C+S June 2022 Vol. 8 Issue 6 (web)

LET THE GOOD TIMES ROLL Jumbo HSS are now available and ready to order.

What makes for good times? Getting your hands on Jumbo HSS. Between our Blytheville mill rolling American-made, 100% recycled EAF steel HSS and manufacturing the largest HSS sizes in the industry, it doesn’t get much better than that. atlastube.com/jumbo



THE COVER The Transformation of Treasure Island – story on page 10

CHANNELS STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 12 Anodized Aluminum Crowns the Iconic St. Louis Skyline 13 Lifecycle Efficiency Begins with Better Designs 15 Designing for Extreme Weather Events 17 Harms Installs 240-Foot Drilled Shafts with Barge-Mounted BAUER BG 55 TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 20 Valencia Bridge Reconstruction 21 Smooth Asphalt Roads: Standing Up to Nature and Delivering Value WATER + STORMWATER 22 Protecting Portland from floods 24 Duperon increases plant resilience with bar screen that adapts to changing flow conditions 25 WRP Conveying Pebble Lime Pneumatically Ends Elbow Failure 27 Indirect Potable Reuse and the Treatment of NDMA 28 Installing Two 20-inch Sub-Aqueous Water Mains to City Island 30 Performance of Short-Term Beach Erosion Mitigation at Capostrano Bay Community 34 Sustainable Expansion: Stormwater Detention and Reuse BUSINESS NEWS 35 QA/QC: An Engineering Prerogative SURVEYING 37 It Takes a Village

departments 8 Events 38 Benchmarks 39 Reader Index


Columns 5 From the Publisher: Something in the Water Chad Clinehens 6 Looking Back, Moving Forward: Choosing not to Forget Luke Carothers



June 2022


VOLUME 8 ISSUE 6 csengineermag.com

publisher Chad Clinehens, P.E. | 479.856.6097 | cclinehens@zweiggroup.com media manager Anna Finley | 479.435.6850 | afinley@zweiggroup.com ART director Maisie Johnson | 417.572.4561 | mjohnson@zweiggroup.com Editor Luke Carothers | lcarothers@zweiggroup.com

800-466-6275 1200 North College Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72703 PO BOX 1528, Fayetteville, AR 72702-1528


Civil + Structural Engineer (ISSN 23726717) is published monthly by Zweig Group, Fayetteville, AR. Telephone: 800.466.6275. Copyright© 2022, Zweig Group. Articles not be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of Zweig Group. Unsolicited manuscripts will not be returned unless accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Subscriptions: Annual digital subscription is free. To subscribe or update your subscription information, please visit our website www.csengineermag.com/subscribe/ or call 800.466.6275.

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June 2022

Something in the Water

Three years ago, Zweig Group launched our “experience” themed leadership roundtables. The first two were held in Kentucky around tours of the various bourbon distilleries that produce 95 percent of the world’s bourbon. The rich family history and how these distilleries approach their business combined with the explosion of demand for bourbon was an inspirational back - drop for these events. The story of Kentucky bourbon and its distilleries is largely also a story of the area’s water. Made from the limestone-rich water that flows in abundance through its streams and rivers, Kentucky bourbon is geographically unique, producing a taste that cannot be replicated any - where else in the world. As luck would have it, something about the water in Kentucky also made these two experi - ences special, getting together a group of leaders of AEC firms who were willing to share their struggles and successes. The environment was rich, and it fostered both the giving and receiv - ing of advice. Over my 25 plus years in this industry, I’ve witnessed the evolution of leaders in AEC becom - ing not only open to sharing their challenges but their magic bullets as well. We’ve become comfortable helping each other as we realize there is plenty of work to go around, and elevating our firms as well as the industry requires us to work together. This is why I am delighted that after two years of being unable to conduct these events, we are hosting our first in-person roundtable next month in Dallas. Unlike previous roundtables, this event is like two events in one. We are hosting a number of industry experts who will share powerful insight through short talks and panel discussions, with the roundtable sessions in between and themed around the areas of discussion. Each attendee will be able to choose 18 topics they want to discuss over the day and a half event. It really will be an innovative event with a unique structure that allows attendees a lot of time to discuss exactly what they want to learn more about while getting access to industry experts on some of the industry’s great - est challenges. Roundtable topics will cover every area of the business including recruiting, retention, scalable growth, succession planning, cybersecurity and IT, the role of the CEO, risk management, M&A, private equity, flexible work policies, training and development, com - pensation and incentive structures, arbitration versus litigation, corporate giving programs, the role of the CSO, building a motivated and aligned leadership team, creating a positive and productive culture, leadership transition, getting more done with less people, the economic outlook, and more. This will be a powerful day and a half to focus on you and your firm as you learn and collabo - rate with industry peers. It will also provide a great connection to be able to keep the conversa - tion going at Elevate AEC in September where we will have some follow-up activities for this group. I hope to see you in Dallas June 23-24, so we can continue to create special environ - ments that foster change and growth in the AEC industry..

Chad Clinehens

Click here to register or to find out more info.

CHAD CLINEHENS, P.E. is Zweig Group’s president and CEO. Contact him at cclinehens@zweiggroup.com.


June 2022


looking back, moving forward Choosing

“The Dry Salvages” by T.S. Eliot: I do not know much about gods; but I think that the river Is a strong brown god–sullen, untamed and intractable, Patient to some degree, at first recognized as a frontier; Useful, untrustworthy, as a conveyor of commerce; Then only a problem confronting the builder of bridges. The problem once solved, the brown god is almost forgotten By the dwellers in cities–ever, however, implacable. Keeping his seasons and rages, destroyer, reminder Of what men choose to forget. (1941)

Luke Carothers not to Forget

As humans, our relationship with water is biologically etched into the very structures of our most fundamental building blocks. More than half of our bodies are made of water, and we must consume it to survive; water is also essential to the growth of our crops and the health of our livestock. At the same time, water shares an equally important role within the social development of humanity–from the most ancient of our predecessors to this very moment, the presence of fresh water has dictated where and how humans choose to build their communities. In the context of the history of water-based engineering, T.S. Eliot’s musings on our collective relationship with water seem resoundingly astute. The progress of civilization is often marked by its ability to control water and use its power to drive growth in population, industry, and agriculture. Likewise, water systems are often the branches from which the fruits of growth ripen into towns, villages, and cities. The Indus River Valley fostered some of the earliest examples of civilization in known history with settlements such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. By taking advantage of annual flooding through irrigation, the Indus Valley Civilization advanced human civilization by domesticating several plants and animals for the first time. However, as the monsoon-fed rivers of the valley began to dry up, so too did the population of Indus Valley Civilization. This is not dissimilar to the growth of towns and cities along the Ohio river in the 19th century. During the years after America’s founding, many Americans began to move to what was then considered the West, settling in the Appalachian mountains. For these early Americans, the Ohio river was a vital trade link, flowing west into the Mississippi then journey - ing south to New Orleans. This meant that crops and manufactured goods from Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky could be relatively easily transported to ports on the East Coast via New Orleans. With this transportation network established, the Ohio River valley and the Appalachian mountains became integral engines of the American Industrial Revolution. Cities like Cincinnati exploded in population as new industries sprang up to support vital trade along the river. In addition to an already-thriving meat packing industry, new infrastructure was built along the river’s banks to repair steamboats as they moved West, and soon the Miami and Erie Canal flowed into it, bringing even more trade to the city. By the late 19th century, dams were being constructed for the first time on the Ohio River. However, this growth wasn’t to last, and the population remained roughly the same since this time. The same cannot be said for other towns and cities along the Ohio River. Towns like Stubenville, which grew to nearly 40,000 people in the early 20th century, faded as coal fell out of favor and more of the transportation network relied upon rail transportation. This is true of many other cities on the Ohio river who, at the river’s economic peak, were capable of supporting large populations, only to dwindle as the river’s economic reach lessened, echoing Eliot’s sentiment of river’s as “useful” but “untrustworthy” as a “conveyor of commerce.” Eliot’s words ring especially true in the state in which the AEC industry currently finds itself. Rivers no longer belong to those journeying to find new frontiers, they belong to us, the builders of bridges. However, we must journey a different course than that of Eliot’s imagination. Although our understanding of water and how it can be engineered to improve our lives and support growing populations has advanced significantly since the time of the poem’s writing, we cannot see our problems as solved. With increasing threats from climate-related events such as hurricanes and flooding, we are reminded of the power that drew us to settle near water in the first place. As the designers of the world around us, it is the responsi - bility of the AEC industry to not “choose to forget” but to approach these waterways with the same awe and respect that drew the first settlers there.

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.



June 2022

2022 Learning Opportunities Learning is your competitive advantage. Zweig Group is your life-long learning provider of choice.



JUN 16-17 The Principals Academy Miami, FL

JUN 7, 14, 21, 28

Project Management 11am-12:30pm CT

JUN 22-24 AEC Executive Roundtable Dallas, TX

JUL 12, 19, 26 + AUG 2

Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals 11am-12:30pm CT

Elevating Doer-Sellers Houston, TX Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals New Orleans, LA ElevateAEC Conference & ElevateHER Symposium Las Vegas, NV

JUL 14-15

AUG 11-12

DRIVEN BY DATA a webinar series that

SEP 14-16

complements the release of Zweig Group survey reports; takes place virtually monthly Topics include: Financial Management Recruitment & Retention Best Performing Firms

LATE FALL Project Management TBD

The Principals Academy TBD


Operating Expenses Valuation, & more!

Dates & offerings are subject to change. Scan the code to get the latest. Or contact us at events@zweiggroup.com for group rate, or to find out how to bring a customized version of these trainings to your firm.

Zweig Group is an approved Continued Education provider by the AIA & SHRM

events + virtual Events

june 2022

our comprehensive data set of industry benchmarks and best practices. The Principals Academy is like a two-day mini-MBA for design and technical professionals and is the most impactful two days you can spend learning to build your career and your firm. https://zweiggroup.com/products/the-principals-academy-2023

Accelerating Industrial Digital Transformation and Sustainability june 6-9 – orlando, FL As we return to a new normal, industrial innovation is accelerating. A renewed focus on sustainability, the circular economy, and climate change is sparking innovation and powering transformational and technological change throughout the industrial sector. Resilience has been prioritized in the supply chain and throughout production operations. Digital leaders have now validated their strategies against the real-world challenges brought on by the pandemic, and are accelerating their innovation and transformation initiatives. Many companies supported 'connected' remote and frontline workers far earlier than they anticipated, and will now do more. Having seen the power of disruptive technologies to transform business operations and competitive strategies, improve resilience, reduce costs, and better serve customers, it's full speed ahead. https://www.arcweb.com/events/arc-industry-forum-orlando The Summit for AEC Financial Leaders, by AEC Financial Leaders june 12-14 – Scottsdale, AZ BAEC's mission is to empower Architecture, Engineering, and Construction financial leaders to be better equipped to guide their firms to greater value. The BAEC Summit will provide practical, focused information ideal for connection, communication, and collaboration between the AEC disciplines. https://baecsummit.com/ ACE22 provides an opportunity to connect with global water experts in every segment of the water sector. Whether at the Water Industry Luncheon or pre-conference workshops providing hands-on learning experiences, AWWA cannot wait to welcome back the water sector to San Antonio in June for a highly anticipated ACE22, showcasing smart technologies and new programs that address critical issues to protect the world's most important resource! https://www.awwa.org/ace/ The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm at this impactful two-day program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm leaders in key areas of firm management leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. Learning and networking at this premiere event challenges traditional seminar formats and integrates participatory idea exchange led by Zweig Group’s CEO Chad Clinehens, PE, and Zweig Group's Managing Principal, Jamie Claire Kiser. Zweig Group’s leadership team draws from our 30+ year history working with AEC firms to teach the latest approaches to managing and operating successful firms – using ACE22 - The World's Premier Water Conference june 12-15 – San Antonio, TX The Principals Academy june 16-17 – Miami, FL

HxGN Live Global june 20-23 – Las Vegas, NV

HxGN LIVE Global 2022 promises to be our best conference yet with a hybrid in-person and virtual event taking place from 20-23 June 2022. The programme will be structured around audience-centric summit topics enabling you to discover and learn about innovative technologies and proven solutions driving our autonomous future forward in your professional field. This format will serve as a platform for inspiring thought-leadership discussions and a springboard for building customer communities around each summit topic. Whether you join us in Las Vegas or attend our virtual event from your home or office, you’ll have exclusive access to all that HxGN LIVE Global has to offer. https://hxgnlive.com/global The 2022 AEC Executive Roundtable is a unique opportunity for AEC firm leaders to engage and interact with industry peers to discuss current issues facing firms today, explore industry trends and next practices, and confront the biggest challenges they face leading their firms. Through a combination of short informative presentations and panel discussions, along with multiple topic focused roundtables, this event will allow leaders to truly find the knowledge and insight they are looking for. Zweig Group’s leadership team moderates the program, guiding group conversations, encouraging integration, and networking, and ensuring attendees gain valuable insight, new ideas and tools – and a new network of colleagues – to foster effective leadership at their respective firms. Come prepared to discuss your biggest challenges and successes during this highly interactive session. With you in control of the subject matter, roundtable discussions strike at the heart of what you need to effect change in your organization. https://zweiggroup.com/products/aec-executive-roundtable-2022 july 2022 AEC Executive Roundtable june 22-24 – Dallas, TX The International Bridge Conference® (IBC) is the pre-eminent arena for the bridge industry in North & South America, Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Presented by the Engineers’ Society of Western Pennsylvania, the IBC annually attracts over 1,000 bridge owners and engineers, senior policy makers, government officials, bridge designers, construction executives, and suppliers from throughout the United States and abroad. The IBC is planned by an all-volunteer group and provides continuing education and networking opportunities to members of all facets of the bridge industry. https://eswp.com/bridge/bridge-home/ International Bridge Conference® july 19– Pittsburgh, PA



June 2022

August 2022

October 2022

Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals August 11-12 – New Orleans, la

UAS Summit & Expo October 4-5 – Grand Forks, ND

Practical leadership skills are vital to the health and success of every company in any industry. Effective leaders motivate their teams to achieve exceptional results, inspire others to be better than they thought possible, and create an environment where their team is focused and working towards a common vision. Zweig Group’s team of management experts – who have extensive experience working with AEC firms providing solutions to the challenges facing AEC firms today – deliver practical solutions that technical professionals can put to work immediately to lead their firms to success. https://zweiggroup.com/products/leadership-skills-for-aec- professionals-2022 september 2022

Following a record-breaking UAS Summit & Expo in 2021, we are ready to build off last year’s excitement in the Sili-Drone valley,” said Dayna Bastian, program coordinator for UAS Magazine and the UAS Summit & Expo. “Drone usage is increasing rapidly, and we are looking to showcase presentations reflecting a variety of sectors including counter-drone, emergency management, agriculture, military operations, government and commercial usage and operations, research

and development, and more. www.TheUASsummit.com Chicago Build Expo October 13-14 – Chicago, IL

Chicago Build 2022 features 2 unmissable days of content (300+ Speakers and Workshops); an Expo; Networking; Women in Construction; Meet the Buyer and a Festival of Construction. Conference topics include: Government Contracts & Policy, Sustainability, Real Estate, Architecture, BIM & Digital Construction, Health & Safety, Future Construction, and Skills Hub, as well as AIA CES Workshops. https://www.chicagobuildexpo.com/welcome November 2022 Dimensions is going beyond what you’ve seen before. We’re taking things to a new level, bringing the digital and physical worlds together like never before. We’re going from Dimensions to Dimensions+. Trimble Dimensions+ is more than a conference. It's about making better connections. Sharing knowledge through planned and unexpected interactions. Meeting with old and new friends from your industry and beyond. https://www.trimble.com/en/our-company/news-and-events/ dimensions/overview Trimble Dimensions+ November 7-9 – Las Vegas, NV

Commercial UAV expo september 6-8 – las vegas, nv

Commercial UAV Expo Americas is the definitive event for professionals integrating or operating commercial UAS. With top- notch education, thousands of attendees, and more exhibitors than any other commercial drone event, it’s the best opportunity of the year for anyone who needs to keep up with commercial UAS technology,

trends, and developments. https://www.expouav.com/

ElevateAEC Conference & Awards Gala september 14-16– las vegas, nv

The 2022 ElevateAEC Conference and Awards Gala registration is open for the annual in-person conference in Las Vegas, September 14-16. Celebrate the iconic black-tie awards gala 2022 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards. Register now for the AEC industry’s top IN-PERSON learning and networking event of the year. https://zweiggroup.com/pages/annual-in-person-elevate-leadership-summit Built for SketchUppers by SketchUppers, 3D Basecamp is where modelers of all levels come to learn and share their 3D skills. During 3D Basecamp, the best of the best share their tips, workflows and extensions. Whether you are just getting started or polishing your skills, the learning sessions at 3D Basecamp are jam-packed with knowledge that will enhance your workflow and get you modeling better in no time. Without a doubt, you'll walk away with something new. Sessions and training cover a variety of industries, topics and skill levels. We attract the best trainers and experts to be your SketchUp sherpas at 3D Basecamp. Discover what is possible when you are surrounded by people who inspire you. https://3dbasecamp.sketchup.com SketchUp 3D Basecamp 2022 september 26-30– Vancouver, BC


June 2022


From a World’s Fair to a Local Neighborhood: The Transformation of Treasure Island By Luke Carothers

The original island of the pelicans in the San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island sits between San Francisco and Oakland, California. The first lighthouse was built on the island in 1875. During this time, locals used the island to raise goats–for which the island was renamed for a time–and the military soon found use for the space, establishing a naval training station in 1900. A few decades later in 1936, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ordered the US Army Corps of Engineers to begin dredging the bay to build a new, 400-acre island on the shoals of Yerba Buena, which had previously represented a shipping danger. Named for the gold that potentially lies in the mud dredged up from the bay’s floor, Treasure island was originally constructed for two pur- poses: to host the 1939-40 Golden Gate International Exposition and serve as a future second airport for San Francisco’s growing population. Several permanent structures were erected on the new island including “Building 1”–a 1938 Art Moderne building–and the terminal building meant to house and showcase new Pan American Airways Clippers. After the Golden Gate International Exposition ended, plans to use the development as a new airport fell out of favor and the Navy began using it as a major training station for World War II all the way through the Cold War. In 1997, the naval station on Treasure Island was closed, and the hangar buildings were converted for other uses such as sound stages for television and movies. Since this time, Treasure Island and its neighbor Yerba Buena have maintained a population around 2,000 residents. In addition, Treasure Island is home to several restaurants, schools, arts and athletics organizations, and a Job Corps campus. Now, both Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands are poised to return to a similar level of prestige that came with the Golden Gate International Exposition. The Treasure Island/Yerba Buena Island Development Proj- ect has plans to create a new San Francisco neighborhood with homes offered at below-market rates, extensive parks and open space, public art, hotels, restaurants, and other elements that would make the develop- ment an ideal destination for both San Francisco residents and tourists alike. To manage this development, the Treasure Island Development Authority (TIDA) began the planning stages of the project around 2011. From a geotechnical perspective, building a new development on top of an island that was dredged from the bay’s floor over half a century ago was a tricky endeavor. To lead the geotechnical work on the develop- ment project, ENGEO started studying the island in 2003. ENGEO, one of the most comprehensive geoscience firms in the world, is serving as

the Geotechnical Engineer of Record. As such, they have been working in a number of areas throughout the different phases of the project, doing everything from conducting the design-level geotechnical study to designing and overseeing a massive ground-improvement program, to designing new building foundations to providing construction-phase quality control, to setting up a Caltrans-certified materials testing lab on the island. The plan for the development on Treasure Island/Yerba Buena Island was to develop approximately 200 acres on Treasure Island and over 85 acres on Yerba Buena Island. Development will include a new ferry terminal, 8,000 residential units, and over 100 acres of parks and open space. However, to begin any sort of large-scale development on the island, engineers had to quantify how the land would perform from load- ing related to new buildings and earthquakes. In 2014, 2015, and 2016 ENGEO conducted full-scale field tests and design-level geotechnical studies to support the first phase of development. Uri Eliahu, ENGEO’s President and CEO, notes that these first geotechnical studies were critical to understanding how the island would perform over time. Eliahu points out that, while the entire island has experienced some degree of settling, it is by no means uniform in distribution. The average settlement across the island since it was constructed is between 6- and 6.5-feet, but, on the north end of the island, the settlement is closer to 10-feet. This is contrasted by the south end of the island, closer to Yerba Buena, that experienced only about 3-feet of settlement. This contrast in settlement is due to the varying materials at different locations. Closer to Yerba Buena, Treasure Island rests on not only the sand pumped up from the bay, but also natural shoals that provide an additional source of stability. At other locations on the island, the soil rests on highly compressible natural bay mud, which, according to Eliahu, makes building on the island a much more involved technical



June 2022

vibrating the arms up and down as they are lowered into the ground. As the machinery moves up and down, it displaces material, which the process was completed, the team then followed up by using a different, smaller tamping machine to densify the top layer of material. The result of this testing phase was clear: this technique was very effec- tive at densifying the first 23-feet of material, but had almost no effect on materials below that, particularly the older, natural materials. Eliahu and his team conducted another round of testing to determine if another technique would need to be used to densify this deeper material or if it had some form of natural resistance. To get a better understanding of this deeper material, ENGEO carefully sampled the island soils and used many techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, cyclic shear testing, and geologic mapping. This refined analysis showed that the natural shoal material had a very complex composition that formed a “natural fabric” which made the underlying material resistant to movement. The setting of this new development means that it also has to con- tend with rising sea levels from climate change. Varying levels of settlement across the island mean that ENGEO’s team had to take an adaptive management strategy approach. Rather than building a wall of levees around the island, Eliahu and his team are taking a more innovative ap- proach to combating sea level rise–monitoring the rising of the sea and applying that information to their settlement data. This allows them to come up with adaptable solutions that can be applied to specific areas of need on the island. The initial construction places the development area of the project about 3.5-feet above the 100-year sea level, which Eliahu believes, based on current sea level rise projections, makes the new development safe until at least the end of the century. As the Treasure Island/Yerba Buena Island Development Project continues moving forward, each step is being supported by advanced geotechnical engineering work from ENGEO. As a part of its adaptive management strategy for the project, Eliahu points out their ability to not only plan and perform complex geotechnical work and testing, but also to monitor the data it generates in real time. This provides the team at ENGEO both a better base of knowledge to work from and flexibil- ity to adapt to changes in near real time. With recent milestones such as the completion of the ferry terminal and its opening for daily service, ENGEO’s attention to detail is coming to fruition and will continue to benefit the project beyond its ultimate completion. LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.

process. Under earthquake conditions, the sandy soil could liquefy, and, when significant loads are placed on top of the mud, it has a tendency to compress significantly. The real challenge of this process comes when remediation is. According to Eliahu, the remediation techniques for these two processes are the complete opposite of one another. Eliahu is not shy about pointing out the enormous challenge that forms the crux of the Treasure Island/Yerba Buena Island Development Proj- ect– being that it is located on a manmade body of land that sits upon up to 100 feet of compressible soil and 50 feet liquefiable material, surrounded by water, nestled between the two largest faults on the continent. To both compensate for the compressible nature of the bay mud and the vulnerability of the sand to seismic activity, engineers had to take advantage of both static loading and dynamic energy. Static loading was essential to consolidating for the bay mud. This remedia- tion technique involved pre-compressing a location with a large static load to “squeeze all the water out from the mud,” says Eliahu. The key to this process is ensuring the temporary pre-fill is heavier than the foundation of the new building. In doing so, the building will impose less weight than the soil was previously under, preventing additional settling. For the areas of the island built on sandy soil, the key remedi- tion technique was to densify the material by using dynamic energy. Treasure Island’s location meant that the compaction of this liquefiable material was paramount to safely building on the site. In 2015, ENGEO selected a site on the island to conduct a full-scale testing program for us- ing dynamic energy to densify the material. Part of this testing involved using a 51-ton motor unit to densify material through vibro-compaction and replacement. Although this technology has a long record of success in Japan, it had never been used in the United States. This massive piece of machinery is outfitted with four probes shaped like H-piles. The arms are powered by two motors turning in the opposite direction, rapidly


June 2022 csengineermag.com

For the landmark residential tower recently completed near the Gate- way Arch in St. Louis, the texture and finish of the prominent metallic surfaces needed to be just right. These aluminum surfaces really stand out, at about a 10 degree angle, in tiers of 4-story-high leaves that suggest a golden crown. Architec - ture writers heralded the confident symbolism of this first St. Louis project of the hot and prolific Chicago architectural firm Studio Gang as “the giant crystalline headdress” appropriately located at 100 Kings Highway. Reflecting its surroundings The name, “100 Above the Park,” describes the design concept: by tilt - ing the curtain wall system towards the greenery of Forest Park below, the apartment complex was specifically designed to connect people in the interior to the surrounding environment. From the outside, the downward angle of the glass-and-metal facade of the 380-foot-tall tower reflects the changing light and seasonal beauty of the landscape, and marketing literature promotes the design as a dynamic backdrop for the sprawling park’s fall foliage and snow covered trees. Vibrant metallic look The design also called for a metallic finish comparable to the way that the stainless steel surface of the Arch takes on the color of the sky as weather changes and as the sun moves across the sky from dawn to dusk. To achieve the desired look, the architect researched the exterior materials very early in the conceptual design process of the 37-story, 540,000 square foot building. The tilted rainscreen panels would be composed of lightweight aluminum and attached to non-bearing cold- formed steel framing. The owner and architect choose a corrugated pattern for the texture of the aluminum panels. The next step was to find a surface finish that could achieve a highly-reflective, but diffuse look. Side-by-side comparison After researching the options, they chose two different finishes. A pair of aluminum panels were fabricated with the same corrugated texture. One panel had a painted finish applied. The other panel was fabricated from anodized aluminum from Lorin Industries, with ClearMatt® fin - ish, Architectural Class 1. Anodized Aluminum Crowns the Iconic St. Louis Skyline By Lorin Industries, Inc.

The two samples were evaluated in bright sunlight on the roof of the ar - chitect’s offices in Chicago. Next to each other, the anodized aluminum appeared vibrant and the painted surface looked dull. The anodized aluminum finish was selected for the corrugated rainscreen panels and flat trim panels on the façade as well as for fabricated “blades” over the garage area. Three-dimensional visual effect Anodizing aluminum builds a crystalline structure that reflects and re - fracts light in a way that creates a three-dimensional metallic look you just can’t get from paint—precisely the look sought by the architect. Unlike painted metal, anodized aluminum is not flat, static, or one dimensional. Depending on the angle from which it is viewed, it can achieve ever changing looks due to variables such as the amount of The architect and owner wanted to achieve a striking visual appearance that would age well and retain its exceptional aesthetic qualities for decades to come with minimal maintenance. The key difference is that—unlike paint—anodized aluminum is not a coating. light, time of day, or even the time of year. Long lasting and low maintenance Anodized aluminum is created through an electrochemical process in which a very hard oxide layer is grown from the aluminum itself, rather than being painted on or applied. The raw aluminum is bonded at the molecular level to create a surface that is thick, translucent, and very hard—much harder than the base aluminum itself. In fact, the surface hardness is second only to diamond and is therefore unmatched in abrasion resistance and durability. Therefore, anodized aluminum is much more durable than coated materials and will never chip, flake, or peel and will never rust, patina, or weather. Moreover, Lorin Industries delivers an exceptionally high quality and long lasting anodized finish using a special process where coiled raw aluminum is unwound and pulled through a series of tanks that clean, anodize, color, seal, and finally rewound into the coil—all in one



June 2022

continuous movement. Because every square inch of the material in coil form spends the same amount of time in each part of the process, consistency of color and texture is ensured. Most sustainable option Lastly, the anodized aluminum was chosen not only for its distinctive and long lasting appearance but also for environmental sustainability. Anodized aluminum reduces solar energy absorption. It typically has a higher SRI (solar reflectance index), meaning more of the sun’s heat energy is reflected away from the building, compared to coated

or painted surfaces and thereby keeps buildings cooler, mitigates the urban heat island effect and reduces energy consumption costs. After oxygen and silicon, aluminum is the third most plentiful element on earth and anodized aluminum is also a 100 percent recyclable prod - uct with higher dollar value than scrap painted aluminum. In a city that takes pride in the architecture and historic symbolism of the iconic Gateway Arch, 100 Above the Park stands as a vibrant, optimistic symbolism of the future.

Safety is non-negotiable, which is the reason why engineers histori- cally have taken a “belt and suspenders” approach to developing sys - tem designs for exacting operating conditions. Traditionally, designing for the anticipated stresses, strains, and loads over the service life of an asset or installation has meant going big in terms of secondary reinforcements, pipe wall thickness, valve, and fitting selection, and buried depth, all of which are predicated on boundary conditions such as pressure and temperature. This approach unarguably produces safe and reliable structures, but it also often results in higher costs, a larger footprint, and a longer and more complicated installation process. For example, it is typical for high-temperature requirements to be ap - plied across an entire aeration system. The whole system is designed for 300°F requirements even though some areas, like the blower room, may only see a maximum temperature of 250°F, and the branches may only see 200°F. Designing to a higher standard impacts valve material selection, expansion joint selection, and material selection, all of which impact the bottom line. Similarly, following AWWA M11 to design fully restrained mechanical joints that accommodate thrust for buried pipelines requires the installation of many large rods and gussets, which drives up both capital costs and installation time. Without a deeper understanding of the stresses and loads of a piping system, the safest approach is to design to recognized standards even Lifecycle Efficiency Begins with Better Designs By Luke Prinsloo

if that means designing well beyond the conditions the system will experience over its working life. Optimized designs deliver value by substantially mitigating the direct costs of construction which include the equipment needed to man - age components on site, the materials used, and the labor required for installation. The challenge engineers face is that developing an optimal design is difficult when the designer is working with limited information, and in the interest of safety, is developing a design based on worst-case scenarios. Stress analysis can change that paradigm by enabling a mathemati - cally based understanding of a system’s performance while in use to provide insight that allows the development of safe alternative designs. In simple terms, stress analysis is an early investment that reduces potential risks and reduces costs through optimization. Making this investment at the front end of a project is a long-term investment because it not only enables better system design, but it delivers value over the life of the asset through simplified operation and maintenance. Benefitting from stress analysis In most cases, designs are determined by customer specifications that are dictated by performance needs, site conditions, regulatory require - ments and guidelines, and industry standards. Unfortunately, a design that is appropriate, safe, and executable may also include design constraints that can lead to unnecessarily high construction and main- tenance costs. And once a design is developed and approved, the last thing engineers and contractors want to see are changes because every alteration to the approved plan means more time and more money. Stress analysis allows designers to uncover the limitations or short -


June 2022 csengineermag.com

comings in a design and pinpoint areas for optimization. In some cases, improvements can take the form of product substitutions; using alternative components that deliver the same or better perfor - mance. In other cases, the results of the analysis are the foundation for major redesigns. Stress analysis uses standard software tools like Ceasar II or Autopipe to look at loads inside of the piping to understand the loading that takes place during the construction of large systems. Using this software, analysts can identify things such as supports that are designed for more robust performance than what is required and instead reinforce an el - bow or tee to handle the anticipated loads. The more complex a system, the greater the value derived from stress analysis. When a system needs to accommodate dynamic movement, understanding the unique stress challenges of the proj - ect provides the framework for designing a system that meets those demands most efficiently. The other critical component is partnering with analysts that have the breadth of experience and depth of expertise to know what substitu - tions and redesigns are valid for a particular project. Victaulic provides this input through a team of analysts with backgrounds in different industries who deliver a broad view and a deep understanding of solu - tions and their potential application. Exposure to regional rules, regula - tory guidelines, and requirements in different parts of the world is an advantage when problem-solving and allows the team to capitalize on the experience of the individual members. Sometimes, a solution that works well in one region or industry can be transferred easily to an area where it has never been applied. Delivering value through simpler designs In a recent project, the Victaulic team performed stress analysis on a proposed piping system design that was being considered for an airport in the Middle East. The complex design developed for the airport had to accommodate seismic and thermal movement as well as the curva - ture of the building. The original design was massive. Nearly every spool of pipe included either mitered elbows or pre-curved 36-in. pipe spools to accommodate the architect’s design. Performing stress analysis allowed the team to replace the cumbersome design that was laden with many components and custom fittings to accommodate the curvature of the building with a simplified layout that incorporated easily sourced flexible mechanical pipe couplings. With these pipe couplings, the entire chilled water pro- cess piping system could be constructed using standard spool lengths, which allowed for simpler laydown and material handling. Stress analysis also revealed that fewer anchors and guides were needed to meet the seismic requirements for the system as compared to those dictated by the original engineering specification.

Another recent stress analysis program enabled refinements to a fire suppression system design that was to be installed on multiple bridges in a major metropolitan area. In this case, stress analysis was man - dated because of safety concerns surrounding the load ratings on the existing bridge structures where dry fire suppression systems were to be retrofitted. In addition to the structural constraints, the design considerations included wind, slug flow, pressure thrust, and seasonal temperature changes. Taking these parameters into account, the team of engineers who per - formed the stress analysis determined that appropriately placing loops in the system would lower slug forces, which would allow simpler, cheaper anchors to be considered. Using this approach simplified the design by eliminating nearly 30 anchors across five installations, leading to a savings of $250,000 USD on the anchors alone. Flexible pipe couplings for the curved bridge sections enabled the contractor to simplify the support and installation scheme for the bridge, which expedited construction and lowered costs by reducing the number of fittings and eliminating custom spools without compromising safety. As this was an active roadway, work was carried out at night to mini - mize traffic impacts, meaning every hour saved in construction had a significant impact on the total installed cost of the fire safety system. Making the move Stress analysis is commonplace in other industries where designers rely on technology to gain crucial insights into the effect of design parameters, improve design accuracy, shorten the design cycle, reduce construction cost, and minimize the footprint of installations. Adopting analytical methods to determine the best design enables effi - ciencies across the board by delivering project certainty and mitigating risk. Some companies may balk at making this front-end investment, but a growing body of work proves that stress analysis pays dividends in risk reduction and improved system performance, also saving time and money.



June 2022

Designing for Extreme Weather Events

allowed Altair to add a significant number of solutions–optimization, meshing, computer fluid dynamics (CFD), blast impact, data analytics, and wave propagation– to their core business of structure modeling. When it comes to designing and building new structures to accom- modate increasingly extreme weather events, Frattari notes that these modeling tools present architects and engineers with alternative solu - tions. Traditionally, projects are more inclined to closely follow build - ing codes because they provide a base layer of protection from adverse events and because developing alternative designs adds costs and time. However, structural modeling allows architects and engineers to devel - op multiple options, make changes to those designs, and choose which design best fits the needs of the project. When it comes to designing buildings with things like wind resistance in mind, the ability to create a digital twin and simulate the forces on the structure creates a much more accurate representation as opposed to wind tunnel testing. Technological tools such as CFD allow engineers to accurately repre - sent how physics will interact with a given structure. Using CFD to simulate forces such as wind represents a much easier and cost effec - tive solution to structure testing. The data generated from these simu - lations is also powerful in its ability to accurately represent how forces interact with groups of buildings and cities. Frattari points out that, in the physical sense, it is almost impossible to test how wind interacts with every building in a downtown on a given day. However, through simulation and data analysis, this is now a feasible practice. For wind analysis, this sort of large scale modeling is useful for tracking things like pollution and its path through a city. Frattari believes that this capacity is only limited by the data we col - lect. As more and more members of the AEC industry continue to adopt digital modeling to replace physical scale models and testing, the data set also grows. This paves the way for larger and more complex forms of simulation testing as the digital environment continues to be built out. This is especially important in areas that don’t have sufficient recorded weather and precipitation data. In these instances, digital modeling can be used to reproduce accurate weather conditions. However, technology and data are only part of the solution for this new way of thinking. Frattari believes that technology and data must also be coupled with industry expertise. He says, “[we] need numbers, software, and people…to move forward and change the status quo.” The move away from traditional 3D modeling and physical testing represents an industry shift towards a more connected future. As the data and technology continue to improve, more and more members of the AEC industry are not only adopting digital modeling and testing, but are pushing its boundaries to expand the knowledge of the industry.

By Luke Carothers

One of the most visceral effects of climate change is the increasing intensity of weather events. From hurricanes Katrina and Rita to recent tornadoes in the American South and Midwest–these weather events wreak billions of dollars in damages to residential areas, commercial buildings, and critical infrastructure in over short spans of time. The AEC industry has to be aware of the rising threat of extreme weather events and act accordingly–revisiting building thresholds and redesigning construction to withstand these events. To this end, engineers are now using advanced simulation design technology to uti - lize big data and artificial intelligence to predict the performance and resilience of structures and materials and perform code assessments. One of the people leading the charge in this push is Altair’s Senior Director of Global Architecture Engineering and Construction, Luca Frattari. Frattari has a degree in Architecture and a phD in Experimental Architecture and Product Design, focusing on the optimization of civil engineering structures and products. In 2011, around the time Frattari was finishing his phD, the approach of digi - tally designing complex structures with complex shapes hadn’t been fully developed, and the result was repeated trial and error involv - ing designers, engineers, and architects. The result of this gap in technological knowledge meant that, while these complex structures won competitions and looked beautiful, they often had to be modified when it came to actually building them with curves being redefined and additional columns being added. For Frattari, this was his opportunity to begin looking into the technol - ogy side of the problem. This research led him to a product called Optistruct, which was being developed by a company called Altair. After initially struggling with the depth of the program–never having used a product like it–Frattari received training and quickly developed proficiency, helping him complete the research to finish his thesis. The final step in his phD program was completing a six month study abroad internship, which he was able to do working at Altair’s Detroit office. Frattari notes how important this time was for his professional development. After spending time as a user of their products, Frattari was now working “elbow to elbow” with Altair’s software developers. After completing his phD program, Frattari joined Altair full time in a business development role, setting up a market for Altair in the architecture, engineering, and infrastructure spaces. During this time, Altair was developing “cutting edge technology for the simulation of structures.” However, this focus soon expanded to include electronics, data analytics, and high performance computing. According to Frat - tari, this transition made Altair into a much more complete company, which facilitated their growth into the larger market. This growth has

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.


June 2022 csengineermag.com

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