C+S May 2020 Vol. 6 Issue 5

“An NCEES Record makes it fast, easy, and convenient to apply for additional P.E. licenses in other states.”

Alexander Zuendt, P.E. Zuendt Engineering Record holder since 2011


Establishing an NCEES Record is the most efficient way to complete the licensure process in multiple states. Once established, an NCEES Record will include most—if not all—of the materials you need to apply for comity licensure in additional states and territories. If you are a Council Record holder, NCEES will electronically submit your materials directly to the state licensing board on your behalf each time you apply for a license. This saves time and simplifies the application process when you need to practice in multiple states.

Record no. 46864

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National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying® P.O. Box 1686, Clemson, S.C. 29633 864.654.6824



THE COVER Every Dog has their Day: America's First Water Leak Detection Dog – story on page 10 CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 14 Engineers and Wetland Scientists Face Challenges with Regulatory Changes to the Clean Water Act STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 16 Ketchikan Water Street Trestle No. 2 TRANSPORTATION 17 Towards Transportation Infrastructure Advancement in a Developing Country 19 Alaskan Way Viaduct Replacement Transforming Seattle 22 Ecological Uplift Through Engineering WATER + STORMWATER 25 Stormwater Control Lessons in the Age of More Extreme Weather 27 Underserved Chicago 29 East Trunk Sewer Project Solves Weather Risk in Mequon, Wisconsin 31 Design and Engineering Considerations for Surface Drainage Systems 33 Rehabilitating the Martinsville Interceptor BUSINESS NEWS 35 Microdesk Pushes Sustainability and Plans for Urbanization with Modelstream 2.0 GEOTECHNICAL 36 Port Forward 38 Bibby HydroMap’s Asset Inspection Surveys Help Assess Storm Damage SOFTWARE + TECH 40 Tips for Implementing SaaS in Construction UNMANNED SYSTEMS 41 Amphibious, All-Terrain & Airborne Drones Enhance Efficiency in Execution of Essential Services for Civil & Structural Engineering Industry BUILDING MATERIALS 43 EPS Geofoam Supports Rapid Repair of Major Colorado Highway


departments 8 Events

45 Benchmarks 47 Reader Index Columns 5 From The Publisher: Water, Life's Precious Resource Chad Clinehens 6 Engineering Front Line: Gin + Tonic Water Phil Keil



may 2020


VOLUME 6 ISSUE 5 csengineermag.com

publisher Chad Clinehens, P.E. | 479.856.6097 | cclinehens@zweiggroup.com media director Christy Zweig | 479.445.7564 | czweig@zweiggroup.com Production & circulation manager Anna Finley | 479.435.6850 | afinley@zweiggroup.com ART director Maisie Johnson | 417.572.4561 | mjohnson@zweiggroup.com Editor Luke Carothers | lcarothers@zweiggroup.com

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Civil + Structural Engineer (ISSN 23726717) is published monthly by Zweig Group, 1200 North College Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72703. Telephone: 800.466.6275. Copyright© 2020, Zweig Group. Articles not be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of Zweig Group. Unsolicited manuscripts will not be returned unless accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Subscriptions: Annual digital subscription is free. To subscribe or update your subscription information, please visit our website www.csengineermag.com/ subscribe/ or call 800.466.6275.

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may 2020

from the publisher

The importance of water management has dominated human history. From safety to supply, the importance of water to life cannot be overstated. Although approximately 70 percent of the earth’s surface is water, only 1 percent of our world’s water is fresh water, making it more scarce than many recognize. That scarcity increases as we go through history. Since industry took off in the 1800s, world population has soared. Both industries and populations have created extraordinary demands for more water while putting pressures on the supply through industrial and urban pollutants. In the United States, we are fortunate to have well developed water systems. However, water supply issues continue to increase. Increases in demand, along with aging infrastructure, make preserving every drop of fresh water critical. Recent research indicates the average American “pipeline” is 45 years old, making repair and rehabilitation projects an enormous need. Unfortunately, these projects take years and lots of money to complete. Add in profound disruption to American commerce that is unfolding due to COVID-19, and water systems across the U.S. could see these stresses further increase. All of these current challenges make innovative approaches to water distribution and conservation more important than ever. Recent issues of civil+structural ENGINEER have highlighted stories from around the world where engineers are working to solve these problems, in both developed and developing countries. One of those stories titled “ACurse or Savior?” follows Kit Miyamoto and his efforts for ancient, indigenous tribes in the Omo Valley in Ethiopia. The story is a fascinating look at the trade-offs created when man attempts to solve a problem. It centered around the massive hydro- electric dam, Gibe III, a $1.6 billion, 1,870 megawatt, 240-meter-high concrete structure that doubled Ethiopia’s power output for its expanding agricultural business. This great engineering achievement helped the country progress. But at the same time, marginalized indigenous, communities who were downstream of the dam. The project greatly reduced their water supply, resulting in their culture and traditions, dating back thousands of years, being lost. Miyamoto launched a campaign at the Elevate AEC conference in Las Vegas in 2019 to gather resources to go to the Omo Valley and help the Kara tribe. A combination of donations of money and time from attending engineers resulted in major progress in 2020. More on this story is coming in future issues of this magazine. In this issue of civil+structural ENGINEER , we are excited to share another unique story of how innovative approaches are helping us in the water conservation effort here in the United States. We share the story of Vessel, the first water leak detection dog in the nation. Vessel’s story is fascinating, starting as a rescue featured on Animal Planet’s “Pit Bulls and Parolees”, a reality television series dedicated to on-air rescues of dogs. After the rescue, Vessel went on to the Arkansas Paws in Prison program. Paws in Prison is an organization committed to rehabilitating inmates and giving shelter dogs a second chance at life through a mutually beneficial, inmate instructed, canine training program. Graduating in November of 2019, Vessel has already had a big impact for his employer, Central Arkansas Water. As Arkansas’ largest water supplier, Central Arkansas Water is showing the world an inspiring example of innovation wrapped with significance. Awareness of this new approach for detecting water leaks in distribution systems is in early stages, but municipal water systems are taking notice, creating demand for the K-9s. I am especially excited to share this story as is a great example of Zweig Group’s “Elevate the Industry” mission. That mission, which includes efforts to promote the industry and it’s impact on the world, is advanced by stories like this. When we capture the hearts and minds of those outside the industry, including educating America’s youth on what civil and structural engineers do, we elevate the industry. And while Vessel advances our mission of elevating the industry, she is advancing Central Arkansas Water’s mission by “protecting and ensuring a long-term water supply for future generations; and serving as responsible stewards of public health, utility resources, and the environment”. The story of Vessel will captivate many, from water system operators to 8-year-olds, giving life and meaning to abandoned dogs who save the world, or at least world’s most precious resource, water.

Water, life’s

precious resource

CHAD CLINEHENS, P.E., is Zweig Group’s president and CEO. Contact him at cclinehens@zweiggroup.com.


may 2020


Rather than another article about how COVID-19 is affecting the engineering world, allow me to take you back to 1630s Peru for a quick history lesson. The Spanish beauty Lady Ana de Osorio, Countess of Chinchon, wife to the Viceroy of Peru lay in a sweat-soaked bed stricken with malaria. As her fever worsened, hope seemed to be lost until a note was received from the Governor of Loxa, a town in the Andes to the north. There had long been legends surrounding a treatment that would cure her using the bitter powder from the bark of Cinchona (quina-quina) trees. Amazingly, it worked! It was so effective, that Lady Ana began dispensing large quantities of the bark to the people of Lima and took it with her when she returned to Spain, where malaria was abundant. This is considered the most serendipitous medical discovery of the 17th century. It was often referred to as “Jesuits’ bark,” “cardinal’s bark,” or “sacred bark” after Jesuit missionaries in South America, however, the Countess of Spain is the one that allowed the acceptance of the discovery and treatment in Europe. As a side note, before this discovery as a treatment for malaria, European remedies included throwing the patient head-first into a bush in the hope they would get out quickly enough to leave the fever behind. Today, we know this medication as quinine. Let’s fast forward about 100 years and move a bit further East to India. The army of the British East India Company had a persistent problem with Malaria, just as it had in other tropical regions. In the 1700s Scottish doctor George Cleghorn was studying how quinine could be used to prevent the disease. The army began distributing quinine in tonic water; however, the bitter taste was extremely unpleasant. Just as rates of malaria among troops began to come down, word spread from soldier to soldier that you would “never get the taste out of your mouth” leading to troops unwillingness to drink it and raising malaria rates once again. It was back to the drawing board. British officers began adding a mixture of water, sugar, lime, and yes, gin to the quinine tonic to make it more palatable! Thus, the gin and tonic was born. Soldiers in India were already given a gin ration and therefore, this cocktail is what made the most sense. In fact, the great Winston Churchill once declared, “The gin and tonic has saved more Englishmen’s lives, and minds, than all the doctors in the Empire.” So why the little history lesson? Well, it connects with quite a controversial topic that you’ve likely recently been hearing about, hydroxychloroquine. Hydroxychloroquine is simply the synthetic derivative of that same quinine we’ve been talking about in the gin and tonics. There it is! That is how we tie this article into the current coronavirus pandemic. You knew we had to sneak that in there. Jest aside, this is the incredible story behind one of the most famous cocktails in history. Now, my wife is a doctor currently fighting this thing and I’m sure I’d get an earful if I didn’t take a moment to provide the obligatory warning that a gin and tonic is not and shouldn’t be taken as a treatment for COVID-19, but it couldn’t hurt, right? Take this as an opportunity to make the gin and tonic the theme of your next virtual happy hour. Stay safe out there.

Gin + Tonic Water Phil Keil

PHIL KEIL is director of Strategy Consulting, Zweig Group. Contact him at pkeil@zweiggroup.com.



may 2020

Upcoming Webinar

Leveraging Your ERP System for Effective Virtual Work Thursday, May 14th, 2020 12 PM CDT Join this session to learn how to leverage your Deltek Vision and Vantagepoint ERP systems to better perform in today’s ever-changing environment. You will see a live presentation on how to utilize Electronic Invoicing (EI) to better manage your invoicing process. You will also hear rst-hand from Dawn Dostie of TRC on how EI has helped achieve their goals, whether working in the oce or virtually.

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events + virtual Events

july 2020

Project Management for AEC Professionals rescheduled: august 12 – dallas, tx

This one-day training course covers the critical focus areas every AEC Industry project manager should be familiar with and is presented in lecture, tutorial, and case study workshop sessions.Attendees will leave armed with a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics, skills, and techniques successful project managers must have to flourish in their role. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/seminars/products/ excellence-in-project-management?variant=30890361323555 september 2020 This one-day event is open to all and for anyone interested in learning more about how to solve the AEC industry’s top challenge: recruitment and retention. The ElevateHER symposium will gather together leaders in theAEC industry, Zweig Group’s ElevateHER 2020 Cohort members, and speakers on topics related to hiring, retaining valuable employees, and fostering a diverse and equitable workplace. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/conference/products/ elevateher-symposium?variant=31530063265864 elevateher symposium september 30 – denver, co The Elevate AEC Conference & Awards Gala (formerly the Hot Firm & A/E Industry Awards Conference) is the AEC industry’s premiere experience to connect global leaders, solve industry issues, present next practices, and celebrate the most successful firms in the built environment. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/conference/products/2020- elevate-aec-conference?variant=30365800988707 October 2020 This one-day training course covers the critical focus areas every AEC Industry project manager should be familiar with and is presented in lecture, tutorial, and case study workshop sessions. Attendees will leave armed with a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics, skills, and techniques successful project managers must have to flourish in their role. elevate aec conference september 30-October 2 – denver, co Project Management for AEC Professionals october 14 – minneapolis, mn https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/seminars/products/ excellence-in-project-management?variant=30890364796963 Learn the Language of Business: Financial Management october 20 – dallas, tx Solid financial management is crucial to the success of any company, and firms in the AEC industry are no exception. This course provides an overview of business financial management – specifically tailored to our industry – to help firm leaders make informed decisions. Topics include: interpreting financial statements; key performance metrics;

Ownership Transition Strategies july 14 – chicago, il

Zweig Group examines the ever-complex environment of ownership transition in an AEC firm. The presentation covers a range of topics, giving attendees a new view of ownership transition and how an effective plan can be put into place. Whether the attendees are young, up and coming project architects or principals looking at their impending transition, the content gives everyone an introspective view of their career.

https://shop.zweiggroup.com/products/ownership- transition-strategies?_pos=1&_sid=615816a6e&_ ss=r&variant=31776387498056

The Principals Academy july 23-24 – portland, or

The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm at this impactful two-day program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm leaders in key areas of firm management leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/the- principals-academy?variant=30871416864803 august 2020 During the next 10 years, over 50 percent of AEC firms are expected to increase their use of doer-sellers, yet many do not have the training or skills to succeed. In order to grow into a position of leadership, they need the skills and know-how to strategize, build and deepen relationships, and win more work. Zweig Group’s Elevating Doer-Sellers: Intensive 2 Day Workshop is designed specifically for technical professionals in AEC firms. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/elevating- doer-sellers?variant=31274832789576 elevating doer-sellers august 5-6 – chicago, il AUVSI XPONENTIAL 2020 is the global stage for everything unmanned — from state-of-the-art propulsion technology, sensors, energy storage and UAS mitigation solutions to what’s coming over the horizon in AI, 5G, edge computing and more. As the largest, most significant event for the unmanned systems industry, you’ll find your edge as you explore the latest technology innovations, develop new perspectives as you hear from industry luminaries, and cultivate creativity at special networking events where you will meet some of the most influential leaders in the unmanned and autonomous space. https://www.xponential.org/xponential2020/public/enter.aspx AUVSI Xponential rescheduled: august 10-12 – boston, ma



may 2020

benchmarking and predictive cash flow management; and how strategic decisions drive the value of the firm. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/financial- management-for-non-financial-managers?variant=15425604845603

Recruitment & Retention Webinar .5 pdh

Zweig Group's research shows that recruiting and retention are the #1 challenges AEC firms have faced in the last few years. This webinar discusses current data from exclusive industry survey results that can be used to effectively develop your firm's recruitment and retention strategy in any type of job market. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/recruiting- retention?variant=31792090054728 The way we work, do business, and interact is constantly evolving and changing. Leaders are the first we look to when we need to adopt a change or understand how change affects us personally. You and your team must understand how to lead and adapt to an ever-changing environment. This seminar is designed to help you proactively lead your firm or team through change. You’ll learn what makes change challenging, several models and systems to lead change efforts, you’ll learn how to define and accept your role in change and gain practical frameworks for becoming an effective change leader. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/change- management-webinar?variant=31811496476744 Change Management Webinar 1 pdh Understanding Key Financial Statistics in the AEC Industry .5 pdh Financial statistics and ratios are crucial to assessing your firm’s financial health. Zweig Group’s Financial Performance Report of AEC Firms helps firms compare their performance against industry norms, comparable firms, and specific performance categories. This webinar will highlight several key financial statistics, how they are calculated, and what the industry trends for each measure look like over the last five years. https://zweiggroup.myshopify.com/collections/webinars/products/ understanding-key-financial-statistics-in-the-aec-industry- webinar?variant=31816904441928 Zweig Group examines the ever-complex environment of ownership transition in anAEC firm. The presentation covers a range of topics, giving attendees a new view of ownership transition and how an effective plan can be put into place. Whether the attendees are young, up and coming project architects/engineers/scientists or principals looking at their impending transition, the content gives everyone an introspective view of their career. https://zweiggroup.myshopify.com/collections/webinars/ products/ownership-transition-in-the-aec-industry- webinar?variant=31830324019272 Ownership Transition in the AEC Industry 1 pdh

Leadership skills for AEC Professionals rescheduled: october 29-30 – dallas, tx

Practical leadership skills are vital to the health and success of every company in any industry. Effective leaders motivate their teams to achieve exceptional results, inspire others to be better than they thought possible, and create an environment where their team is focused and working towards a common vision. Zweig Group’s team of management experts – who have extensive experience working with AEC firms providing solutions to the challenges facing AEC firms today – deliver practical solutions that technical professionals can put to work immediately to lead their firms to success. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/leadership- skills-for-aec-professionals?variant=30889848569891 virtual Leadership is Everything - Especially During and Following a Crisis - Leadership Development Program 1 pdh per module There are four key elements needed for success today: Projects, Profits, People, and Purpose. This program is designed to focus on a number of most important “People” aspects. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/ leadership-is-everything-especially-during-and-following-a-crisis- leadership-development-program?variant=31849832513608 Leveraging Your ERP System for Effective Virtual Work live: may 14 at 12pm cst 1 pdh Join this session to learn how to leverage your Deltek Vision and Vantagepoint ERP systems to better perform in today’s ever-changing environment. You will see a live presentation on how to utilize Electronic Invoicing (EI) to better manage your invoicing process. You will also hear first-hand from Dawn Dostie of TRC on how EI has helped achieve their goals, whether working in the office or virtually. https://csengineermag.com/leveraging-your-erp-system-for-effective- virtual-work/ Solid financial management is crucial to the success of any company, and firms in the AEC industry are no exception. This short course provides an overview of business financial management – specifically tailored to our industry – to help firm leaders make informed decisions that drive results. Topics include: interpreting financial statements; key performance metrics; benchmarking and project cash flow management. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/copy-of- recruitment-retention-webinar?variant=31805139320904 Driving Financial Results Webinar 1 pdh


may 2020


Central Arkansas Water (CAW) has taken a lot of steps to reduce their unaccounted water rates. They’ve tried satellite detection and manual searching, but recently they added a new tool that will help them lower their unaccounted water rate from 11-12 percent below the American Water Works Association’s “gold standard” of 9 percent to the low rate of 5 percent. In terms of water detection in the United States, this tool is one of a kind. Enter Vessel, an adorable black lab mix. She isn’t just a pet-able face, either. Vessel is as hard a worker as they come, and she is no stranger to gainful employment. Prior to undergoing training as a water leak detection dog, Vessel was a member of Arkansas Paws in Prison, where she worked with inmates who were given the opportunity to train res- cue dogs that would otherwise have no place to go. Vessel was special, however, and when CAW went looking for a suitable dog for the task, trainers immediately singled her out as the best candidate. Afterwards, Vessel underwent specialized training to detect leaks. The process seems simple. Handlers bring Vessel to an area where they hope to detect either surfacing or non-surfacing leaks in their water dis- tribution system and let her go. Her task is straight-forward: detect any treated water leaks in the area. When Vessel finds a suspected leak, she immediately goes to that spot and lays down, looking at her handler. The handler asks Vessel to confirm the leak to which she looks at the handler, barks, and lies back down. What happens if none of the water leaking from the distribution system reaches the surface? This is where Vessel sets herself apart from her human coworkers. She uses her superb canine senses to smell chlorine as it is expelled from the treated water, meaning that even water underground can’t escape Vessel’s nose. Tapping into Vessel’s Potential CAW’s most effective tool in the fight against unaccounted water was forged in the most unlikely of places. Vessel is a graduate of the Ar- kansas Paws in Prison program. Paws in Prison is a unique opportunity where inmates are selected to become trainers of rescue dogs. The program not only provides an opportunity for prisoners to build skills that can be used to transition to a life outside of prison, but it also trains remarkably talented dogs. On top of that, the program also saves these dogs from being euthanized. Tracy Owen is a professional dog trainer, and she was one of the very first Paws in Prison trainers. She has been training dogs for about 17 years, although she joined Paws in Prison when it started around 2011. Owen was lucky enough to work with the program in a few different Every Dog has their Day: America’s First Water Leak Detection Dog By Luke Carothers

places, having spent time working with dogs in three different units. When she was paroled, Tracy began working with Carrie Kessler. Carrie Kessler has over 20 years of experience being a professional dog trainer. In her current role working with Paws in Prison, she supervises the training in two different units: The Maximum-Security unit and the Tucker unit. This is where she found Vessel. Tracy Owen and Carrie Kessler now run On the Nose, a dog training company that specializes in leak detection, although there is a lot of room to grow in terms of what these dogs can do. The way Tracy and Carrie talk about dogs is not unlike the way an empathetic teacher talks about their students. The pair use words like “special” and “unique” to describe Vessel and her peers; they foster the idea that each dog is different and suited to their own tasks. When it comes to Vessel, her trainers believe she is perfectly suited to her job. Tracy specializes in service dogs, and when she first worked with Ves- sel the right qualities seemed to shine through immediately. Vessel has just the right temperament for the job and feels an intense desire to Vessel gets to work quickly after being given the command to search for a water leak.



may 2020

please. Tracy recalls talking to Carrie about Vessel, but they had to wait until the seven-week training period was over. As soon as it was, Tracy immediately reached out to see if Vessel was adopted, and when she wasn’t, the pair asked if she could undergo a two-week service training period. During this time, Vessel was working with inmates from the Randall L. Williams unit when Carrie realized that Vessel was developing a strong ball drive. She describes this moment as “full throttle” believing her drive was unlocked. This means Vessel wasn’t suited to work with someone who has disabilities because she just had too much drive. Carrie and Tracy weren’t deterred. The trainers believed that Vessel’s love of learning and her ball drive would find her a place to help. They knew there was still something special in store for Vessel. Getting Vessel’s Feet Wet Shortly after unlocking her ball drive and losing the prospect of helping someone with disabilities, Vessel’s destiny was realized when CAW came calling. Carrie and Tracy originally didn’t like the name Vessel, but when this opportunity came up, they knew the name was the right fit. Vessel’s name, her demeanor, her drive, and her desire to please all came together at the perfect time. CAW wanted to start from the ground up. The company asked Carrie and Tracy if they could train a dog to detect water leaks. The pair responded with an emphatic, “sure”. Carrie admits she had little professional experience in scent detection. Her only experience, as she puts it, was “playing around with some of [her] training dogs.” However, Carrie was confident that she knew the fundamentals, and she was confident in Vessel’s ability to learn and her drive to please others. On the Nose Water Leak Detection Dogs Founded by Tracy Owen and Carrie Kessler Trained the United States’ first and second water leak detection dogs Works closely with Arkansas Paws in Prison to not only lower the number of shelter dogs euthanized, but also in helping inmates gain valuable skills that can be transferred to life outside of incarceration Seeking to provide former inmates stable work and life skills once they are paroled by working to train the dogs For more information visit their website or email Tracy at dogsamust@icloud.com. Follow Vessel on Facebook https://www. facebook.com/CAWDetectiveDog/.

Tracy knew Vessel would be the perfect candidate for this job because she is ball-driven rather than food-driven. This means Vessel views rewards as completing a task and getting to go again. In other words, because Vessel wants to please her handler, she will complete the task as quick as possible. Once Tracy and Carrie got Vessel to focus on the smell of CAW’s water, her own nature will allow her to continuously hone her skills as long as she is allowed to do her job. Although Vessel’s training is ongoing, the initial process takes around six months (as well as the previous service and handler training). Most of the time during this training period is spent changing the scenario and making the dog work in different environments. For a worker like Vessel, this is extremely important. Vessel is responsible for detecting water leaks that occur in different environments, and it is extremely important that she can stay on task. Carrie believes one of the keys for training a detection dog like Vessel is to start with short training sessions that are set up for success. The sessions must be short because, as a younger animal in training, the dogs don’t have the longest attention span. As the training continues, however, the sessions increase in duration and the tasks become harder. Vessel’s training began in this way with short sessions that took place mostly indoors. Tracy and Carrie describe this stage of the training as short. The trainers ask the dog to find a smell that is just a short distance away with little else to distract them. As the dogs complete these shorter tasks, they then begin to move outside and are given more and more distractions. Vessel is also different from other service animals in that she has public access training. This training adds a few extra months onto the pro- gram, but it offers a few key benefits. For example, Vessel is able to interact with the public for demonstrations, and she can fly on planes with her handlers. This training also allows Vessel to give educational demonstrations to children. Vessel’s public access training allows her to travel more widely and spread the message about what she is doing, which was one of the main goals when CAW began this project. Vessel’s reward for a successful demonstration is a game of fetch with handler Stephen Sullivan.


may 2020


This new working relationship took work from both sides. On one hand, Vessel can be a lot to handle while she’s on the job. Vessel’s ball drive and high energy give her an incredibly high work rate, which can be difficult to manage in suburban and urban environments. Vessel’s assignments often require her to work within neighborhoods where there are more distractions such as traffic and curious pedestrians. Stephen has learned early into his career working with Vessel that sometimes she needs an extra set of eyes to keep her out of harm’s way. The unique nature of Vessel’s job means that she works in quite the variety of environments. However, once Vessel puts her work vest on, there is nothing that can distract her. According to Stephen, Vessel’s identification record is nearly immaculate. In fact, since Vessel was hired in the Fall, she has positively identified over 80 leaks, both above and below ground. Not only is this a prodigious amount of produc- tion, it is also efficient. During that time, Vessel only misidentified one CAW leak, and, even then, Stephen refuses to blame Vessel calling the one misidentification a “handler’s error”. A Model Employee To be clear, Vessel’s story is great, and she is a cute pet, but that does not lessen the impact she is having with her work. Prior to Vessel’s arrival, the process of identifying surface water as a treated water leak involved not only identifying the leak but also sending that water into the lab is make certain it is CAWwater. Because Vessel is only trained to identify water specifically treated at one of the CAW facilities, the need to test it diminishes significantly. Vessel’s ability to detect water underground also saves CAW time and money when it comes to digging in the ground. Stephen Sullivan notes a particular case when someone asked them to check for a leak at the base of the hill because water was running out. Vessel was able to identify the leak closer to the top of the hill which saved what likely would have been 60 feet of digging into a residential hill. This non-invasive way of identifying crucial breaks in water lines could prove useful in other urban or residential settings. On top of saving time and money for CAW, Vessel is also a public relations star. Because Vessel has public access training, she is able to travel far and wide. According to CAW, this training is a result of the desire to spread this idea to other areas of the United States. As other utility companies look for ways to reduce their unused water rate, they will look at Vessel as a shining beacon of using resources in a new way. In an industry that often looks towards technology to solve the latest issues, this is an opportunity to reassess how we can use the tools around us to solve the problems we face. To learn more about Vessel and see her in action watch this video!

A Flood of Positive Results Vessel only began working at CAW in early November 2019, but her handler, Stephen Sullivan, has a lot more experience when it comes to working with treated water. Stephen has worked for Central Arkansas Water for the last 13 years as a foreman in the construction sector, but his job changed dramatically last October when he was asked to work with Vessel. However, for Sullivan, the difference between laying pipe every day and working with Vessel is a huge one, but it is definitely a good thing. Vessel was initially wary to leave Tracy and Carrie, so trying to bond was initially met with some resistance. Each time Vessel smelled her trainers, she would become distracted and try to search the facility for them. However, Vessel soon learned to trust Stephen and the two have developed a strong working relationship. Since Vessel spends her time outside work living with Stephen as a pet, this bond is only set to grow even stronger. Stephen describes the strength of this relationship along the lines of trust; he believes that the more Vessel trusts him, the better she is able to do her job. Vessel’s partner in training Gauge smells treats in trainer Tracy Owen’s pocket.

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.



may 2020

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This year's changes to the Clean Water Act have made the already-challenging work of scientists and engineers in water planning and management exponentially more difficult. Face Challenges with Regulatory Changes to the Clean Water Act Technology to play a key role in solutions By Lee Lance and Jeremy Schewe Engineers and Wetland Scientists

Wetland construction

Questions abound, from jurisdictional issues to definitions and classi- fications, as a result of the "Navigable Waters Protection Rule," which, among other things, removes federal protections from ephemeral wa- terways (temporary bodies of water created by rain or snow). Further complicating the picture is the fact that wetlands assessment work has traditionally been done manually and can be painstakingly tedious. In the past, scientists have had few new technologies at their disposal, and thus work was typically completed using low-tech meth- ods (think clipboards and pens). This led to obvious challenges; work was time-consuming and adjusting for, for example, new regulations, was very difficult. Over the years, more tools and resources have emerged to help scien- tists tackle these challenges, and there is no doubt that technology will play a critical role in the future of wetland assessment work. The "Navigable Waters Protection Rule" Explained In January of this year, the "Navigable Waters Protection Rule" was finalized to redefine "Waters of the United States" (WOTUS). The rule establishes four categories of waters that are to be federally regulated and specifies twelve categories of water that are excluded from fed- eral protections, including ephemeral features, groundwater, and waste treatment systems. The rule further defines "adjacent wetlands" as "wetlands that are meaningfully connected to other jurisdictional waters, for example, by directly abutting or having regular surface water communication with jurisdictional waters" (Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). In short, certain wetlands and streams that were previously protected by the Clean Water Act are no longer jurisdictional. While these changes, some argue, may confer certain benefits to some stakeholders, they are likely to make the overall regulatory picture more

complex in most places. In response to federal changes, for example, some states have promulgated their own regulations and protections or are planning to do so. California, for instance, has enacted its own rules. This, some in our industry have pointed out, may lead to confu- sion; certain bodies of water are now regulated under the jurisdiction of the state and not the federal government, and some may fall under both. Such disparities increase not only the potential for confusion but also the likelihood of costly mistakes. Further, other states may not be fully prepared to adequately replace the regulatory frameworks estab- lished previously by the federal government. Broadly speaking, what is changing as a result of the current regulatory climate is the question of who has jurisdiction over certain waters – the federal government, states, or landowners. The fundamental need for accurate and timely wetlands assessment remains the same to ensure sound and optimal planning and engineering outcomes, and the need for technology to help navigate these changes is even greater as a result. As well as the regulatory changes mentioned above, there is potential for further change as governing bodies react to various developments and market changes. For example, very recently, the EPA announced a sweeping relaxation of environmental protection rules in response to the coronavirus pandemic. The move, a result of an influx of requests from businesses for a re- laxation of regulations as they face layoffs, personnel restrictions, and other problems relating to the outbreak, will undoubtedly impact the jobs of scientists and engineers in the field. How profoundly remains to be seen. However, the job of wetlands assessment must continue; as any structural engineer knows, building on an unstable ground on or near wetlands without proper assessment, planning, and mitigation, can spell disaster. Other Emerging Challenges Sudden Regulatory Changes



may 2020

Extreme Weather A rise in extreme weather is impacting landscapes. Excessive rainfall in some areas is causing erosion as well as the emergence of new ephem- eral waterways. Other areas are experiencing unusual droughts. Hotter than average temperatures are impacting wetlands and waterways, threatening ecosystems, and causing instability and unpredictability. These changes impact and complicate every facet of wetland science, including hydrology (specific geomorphology in the landscape, stand- ing water, ground saturation, or underground water that is moving very close to the surface can indicate a wetland); vegetation assessment (identifying vegetation is core to the work of identifying and delineat- ing wetland borders); soil sampling (soil classification is also central to wetlands work. Scientists probe the soil to a certain depth– typically at least 24 inches– to study layering to determine whether a soil might be aerobic or anaerobic or would be an upland soil or a wetland soil). Advances and Solutions The work of several organizations is helping wetland scientists meet these challenges. From the time it was founded in 1969, the Envi- ronmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) has focused on applied computer mapping and spatial analysis to help land-use planners and land resource managers make informed decisions. Over the years, Esri has developed many of the GIS mapping and spatial analysis methods now in use around the world. Today, GIS is giving scientists the ability to map digital layers to help solve a wide variety of problems (the recently announced Esri resources to help real-time mapping associated with the Coronavirus pandemic is just one example). In the future, GIS technology integrated into the

Wetland delineation

"Internet of Things," technologies will help scientists understand and address problems using the language of mapping. The US Army Corps of Engineers' 1987 Wetlands Delineation Manual is the federal guide for identifying and delineating wetlands. Formed in 1964, the USACE's Hydrologic Engineering Center (CEIWR-HEC) has helped to institutionalize the field of hydrologic engineering through the development of various software platforms and the intro- duction of the Corps Water Management System (CWMS), a real-time forecasting and decision-support system. The Role of Technology Technology that brings advances, such as those from Esri and USACE, to scientists in the field is more critical than ever, given the challenges facing them. The Ecobot platform, for example, is designed by a wet- lands scientist for use by others in the industry to significantly reduce the time it takes for delineation work while improving accuracy. Ecobot, an Esri Emerging Business Partner, provides on-demand ac- cess to a vast library of reference materials and auto-calculates required worksheets used to determine if a parcel of land contains wetlands. The technology anticipates frictions that occur in the field and provides so- lutions, from addressing lack of internet connectivity (everything that must be done in the field can be done without a data connection) to simplified navigation for users with muddy hands. Ecobot monitors all regulatory bodies impacting wetlands, assimilating updates to ap- plications, forms and more, to more easily, electronically generate the necessary, regionally-specific USACE reports. As the industry faces growing challenges, the need to equip scientists with tools to reduce workloads and enable real-time decision-making is greater than ever. The net result of technology in wetlands delinea- tion work can be significant; from time savings to reduced errors and a reduction in the risk of site revisits, and so confers a competitive edge to engineering firms as well as ensures proper maintenance and protection of wetlands.

S t r u c t u r a l E n g i n e e r s A x i o m # 7 Structural Engineers Axiom #7

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Get a quote—overnight. Visit: www.fenner-esler.com Click “Need a Quote” Call toll-free: 866-PE-PROTEK (866-737-7683 x. 208) Ask for Tim Esler. Email: tesler@fenner-esler.com im@Insuranc 4Structurals.com ww .insurance4structurals.com Get a quote—overnight. Visit: w.insurance4structurals.com Click “Need a Quote” ll toll-free: 866-PE-PROTEK ( 66-737-7683 x.208) Ask for Tim Esler. Email: ti @Insurance4Structurals.com

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LEE LANCE and JEREMY SCHEWE PWS are Co-Founders of Ecobot.


may 2020


Ketchikan Water Street Trestle No. 2 New Cliff-Side Bridge Ensures Community’s Connections for Years to Come

Building a road along a cliff face next to a waterway is a complex task no matter the location. Add in residential structures, historical consid- erations and a cold, rainy environment where paving can take place for just four months of the year and overcoming the challenges becomes even more impressive. HDR oversaw the construction of a new $25 million roadway along historic Water Street in Ketchikan, Alaska. Built in 1979, the original trestle bridge was deteriorating to the point that the road could no lon- ger support heavy loads, including garbage trucks, heating oil suppli- ers, or emergency vehicles. We served as construction manager for the three-year project, tasked with inspections, materials testing, and overseeing construction. The trestle reconstruction was a technically challenging project, perched on a steep cliff in a historical district and in a dense, actively used and space-constrained residential area. The ground beneath the exist- ing 1,130-foot bridge sloped down dramatically. One side touched the ground while the other was up to 50 feet off the ground. Recognizing the difficulty and innovations involved, the project was given a National Recognition Award this year from the American Council of Engineering Companies. Affixing a new bridge in a tight spot on steep terrain made the project unique and required the use of an innovative piece of construction equipment called the “panel launcher.” Each panel needed to be set perpendicular to the roadway, but tight confines limited movement on the street. The panel launcher would pick up each new 6-foot-wide, 25-foot-long precast concrete deck slab from the delivery truck and bring them up the road length-wise. From there, because power lines and homes rest adjacent to the roadway, limiting the side-to-side move- ments, each panel was turned sideways and set in place. The unique construction concerns didn’t end there. The 24 homes that line the historic street each had unique, individual foundations. Some were on pilings while others were built into rock walls. In some cases, the bridge’s foundation was literally holding up the yard or part of the homes. Construction included work to keep houses and driveways from leaning on the bridge, sometimes pouring new fill under existing homes. Given the long period of time the area has been inhabited, the project also turned up pockets of historical artifacts during construction.

HDR’s team included an on-site archaeologist, who catalogued items of historical note that were discovered during construction. The 40-year-old bridge was replaced with three separate structures de- signed to last the next 75 years: a bridge section, a retaining wall and a steel supported trestle. The project also included updates to meet ADA guidelines, new sidewalks and replacement of all utilities. The road’s completion was celebrated in a June 2019 ceremony with local and state officials.



may 2020

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