This leads to discussions of whether this BIM/FM collaboration could be the right way to serve the industry. Level of Detail (LOD) One of the examples is the design and usage of (LOD) Level of Detail. The use of LOD is an interesting topic on the road of BIM to FM transition. LOD can stand for both Level of Detail and Level of Devel - opment, wherein the former relates to the way a model looks, while the latter refers to the depth of thinking embedded in the model. Level of Development is a more recognized version of LOD that enables unbalanced development of model details and data (Level of Development = Level of Detail + Level of Data). The thinking behind it came from the understanding developed during the BIM lifecycle from implementation to operation which pushes people to rethink the true purpose of a BIM model (as-built or as-constructed). For a project that does not follow an Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) plan cover - ing AM/FM, the as-built model could be LOD 500 on the modeling details but miss most of the AM/FM required data like serial numbers, manufacturers, etc. Taking another point of view, LOD was developed from the perspec - tive of project delivery – which means it speaks design/construction language. Even with its definition expanding, AM/FM professionals or owners could still be confused. Most of the time, in real-world opera - tion and maintenance practices, the demands for data sufficiency are much higher than modeling granularity. In which case, LOD needs to be explicated even further to ensure the fulfillment of AM/FM's data requirements. Moreover, in all cases, BIM dimensions (4D, 5D, 6D, etc.) are inevitable terminology that goes with LOD. The stacking of project delivery-oriented terminologies does not help the AM/FM stakeholders or owners better understand what data they can expect by the end of construction. Introducing the digital twin into the AECO industry raises the bar of LOD for facility operations to a new height. In this scenario, the phrase digital twin explains itself very effectively, and institutions and facil- ity owners will get the point without a second thought – it’s a digital replica of the physical assets. As a result, we need to have a new set of vocabulary terms that define the adaptability of the digital twin's LOD and how it is used in the operations phase. These terms would focus on asset information requirements and the accuracy of data rather than geometric types. Digital Twin in AECO The emerging trend of digital twins allows for the introduction of new possibilities and solutions that meet the currently unsatisfied needs from both methodological and technical angles. Due to the complexity of AM/FM scenarios, various stakeholders' needs, limitations of existing data collection, and handoffs, there is no common agreement on digital twin definitions yet. Therefore, the digital twin implementation needs to be tailored to suit specific end users. It is essential to ensure that the functional requirements are collected to map the multi-stakeholder expectations. This is accomplished through system architecture and uses software development techniques to organize complex relation- ships of tasks. An example is a goal-oriented engineering approach for
data warehouse development. Moreover, introducing state-of-the-art technologies like AI, IoT, and Big Data can maximize BIM's potential in the AM/FM phase to enhance the efficiency of operations. A digital twin is a systematic approach that establishes the program from a bottom-level common data environment and policy. It reaches each part of the value chain with a data flow that mitigates data risks during the handoff along the lifecycle of the business process. The Need for Multi-Stakeholder Solution In addition to LOD, there are several emerging topics that state the current needs of multi-stakeholders to build an efficient and effective building/infrastructure-level digital twin system during the operation and maintenance stages.
• The need to bypass interoperability issues:
- The data gap between construction and actual operation causes data loss in the BIM lifecycle implementation and creates substantial difficulties in efficiency, effectiveness, and sufficiency of project in- formation. A common data environment needs to be established and agreed upon to regulate the flow of information and enforce Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) to ensure data interoperability.
• The need for system integration:
- Many different systems, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), BMS/BAS, secu- rity management systems, and maintenance systems, are deployed during the operational phase. An integration solution plays a critical role in connecting all isolated systems to perform queries and reports more synergistically.
• The need to support sustainable operations and monitoring:
- Working closely with BAS/BMS, sustainability consideration is es- sential to creating an environmentally friendly, physically comfort- able, and safe building/infrastructure for its occupants. Different thresholds need to be examined and set up meticulously to trigger notifications or alerts for decision making.
• The need for quantitative feedback and assessment:
- Data analytics are required based on accumulated data from dif- ferent systems to generate assessment grades for professionals and non-professionals to learn the current operational status of a build- ing/infrastructure or a specific location/asset.
• The need for visualization to assist navigation:
- 3D visualizations of all disciplines are necessary to locate equipment for maintenance staff and help to complete emergency simulation, especially when alarms occur. 3D information is the most important way to improve problem-solving efficiency. The digital twin's development aims to satisfy stakeholders' differ- ent levels of requirements during the operational phase and provide intuitive, efficient, and intelligent functions for defined users. To this end, users are categorized into three groups. There are property owner- level stakeholders who make major investment decisions, management teams that take responsibility for daily asset and facility management
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