall fulfil all the requirements listed in section 8 - Equipment and Physical resources in the GWO Training Provider requirements.

6.3 Training Staff

The training staff shall fulfil all the requirements listed in section – 9 Instructor qualifications in the GWO training provider requirements.

6.4 Equipment

The equipment required for the GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard is shown in Annex 1.

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7 U NDERSTANDING GWO L EARNING O BJECTIVES AND T AXONOMY

7.1 Learning objectives

Learning objectives describe what the participant should know and be able to do when the training is completed. The learning objectives in a training are based on the mitigating precautions analysed in the risk assessment. They are the foundation of the learning activities, the course contents and what the participant performance assessment must be based upon. Coherence between the learning objectives, the learning activities and the assessment is essential. The purpose of this alignment is twofold: 1. To conduct learning activities that are directly focused on reaching the learning objectives.

2. That assessment of how well the learning objectives are met is done in close coherence with what the participant has practised during the learning activities and in a comparable environment.

Figure 7-1 Alignment triangle

Defining learning objectives in relation to all training elements ensures the alignment between objectives, activities, and the on-going participant assessment. More guidance about learning activities and evaluation can be found in the GWO Taxonomy Framework, annex to Requirements for Training Providers. To be able to focus training on building up the necessary abilities, the learning objectives are described according to the GWO taxonomy in the three domains: Knowledge, Skills and Ability. Ability is what is performed and demonstrated during real-life exercises as well as in the real work situation and is the sum of personal experiences, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. 7.2 Learning activities Learning activities are planned and systematic activities designed to create learning and enable the participants to reach the learning objectives. An important part of learning activities in GWO’s approach is that participants must be actively taking part, for example in verbal discussions and practical training. Hearing or seeing a presentation without any subsequent reflection or critical thinking can only create learning on a very low level and such one-way activity should be avoided. While the participants are practising, the instructor can assess whether they demonstrate that they have reached the actual learning objective. Furthermore, when participants succeed through trying things out on their own, when they bring their relevant experience into play and when they use learning points from feedback; they

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develop a positive attitude towards the subject and a desire to improve their abilities in the work situation. Reflection and experiential learning

Reflection is an essential part of the learning process and must be facilitated in all learning activities. We learn from experience, and we create experiences when we do something and afterwards reflect on and think about what just happened or what we just did and how it worked. Learning activities are what the participants must do to create the necessary experiences and learn and thereby reach the learning objectives – facilitated by the instructor. This process is illustrated in the Experiential Learning Cycle to the left. Reflection is more than just thinking about something. Reflection is critical and constructive thinking, that must be initiated by the instructor’s feedback, questions, and challenges.

Figure 8.2.1 Learning Cycle, by David Kolb

Feedback The aim of feedback is to reduce the gap between the participant´s current performance and a desired goal. Feedback is by far the most effective way to generate reflection and so learning. At the basic taxonomic learning level, feedback must be provided to correct faults and encourage the participants to engage further. At the higher levels, feedback is more about coaching participants to find their own solutions. Suggestions help participants to figure out how they can do better, modify, and develop their knowledge and understanding relative to the learning objective. By posing challenging questions related to the given feedback the instructor initiates the necessary reflection within the participants. At the advanced level, feedback must be conducted in a dialogue where exploratory questions are the generator for the participants’ reflections 7.3 Participants Assessment and evaluation The instructor can observe and evaluate the participants’ knowledge, skills and abilities as well as the participants’ on-going development, when the participants are active. To support their observation the instructor may engage in dialogue with the participants to understand why the participants chose to solve the task the way they did, and to clarify their attitude towards the task or topic. The instructor must be attentive to the participants’ use of relevant terminology and correct facts in their group discussions within the domain of knowledge and when they answer more or less complex questions. When the participants are engaged in practical training, the instructor can investigate their understanding of the task and the relevant theory by questioning and clarifying dialogue.

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GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard V1

On the basic level of ability, assessment by observation alone may be difficult, and the instructor must explore the attitude of the participants by inquiry and dialogue while they are training. For example, to find out if the participants show interest in a topic or take responsibility in the situation (which could be problematic to observe) the instructor must go into a dialogue addressing the participants level of interest or awareness of the task or topic. Assessment of ability on the more complex levels calls for even more focused observation and dialogue. 7.4 The GWO Taxonomy Framework Taxonomy is a way of describing that there are different levels of learning; some may be quite easy to reach, and some are more complicated and demanding. The aim of the GWO Taxonomy Framework is to ensure coherence and conformity between learning objectives and their related learning activities delivered in a formal learning setting. The structure of the GWO Taxonomy is based on the three learning domains: Knowledge, Skills, and Ability. Learning objectives are also defined at three taxonomic levels: 1) Basic, 2) Intermediate, and 3) Advanced level. Ability “When we do our job, we apply our abilities.” Ability covers the capacity to act responsibly, safely, and independently or in cooperation with others to meet a challenge or to get the job done. Ability can be thought of as everything we carry in the rucksack: our knowledge and skills, our accountability and ability to evaluate situations, make decisions, take responsibility, our caring for others and our social resources as well as our attitudes. In this definition, ability is what we apply in the reality of our workplaces and in life in general. Therefore, learning objectives within the Ability domain must challenge the participants initiative and individual reactions, and the degree of fidelity must be considered to enhance a realistic learning environment. In the field of Ability, the human factor plays a key role in the personal decision on responsibility and initiative and in the execution of “good habits “. Action verbs The taxonomy levels in the learning objectives are defined by a reasonable number of precise and explained action verbs (highlighted below). They are presented in a progression of increasing complexity – beginning on the Basic Level, where the participant can name, recognise or describe a tool or a procedure, and ending at the Advanced Level, where the participant can act responsibly, evaluate performance, assess decisions and supervise fellow workers. Learning objectives in this standard are also tagged with an indication of the domain and taxonomy level in brackets (e.g., Skills, intermediate level) This is done to emphasise the importance of the alignment between objectives and learning activities: at a Basic Level, the instructor may facilitate simple learning activities, and to reach more complex learning objectives, the complexity in activities must be raised accordingly. The taxonomic domains and levels are presented in the figure below.

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GWO CoHE Refresher Training Standard V1

Figure 8.4.2, The GWO Taxonomy – condensed (from the GWO Taxonomy annex to GWO Requirement for Training Providers)

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Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

GWO Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

8 M ODULE 1 -B ASIC S AFETY C O HE R EFRESHER

8.1 Aims and objectives of the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module The aim of GWO’s Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module is to enable the participants to act safely while working in the vicinity of hazardous energies in the wind industry and be able to perform assigned tasks safely.

Overall learning objective for the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module:

The participants can solve the challenge of how to act safely while working in the vicinity of hazardous energies in the wind industry and will on their own initiative seek guidance when needed (Ability, basic level).

8.2 Duration of the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module The total contact time for completing this Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module is estimated to be 1 hour and 10 minutes. This is based on the time estimate given in the module timetable. However, the contact and total training time will vary for each individual due to the suggested training method of the CoHE refresher modules. The training provider must not exceed the hours per day given in table 9-2 below. Maximum Duration Per Day Contact time 8 hours Total training day 10 hours

Table 8-2 - Maximum durations for training day

Note: Contact time includes delivery of course lesson contents, practical exercises and activities directly related to these.

The total training day includes contact time, meals and breaks and travel between training sites (where applicable).

8.3 Instructor to participant ratio

The table below shows the maximum number of participants permitted (per instructor) in an instructor-led training for the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module:

Module

Instructor Participant Ratio

Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

1:4

Table 8-3 - GWO Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module Instructor to participant ratio

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GWO Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

8.4 Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module timetable Within the module timetables, approximate duration of each of the lessons are given. The training provider may choose to deliver elements of the training according to other timetables, as long as each participant reach the learning objectives of the module. Theoretical elements may be delivered during the practical exercises when feasible. The order in which the elements of the training module are delivered may vary.

Approx. Duration

Lesson

Element

1 Introduction to the training

1.1

Safety instructions and emergency procedures

1.2

Facilities

1.3

Introduction

1.4

Aim and objective

1.5

Ongoing assessments

1.6

Motivation TOTAL

20 min.

2 Hazardous

energy assessment and learning activities

2.1

Hazardous energy assessment and learning activities

TOTAL

45 min.

3 Training review

3.1

Training review

3.2

Feedback session TOTAL

5 min.

GRAND TOTAL

70 min.

Table 8-4 - GWO Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module timetable

8.5 Detailed description of the Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

INTRODUCTION TO THE TRAINING

20 min. The aim of this lesson is to enable the participants to become motivated and to engage in the GWO Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module safely at a training facility, while recognising what is expected of them during the training.

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GWO Basic Safety CoHE Refresher Module

After having successfully completed this lesson, participants can:

Recognise the course content and the facilities involved to ensure a clear understanding of what is expected of them during the course (Knowledge, basic level)

Name and point out local emergency procedures and facilities (Knowledge, basic level)

Describe the relevant human factors, and implications of these (Knowledge, basic level)

ELEMENT 1.1 - SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Learning objective:

The participants show interest or curiosity in the safety and emergency procedures (Ability, basic level)

The instructor shall:

Explain and ask involving question concerning:

safety instruction according to internal procedures emergency procedures and emergency exit in the areas where the participants can be expected to be located during the module

The participant shall:

Engage in answering the above questions

ELEMENT 1.2 - FACILITIES

Learning objective:

The participants can recognise the facilities at the training location (Knowledge, basic level)

The instructor shall:

Present or handout a general description of the facilities at the training location (administration, dining area, restrooms, toilets, etc) Alternative activity: tour of the facilitates

The participant shall:

Note relevant facilitates and ask questions when in doubt about facilities

ELEMENT 1.3 - INTRODUCTION

Learning objective:

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