THE COVER Nondestructive Testing: The Key to Bridge Longevity – story on page 10 CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 12 Helping a Hospital Weather Climate Threats 13 Wildlife Crossings Bridge the Gap 16 Taking to the Wind for Climate Change 19 Delivering Bridge Projects with Environmental Knowledge and Discipline STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 21 Uncommon MSE Wall Failure Calls for Unique Geotechnical Solutions 24 Aiding after a Catastrophe: Autodesk and the Notre Dame Cathedral Fire 26 ASCE Alaska Section Historic Civil Engineering Landmark Designation 28 Bridging the Gap: The Future of Bridge Construction TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 31 How MaineDOT Replaced an Interstate Bridge In 60 Hours 33 Solving the Labor Shortage to Support Infrastructure Progress 35 Replacing the Hickman Road Bridge WATER + STORMWATER 37 Four Basic Steps to Begin an Accurate Site Analysis for an Onsite Wastewater Treatment Plant Design BUSINESS NEWS 39 Building a Bridge Between Past and Future 40 Recruiting, Retraining, and Developing a Diverse Engineering Team SURVEYING 42 The Three Advantages of the Leica AP20 AutoPole That Impress Me the Most
departments 8 Events 44 Reader Index
Columns INDUSTRY INSIGHTS 5 Affecting Change: The 2022 ElevateHer Symposium Jamie Claire Kiser LOOKING BACK, MOVING FORWARD 6 Engineering the Rialto Bridge Luke Carothers
VOLUME 8 ISSUE 11 csengineermag.com
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Affecting Change: The 2022 ElevateHer Symposium
Jamie Claire Kiser
Just a few weeks ago, we held the third annual ElevateHer Symposium where professionals from around the AEC industry gathered to challenge them- selves by thinking about what role they and their firms can play in making the future a better and more equitable place. 2022 was the first year our El - evateHer cohort was able to meet in person, and the venue was imbued with levity and joy. While these are not typically descriptive of discussions about the future–particularly nowadays–the ability for our 2022 cohort to step out of the day-to-day and focus on a shared vision of the future in a communal space breathed a spirit of hope and camaraderie into the event. This is the vision with which we founded ElevateHer in 2018. The desire to not only look past the troubled waters of the current moment, but to visual - ize the bridge to a better future and begin to lay the foundations is at the heart of ElevateHer. In this pursuit, we can find strength in historical context. Shortly after the onset of the American Revolution in March of 1776, Abigail Adams was living separately from her revolutionary husband John, raising four children in war-torn Massachusetts while her husband lived and worked in Philadelphia. While John Adams policked in Philadelphia–espousing ideals on patriotism and public policy–Abigail lived the life of a single parent. During the Spring of 1776, the waters in which Abigail Adams found herself were indeed troubled. The difficulty of performing her duties as a parent was only exacerbated by the fact that the Revolutionary War had broken out all around her. While the couple was physically separated, they still shared an emotional bond. At this historical junction, Abigail Adams demonstrated the unique vision of the future we seek to emulate. With war breaking out around her, Adams wrote letters to her husband, imploring him to use his position of power to set in law a better future for women in the country he sought to establish. In these letters, Adams wrote to her husband about the “new code of laws which…[would] be necessary for [him] to make.” Adams implored that in the making of the new nation that he and his fellow revolutionaries “remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors.” Looking past the present moment, Adams was not advocating for herself, but rather for a larger swath of women. Abigail Adams implored her husband to take into account women whose husbands did not share the same respect that he did, writing to her husband: “Why then, not put it out of the power of the vicious and the lawless to use [women] with cruelty and indignity with impunity. Men of sense in all ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the vassals of your sex.” It has to be stated that Adams is not referring to “all women”, but rather “all white women whose husbands own land.” However, using the means at her disposal, Adams challenged her husband to speak on behalf of the 84 percent of Americans who couldn’t vote at the time. The decision to do this took a tremendous amount of courage. However, Abigail Adams' courage was ultimately imbued in her husband, and gave him the strength to enter the rooms where the new nation was being built with that perspective. Her advocacy was successful, and the needle moved towards progress for a time when women landowners were granted the right to vote in New Jersey in 1776. While this right only lasted 30 years, Adams’ strength and courage elevated the concerns to an arena that can affect change. In this anecdote we can find strength despite the troubled waters that we find ourselves in currently. Despite many moments of courage like Adams’ throughout American history, women are still fighting to keep the needle of progress moving forward. The last two years in particular have been espe - cially challenging for women in the workforce. As of 2020, the average white woman in America still made 73 cents on the dollar compared to their male counterparts. Black and Hispanic women made 58 cents and 49 cents, respectively. That was before women left the workforce in droves due to remote schooling, daycare closures, and a variety of caregiving challenges wrought by the pandemic that primarily fell on women’s shoulders. According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, there are still 2 million fewer women in the workforce than there were two years ago. Abigail Adams was able to use the means at her disposal to affect change. However, a large percentage of women are not afforded the same means, and don’t often have access to spaces where they can be an advocate for change. ElevateHer seeks to give women in the AEC industry access to the means of change, allowing them to connect with others both professionally and personally. During the 2022 ElevateHer Symposium, leaders from across the AEC industry had genuine discussions about the topics affecting them, and extended those discussions into actionable plans. As the designers of the built environment, the AEC industry has a unique impact in that what happens within our industry affects people in every corner of the globe. As such, the ability to affect change within our industry has reverberating effects for many people. In this spirit, the 2022 ElevateHer cohort embodies the example of Abigail Adams, who–through a thinly veiled threat towards her powerful husband–af - fected change for a larger swath of the population. The 2022 cohort’s ability to courageously and fearlessly challenge the current paradigm is again echoed by Abigail Adams’ letters to her husband: “if particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound to any laws by which we have no representation or voice.” If you want to be a part of the 2023 ElevateHer Cohort, learn more here .
looking back, moving forward
Often called “the City of Bridges”–along with a host of other names–Venice is built on a group of 118 islands in northeastern Italy. The city of Venice is itself an engineering marvel with its massive array of islands con- nected by a network of canals and bridges. Venice’s history as a city began around the 7th century CE, but its expansion truly began a few centuries later as it developed into a maritime trading hub. As the city ex- panded its power, wealth, and influence, a long string of infrastructure projects began to take shape–funded by both the government and private citizens–that would give Venice the architectural profile for which it is now revered. The primary goal of these bridge-building projects was to improve mobility throughout the island-based city, but there was always a secondary goal of improving the city’s prestige. As the city continued to grow, several important districts emerged within Venice, including the Rialto district which soon grew to be the economic and financial heart of the burgeoning maritime power. Located on the eastern bank of Venice’s Grand Canal, the Rialto market grew in importance along with the city, and increased traffic led to the con - struction of a pontoon bridge in the 12th century that would connect the market with the western bank. The pontoon bridge was replaced a century later as traffic to the market continued to increase. Although this new timber structure allowed for more traffic than its predecessor, it was hampered by both the cost of maintenance and historical events. Part of the wooden bridge was burnt down in the 13th century during a revolt, and the structure ultimately collapsed on two separate occasions in 1444–under the press to witness an aristocratic wedding–and a final time in 1524. After this final collapse in 1524, city authori - ties finally recognized the need to rebuild the structure in stone, and began requesting plans for the design of a stone bridge on the same spot. When the Venetian government made the call for designs, many of the world’s foremost thinkers submitted plans for a structure–including Michelangelo–which is indicative of the city’s prestigious standing. Ultimately, the Venetian government chose a plan submitted by Antonio de Ponte, a Swiss-born Venetian architect and engineer. Ponte’s plan was to build a stone arch bridge with two inclined ramps with stairs connecting to a central portico. This bridge’s arch span–measuring 24 feet at its highest–is tall enough to let large ships pass beneath the structure along the Grand Canal. The portico area was also outfitted with shops on both sides and three separate walkways. The plan was approved by city authorities in 1588. The first challenge was supporting the weight of the stones. To do this, Venetian engineers drove over 6,000 timber piles into the soil under the bridge’s abutments. With the piles in place, engineers began laying the stones for the bridge, and the future icon began to take shape. While the engineering behind the Rialto Bridge’s shape is a major part of its status as an icon, its aesthetic qualities are an equal if not greater part. The bridge’s stones are a white limestone, chosen specifically for its ability to withstand weathering from salt water, but with the added bonus of a clean, white exterior. Another feature of this white limestone–known as trolley–is that its smooth surface is a perfect canvas for sculptors, of which Venice had no shortage. There are numerous figures–depicting the history of Venice–beautifully carved into the sides of the bridge, adding an artistry to match its functionality. The Rialto Bridge’s longev- ity as both a functional and aesthetic icon is a testament to both its design and the materials used. Construc- tion on the project lasted three years, and the structure was opened to the public in 1591. Despite contemporary criticism from fellow architects that the bridge’s bold design wouldn’t stand the test of time, the Rialto Bridge is still standing and in use today. While the Rialto Bridge was originally constructed to service the city’s growing market, it has since evolved into a tourist hub, attracting visitors from across the globe. When it comes to peers, the Rialto Bridge has very few, but there is plenty to gain from its historical narrative.
Engineering the Rialto Bridge
LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at email@example.com.
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events + virtual Events
The Engineering Conference November 3 – Ottawa, ON
The Engineering Conference is hosted by the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers and is Canada’s largest engineering, diversity, and recruitment event. This event will bring together engineers with industry, research, and government leaders to present and discuss opportunities, challenges, and innovations in the field. Delegates at this conference will be able to participate in interactive presentations by professional engineers and subject matter experts on important issues facing the profession, network with colleagues while learning about the innovative engineering work taking place in Ontario, visit trade show booths, and attend panel discussions. https://www.engineeringconference.ca/2022 The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm with this program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm leaders in key areas of firm management leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. Learning and networking at this premiere event challenges traditional seminar formats and integrates participatory idea exchange led by Jamie Claire Kiser, Zweig Group's Managing Principal, Phillip Keil, Zweig Group's Principal and Director of Strategy, as well as the firm’s top line up of advisors. https://zweiggroup.com/products/the-principals-academy-2022-nov The Principals Academy November 3-4 – Arlington, TX Dimensions is going beyond what you’ve seen before. We’re taking things to a new level, bringing the digital and physical worlds together like never before. We’re going from Dimensions to Dimensions+. Trimble Dimensions+ is more than a conference. It's about making better connections. Sharing knowledge through planned and unexpected interactions. Meeting with old and new friends from your industry and beyond. https://www.trimble.com/en/our-company/news-and-events/ dimensions/overview Trimble Dimensions+ November 7-9 – Las Vegas, NV
Disrupt Symposium November 1-3
Disrupt is the first of its kind Business of Architecture Symposium looking to bring all major architecture practices under one roof to talk about ways in which they strategise for growth and success. These are the experts behind Top Architecture Practices. Their everyday decisions help build the world's most admired mega-structures. If you want to learn about the business you want to learn from them. https://disruptsymposium.com/nov2022 Programming is focused on structural engineering content for both technical and non-technical practitioners and offers up to 14.5 hours of professional development. Specific content areas include best design practices, new codes and standards, recent project case studies, advanced analysis techniques, management and business practices, diversity and inclusion, resilience, and sustainability. https://www.ncseasummit.com/ NCSEA's STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING SUMMIT November 1-4– Chicago, IL This is the 10th annual event for the AEC+ Community hosted by Thornton Tomasetti | CORE studio. This year will be feature a Full Day Symposium, 27 Hour Hackathon, Virtual and In Person Masterclasses, as well as some exciting new events to be announced soon. We strive to offer the most enriching workshops in the latest technologies, engage industry leaders and provide a forum for project growth, development and networking. By serving as a space where creative minds can devise new technologies, acquire skills and make new connections, AEC Tech is helping build an open community of knowledge sharing to promote industry progression and enhance collaboration and communication. https://www.aectech.us/welcome AECtech 2022 symposium and hackathon November 1-6– New York City, NY
Project Management for AEC Professionals November 2– Dallas, TX
A new seminar for project managers, led by experts, and backed by a ton of research on how to best train project managers to be more effective and efficient. https://zweiggroup.com/products/project-management-2023
PASS Data Community SUMMIT November 15-18 – Seattle, WA
PASS Data Community Summit 2022 is the year's largest gathering of data platform professionals. Whether you're joining us online or in-person, this is your opportunity to connect, share, and learn with thousands of your peers from the global data platform community. https://passdatacommunitysummit.com/
DESIGN-BUILD CONFERENCE & EXPO November 2-4 – Las Vegas, NV
The Design-Build Conference & Expo comes at a critical time in our nation’s history. As Owners work to deliver infrastructure investment projects across all sectors and regions, they’re looking for qualified design-build teams. This event provides a unique opportunity for industry and Owners to come together with the shared goal of delivering the nation’s most collaborative, innovative and efficient projects. https://dbia.org/design-build-conference-expo/
Driven by Data - Marketing November 16 – Virtual
The 2022 Driven By Data Webinar Series is a collection of virtual courses designed to educate and inform attendees on a specific topic in
Zweig Group's leading AEC industry research. The seventh installment of the series is Marketing. https://zweiggroup.com/products/driven-by-data-marketing February 2023
Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals Spring March 9-10 – Austin, TX
Zweig Group’s strategy approach, previously reserved for advisory clients, is brought to the training environment for the first time ever. This course equips leaders with practical skills to identify opportunities, develop and execute strategy, and build support for initiatives within their organization. This training provides a high impact learning experience that is designed to help emerging and current leaders master the one area that is so often neglected in modern leadership training: developing and executing strategy to solve complex problems. https://zweiggroup.com/products/leadership-skills-for-aec- professionals-spring-2024
Geo Week & AEC Next February 13-15 – Denver, CO
Geo Week is the premier event for increased integration between the built environment, advanced airborne/terrestrial technologies, and commercial 3D technologies, bringing together former stand-alone events AEC Next Technology Expo & Conference, International Lidar Mapping Forum, and SPAR 3D Expo & Conference, and powerful partnership events including ASPRS Annual Conference, MAPPS Annual Conference and USIBD Annual Symposium. Geo Week is at the forefront of this integration, providing education, technology, and networking for professionals to help businesses to digitize their workflows and break down silos between disciplines. https://www.geo-week.com/
Most see a school. We see a place that instills lifelong learning.
Nondestructive Testing: The Key to Bridge Longevity
By Marybeth Miceli and Sreenivas Alampalli
The unfortunate reality of time is that all things age. Hopefully with age comes wisdom, and with wisdom comes the decision of making healthy choices that increase longevity and functionality. If you go for an annual physical and the doctor declares that you are healthy without checking your vitals, you might be a little thrown off. As we get older, recurring blood tests and other diagnostics are critical to finding concerns early so that proper corrective measures can be taken immediately to maintain your health. Similarly, regular health examinations of infrastructure, especially bridges, are vital to ensure a long and healthy lifespan. More than just landmarks, bridges play a critical role in the daily lives of all Americans. There are over 600,000 highway bridges in the United States. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Report Card for America’s Infrastructure , about 7.5 percent of bridges (45,000 in all) are considered to be in poor (structurally deficient) condition. While bridges in poor condition are generally safe for the traveling public, they likely could use some corrective measures to repair advanced deterioration and damage. This would improve safety, maintain uninterrupted utility, and better the competitiveness of the United States economy by avoiding long detours for trucks. This abundance of vulnerable, aging bridges highlights a need for more regular and thorough examination of our nation’s highway bridge in - frastructure, in addition to a need for data-driven decision making to use the limited funds available in the most responsible way possible. While many factors play a role in reducing the number of poor bridges and structural failures, regular and proactive quantitative assessment followed by consistent maintenance can go a long way to ensure the longevity and integrity of such vital infrastructure. Among the most effective evaluation techniques is nondestructive testing (NDT). NDT is the process of thorough evaluation without de - stroying the serviceability of the asset. Today, NDT can be utilized to discover potential defects and deterioration not only in bridges, but in innumerable other structures from pipelines to nuclear plants to rockets. While there are multiple NDT methods, one most often used on bridges is visual inspection (VI). VI is one of the oldest applications of NDT. Whether using ropes for access or, increasingly, drones, VI enables engineers with specialized and comprehensive training to conduct and evaluate a bridge to identify anomalies for closer study supplementing other NDT methods such as magnetic particle (MT), ultrasonic testing (UT), dye penetrant testing (PT), or ground penetrating radar (GPR). Sonar based methods are gaining traction to supplement underwater inspections where visibility is low or unsafe for divers.
Unfortunately, research has found that NDT methods are not as consis- tently applied in the inspection of bridges as their proven effectiveness would lead us to imagine. Studies like the 2014 Performance Testing of Inspectors to Improve the Quality of Nondestructive Testing found that the performance tests of bridges by technicians from other industries were not up to snuff. At least one of the reasons was that inspectors as well as other NDT technicians were not always specifically trained, tested, and certified in NDT for bridge infrastructure. Their knowledge of the practice was derived in other industries and sectors and therefore lacked some of the bridge-specific behavioral understanding and expe - rience critical to effective inspections. Further, regulations and guidelines that require bridge inspectors and their testing skills to meet high levels of performance are few and far between. While it is true that bridge safety inspections in the US are regulated by the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS), one of the major flaws in these regulations is the absence of a require - ment to use NDT personnel specifically trained in bridge inspections. Inspection guidelines do not call for check-ups to be conducted using technology more sophisticated than VI, which is only truly effective if the defects are not hidden and if inspectors have the right train- ing, knowledge, and experience. Similarly, the Federal Highway Administration recently released updated standards with mandatory requirements for inspection personnel but excluded the requirement for NDT certification. Such lenient federal regulations allow discrepancies to exist in state inspection practices. While some states exemplify the best practices of effective and thorough bridge inspection, other states fall short. With the fewest structurally poor highway bridges in the country, Utah has one of the best inspection and testing strategies among all 50 states. In its manual of state standards for bridge management inspections, the Utah Department of Transportation intentionally outlines the applica- tion of NDT in different types of inspections. NDT is recommended, for example, in a Fracture Critical Member (FCM) inspection (now known as non-redundant steel tension member inspection (NSTM)), in which personnel conduct a hands-on inspection of steel tension mem- bers to detect cracks that could cause a bridge to collapse. Beyond the performance of a routine visual inspection, as required by the federal
government, the Utah DOT includes NDT in the procedures for NSTM and comparable specialized inspections. Similarly, New York has one of the best state bridge inspection require - ments. Over the past twenty years, the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) incorporated more NDT training into the state’s inspection standards for bridges. In the development of its Bridge Inspection Manual of 2017 , which remains the current standard used by NYSDOT personnel, New York requires the performance of NDT to assess the condition of assets integral to the health of the struc- ture, such as approach slabs, as well as diving inspections. Load testing is a recognized practice, at the discretion of bridge engineers, for use as part of routine inspection contracts. NYSDOT also administers a certification program for UT. Program applicants must meet the mini - mum requirements as outlined in ASNT-TC-1A (2016), a collection of recommended practices by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) for NDT certification employer-based programs, for a UT level II technician, a minimum of 2 years of field experience prior to taking the exam, as well as passing an exam that includes written and practical components. While NDT methods have been incorporated into NSTM and specialized underwater inspection, they have value throughout the bridge’s lifespan during routine inspections as well. Introducing NDT to bridge inspec - tion during the bridge’s initial construction can lead to lower lifecycle costs, ensuring the bridge is built according to the original plans and specifications where NDT can yield great benefit as a tool of quality control. Similarly, NDT is very useful at the later stages of the bridge’s life to plan appropriate corrective actions while problems are still small before they can be seen with the naked eye and can therefore prioritize the funding for effective asset management. In either case, NDT can be a powerful tool in bridge inspections when properly executed by trained and accredited personnel who follow well developed testing and evaluation procedures and protocols. Its value is increased when state departments of transportation mandate its use. Differing state regulations result in the reality that NDT is overlooked as an essential component of inspection regimens. Whereas in other more heavily regulated industries such as aviation & aerospace and oil & gas, NDT is a non-negotiable essential service in the lifecycle of an asset. Federal standards also must be bolstered to ensure practices across state DOTs and the industry are uniform and consistently applied. Further - more, state DOTs need to increase the application of NDT testing in inspection protocols by adopting regulations that require it be used in bridge inspection, where appropriate, to prevent the future costs associ- ated with bridge failures and closures. These measures will increase the longevity of the bridges, allowing for better and more efficient use of the public’s money. The Federal Highway Administration has laudably developed a program to showcase different NDT methods to state DOT officials through the National Highway Institute. The one-day, demonstration- based seminar, started originally as a one-day course supplementing NYSDOT annual refresher training, educates bridge inspection per- sonnel on the primary NDT tools for this purpose and teaches them how to perform NDT effectively in bridge inspections. However, it
only touches the surface of these methods and by no means qualifies independent execution of NDT on bridges. In the interest of implementing best practices, bridge owners would also do well to adopt the use of advanced technologies, such as drones and passive sensor based structural monitoring, to improve testing efficiency and reduce the risk of human injury. Proactive efforts to use NDT and monitoring methods to recognize deterioration before it becomes critical to plan maintenance work would be instrumental in preventing the high expenses that accompany emergency work, post - ings, and full replacements. Without more stringent regulation, proper NDT based inspections may increasingly be set aside as a cost sav- ing measure or inconsistently applied, even though full replacement is exponentially more expensive than preventive maintenance, not to mention much more disruptive. As technology in the NDT industry advances, owners along with regu- lators bear a responsibility at the state and federal levels. Professionals in the field must consistently update their training and accreditation in NDT methods as required by their individual state guidelines. ASNT, the largest technical society for NDT professionals, offers certification and standards programs to NDT personnel. Despite the fact that the majority of states require inspectors to attend regular training courses , the value of certification from ASNT cannot be minimized. ASNT’s certification and standards programs as well as its professional devel - opment programs, provide the foundation for expanded awareness of advancements in NDT technology. While ASNT itself does not pro - duce standards that describe how to perform NDT inspections, those standards are available through ASTM International and other organi - zations. They also are highlighted in the codes and standards involved in NDT industry . The improvement of bridge inspection practices could detect and address poor construction to dangerous structural defects before a worst-case scenario presents itself. We should learn from our past and become more proactive and less reactive in our approach to bridge management. We regularly perform diagnostic tests on our planes, cars, and even our own bodies. Why should we tolerate anything less for the structures that are the lifeline of our economy?
MARYBETH MICELI, C.ENG. has been a member of ASNT for over 20 years. Throughout the years, she has served as chairperson on different committees and councils, including the Board of Directors and the Infrastructure Commit- tee. Ms. Miceli also led many of the Women in NDT committee initiatives in ASNT to supports women’s advocacy in the NDT field. SREENIVAS ALAMPALLI, P.E. PHD is a Senior Principal at Stantec, focusing on NDT and Structural Monitoring areas. He is a Fellow of ASNT, ASCE, the Structural Engineering Institute (SEI), and the International Society for Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (ISHMII).
November 2022 csengineermag.com
Eighteen years ago, in September of 2004, the winds and torrential rains of Hurricane Ivan battered against the face of Baptist Health Care’s (BHC) E-Street campus in Pensacola, Florida. The aftermath of the storm left the campus flooded, waterless, and debilitated to a point of disrepair, leading to years of lingering problems such as a compro- mised building skin resulting from leaking windows. Hurricane Ivan was the first of a series of cascading interruptions to their operations, which ultimately cost the hospital $78 million from 2004 to 2020. Unfortunately, this scenario is quite common. Our changing climate poses a major threat to healthcare providers, because natural disasters that damage healthcare facilities often disable them at the precise time their services are needed most, while also directly impacting finan - cials. Data from the National Center for Environmental Information shows that 2021 was the seventh consecutive year in which 10 or more billion-dollar weather and climate events impacted the United States. Additionally, the Federal Emergency Management Agency estimates that severe weather events can cost hospitals anywhere from $600,000 to $2 billion per occurrence. As a changing climate creates new risks to existing and new infrastruc - ture, it’s imperative that our communities’ most vital institutions em - ploy resilient design principles and create redundancy to better respond during periods of extreme weather. This is how Gresham Smith helped Baptist create a resilient facility that will improve the quality of life for generations to come. Learning from the Past Challenged by a 71-year old facility that could no longer meet the evolving needs of their providers, staff, and the growing commu- nity, Baptist called on Gresham Smith to build a new full-scale health campus on a 57-acre site in Pensacola, Florida. The campus, which is currently under construction, will include a new 10-story, 264-bed hospital; a six-story, 178,000-square-foot multispecialty health center; an 80,000-square-foot developer-owned medical office building; a 48,000-square-foot behavioral health hospital; and a 23,000-square- foot central energy plant. Given their past experiences, it was critical to Baptist that the new campus withstand future major weather events, with an ultimate goal of keeping the new hospital operational during and immediately fol- lowing an extreme weather event. Specifically, they wanted a hospital that could support seven days of off-grid operational capacity and withstand a 1,000-year storm, a Category 5 hurricane, and 200 MPH wind velocity. Helping a Hospital Weather Climate Threats By Levi Sciara, P.E.
While Gresham Smith’s architects and engineers factor historical climate and weather data into design decisions on all projects, the de- sign team for this project took it a step further. To meet the Baptist’s resiliency goals, we conducted a climate risk assessment to help them understand the risks to their new campus before working to develop targeted mitigation strategies. Assessing the Risks To conduct the climate risk assessment, the team first identified the future projected climate hazards applicable to the site, such as high wind events like hurricanes, localized flooding, and water scarcity during weather events. We then gathered data from publicly available information and conducted interviews with local and state authorities having jurisdictions to categorize the severity of the hazard and mitiga- tion strategies. The team then presented multiple strategies to Baptist, with cost associated, to guide the cost versus reward discussion as it relates to implementation within the project’s scope. This initial pro - cess helped Baptist prioritize financial resources and focus areas for additional mitigation strategies. Planning for the Future Flooding was quickly identified as the first hazard to mitigate due to the costly water damage at Baptist’s current campus. Not only did the project team study the topography of the project site, but we also studied the characteristics of the entire watershed to understand how much water sheet flows into the site during different storm events and where it comes from. Using this data, the civil engineering team used modeling software to simulate 100-, 200-, 500-, and 1,000-year storms as localized storm events to understand the sheet and concentrated flow paths and flood depths across the proposed Brent Lane Campus. Modeling showed that during a 1,000-year storm event, the maximum water depth on the site would reach 3.65 feet prior to discharging off - site. Calculations were immediately verified during the early stages of construction when an existing light industrial building nearby experi - enced almost a foot of water during a high rainfall event. This informa - tion helped guide Gresham Smith to design a campus to mitigate the possibility of flooding during large rainfall events. To create redundancies and minimize reliance on utility potable water, the team evaluated multiple water supply options, along with onsite storage and treatment. Multiple options were evaluated for water redundancy for both operational water uses (black water and cooling tower make-up) and potable water usages. Options included water
truck hook-ups with floor isolation valving and a spigot in each floor’s mop room to supply water for toilet flushing. Climate hazards also led the discussion during multiple design deci- sions on sanitary sewer discharge, wind loadings and fuel storage for operational systems. Examples of such options discussed were onsite sanitary sewer treatment, higher wind loadings and 14-day onsite fuel supply storage. While these options are suitable options for some proj - ects, the cost vs reward did not warranty inclusion. Designed to Last By accounting for the projected climate hazards Baptist’s new hospi - tal campus will be vulnerable to during its lifespan, Gresham Smith is providing Baptist Health Care with the best available information and equipping them to make smart fiscal decisions. The information has enabled the design team to develop a program and strategies that will decrease the campus’ vulnerability during hazardous conditions, ultimately helping create a strong community asset that will be able to weather the storm when it opens to the public in 2023.
reuse, water storage, and water supply redundancy. Ultimately, the de - sign team decided on an approach of stormwater reuse and onsite water supply wells with generator backup for operational water usage and onsite storage of bottled water for potable usage. The hospital has also designed contingencies for gray water supply, including water tanker
LEVI SCIARA, P.E. is Senior Civil Engineer at Gresham Smith.
are only 1,000 wildlife crossings in America’s 4 million mile roadway network, or about one crossing every 4,000 miles. Animals’ lives and species survival are altered by the infrastructure that we rely on for our daily commutes. While it is encouraging to see high-profile projects like the Wallis Annenberg Wildlife Crossing achieving global recognition, we recognize the necessity of establish- ing a better understanding of the needs across all regions of the US that are affected by human transportation infrastructure. Engineering efforts are already underway in small towns across the Midwest; while we may not host larger animals like bears and bobcats, racoons and frogs among a myriad of other species deserve our attention and pro- tection as well. A Mutually Beneficial Solution The impact of infrastructure on wildlife is undeniable: our footprint has eliminated habitats, disrupted migratory patterns, and isolated animal subsets from larger breeding pools with genetic implications. However, the impact isn’t confined to the animal world. The Federal Highway Administration has estimated that between 1 and 2 million vehicle-animal strikes occur every year, causing over $8.3 billion in cost associated with damage, injuries, and fatalities.
Wildlife Crossings Bridge the Gap Opportunities exist to use crossings as learning tools and bipartisan healing By Kevin Hetrick, PE
Earlier this year, construction began on the world’s largest wildlife crossing . The $87 million Wallis Annenberg Wildlife Crossing in Agoura Hills, California will eventually be a superhighway for ani- mals residing and migrating in Southern California. The crossing will span 10 lanes of Highway 101 and allow animals safe passage into important migratory habitats for mountain lions, coyotes, deer, snakes, and other species. The project is hailed as an endeavor that will create a new era of environmentalism and conservation, which will establish an interconnectedness of human and animal infrastructure. Further, the Bipartisan Infrastructure Deal has established $350 million in federal funding for wildlife infrastructure, an unprecedented invest- ment in wildlife crossings across the country. It’s estimated that there
November 2022 csengineermag.com
Engineers, with public and governmental support, are positioned to lead the charge. Engineers bear responsibility to offer solutions when designing new roadways, bridges, and structures that allow for the safe passage of animals in their natural environments. In a time of increasingly divided politics, wildlife crossings have been identified as a non-partisan, mutually beneficial initiative to improve conservation and safety. With the help of interviews from Brian Boszor of the Indiana Depart - ment of Natural Resources, Katy Duffield, children’s author of Cross - ings, as well Clark Dietz’s staff of Professional Engineers, we explored how to make wildlife crossings and conservation approachable in the context of engineering design. What is Road Ecology? Kevin Hetrick—Clark Dietz: How exactly does infrastructure affect nature? Brian Boszor—Central Region Environmental Biologist, Indiana Department of Natural Resources: Road, bridge, trail, and utility line construction have been shown to impact fish, wildlife, and botanical resources in seven major ways: mortality from construction activi- ties, mortality from maintenance activities or collision with vehicles, modification of animal behavior, alteration and fragmentation of the physical environment, alteration of the chemical environment, spread of invasive plant species, and increased human use and disturbance of natural areas. The evidence from well-designed studies suggests that well-connected habitat corridors are valuable conservation areas for fish, wildlife, and botanical resources. KH: What should the public understand about the importance of wild- life passage in their communities? BB: Most municipalities in Indiana have at least one major waterway that bisects their town or city. Wildlife species use waterways in much the same way that humans use a roadway. The number of different wildlife species that can pass through an urban area is directly related to the number of passable bridge or culvert structures. Wildlife passage is critical to maintaining healthy wildlife populations, which benefits people that hunt and fish as well as those who just enjoy seeing or knowing that wildlife is present around them. KH: Clark Dietz submits permit applications for review by the De- partment of Natural Resources on behalf of municipalities that include wildlife crossing designs. What key features are you looking for when providing solutions for safe wildlife passage? BB: The key features of a crossing detail that should be considered for any wildlife crossing are the inclusion of a flat level pathway across a 2:1 spill slope, the ability to back fill the area with smaller substrate that is passable to a wider variety of wildlife species, the placement of the pathway above the ordinary high-water mark, and the ability to tie the pathway into existing elevations upstream and downstream of the bridge or culvert. KH: How can the DNR and engineers continue to prioritize wildlife conservation as it relates to infrastructure?
Photo: Clark Dietz, Inc.
BB: With four Environmental Biologists recommending roughly seven to 10 wildlife crossings per month, we can potentially help improve roughly 100 bridges and culverts per year for wildlife passage. Many engineering firms here in Indiana, including Clark Dietz, are coming up with great solutions to improve wildlife passage as a part of their bridge and culvert designs in coordination with the Division of Fish and Wildlife Environmental Unit. KH: Why is now the right time to push for adoption of wildlife conser - vation solutions? BB: The Bipartisan Infrastructure Bill has outlined roughly 9 new and expanded Federal and State funding mechanisms for the analysis, design, and implementation of wildlife crossings related to infrastruc- ture projects. There has literally never been a better time to work on improving the permeability of our linear infrastructure for fish and wildlife passage as well as human safety. Educations Is Paramount to Future Success Kevin Hetrick—Clark Dietz: You wrote Crossings, a children’s book that describes different types of wildlife crossings that exist globally. What do you want children and families to learn about wildlife crossings? Katy Duffield— Author of Crossings : First, and foremost: Animals are important. I firmly believe that everything in nature is interconnected—
human-centric problems, and yet we run the risk of being shortsighted about the interconnectedness of humans and wild animals. Project Manager and Clark Dietz Civil Engineer Katherine Kreien- kamp, PE says, “Many times, I think that people can become hyper focused on ‘How does this affect me?’. By teaching about crossings, we can introduce effects on the environment and the ecosystem in a project area. This also helps people to realize that choices made in a project are not made only to benefit one party, but a system as a whole.” Safer infrastructure is a byproduct of conservation-focused engineer- ing design. While many municipalities Clark Dietz serves in Indiana are incorporating wildlife crossings as a requirement of the permitting process on new projects, they are recognizing the ancillary benefits. “While the design detail helps to protect wildlife, the safe passage of animals under a bridge or structure also means that less wildlife will try to cross a corridor with vehicular traffic. As a result, there are less potential roadway obstructions and drivers will experience safer pas - sage,” says Sandra Bowman, Manager, Ecology and Waterway Permit - ting Office of the Indiana Department of Transportation. Brian Powers, PE, CFM, ENV SP, who spearheaded Clark Dietz’s wildlife crossing design as approved by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources encourages a more symbiotic relationship with the environment. “I love wildlife focused designs. In my opinion, humans can’t occupy every square inch of this planet; we need to set aside space for the other species as well. I find it incredibly satisfying to know that we’re doing our part to improve both design and education as it relates to road ecology.” With unprecedented levels of public support, we are on the precipice of a major shift in conservation and safety led by engineering-based solutions. Wildlife crossings both large and small have the opportunity to transform our nation's vast infrastructure network. “I feel optimistic about benefits that come from implementation of design features that take conservation strategies into account. Because the construction of infrastructure can be a disruptor to an environment, finding a way to mitigate the impact to surrounding wildlife is always a net positive,” says Kreienkamp. KEVIN HETRICK, PE is Clark Dietz’s Central Indiana Area Manager and serves as Project Executive for Transportation projects State-wide. At Clark Dietz, he has been involved with roadway, path, and bridge design and construction, as well as small structure inspections. He previously worked for 14 years at INDOT, first as a Project Engineer in Greenfield District Construction, then in the Central Office Project Management section. CLARK DIETZ, INC. a multi-disciplined infrastructure engineering firm operating from offices in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Wisconsin. Our primary areas of service include civil and environmental infrastructure, transportation, structural, mechanical, and electrical engineering. Clark Dietz’s mission is engineering quality of life that provides a positive impact on people, the natural environ- ment, and the economic well-being of communities. www.clarkdietz.com
Photo: Clark Dietz, Inc.
from the tiniest insect to the largest mammal. Every creature plays a distinct role, and we need every single species. Secondly, thinking out - side the box is a great way to come up with viable solutions to problems. Thirdly, putting our hearts and our minds together, we can solve prob- lems. Everyone can contribute. Everyone can make a difference. KH: Do you think there is an opportunity to use wildlife crossings as a STEM learning opportunity? We hope to inspire future generations of engineering professionals. KD: I’ve connected with many teachers and librarians since Crossings came out and I’ve been honored and thrilled to see how they are using my book in their classrooms. Many educators have shared with me how they’ve had their students design and build their own crossings in the classrooms using cardboard tubes, blocks, Legos, magnet tiles, etc. Once their creation is complete, many have used plastic animals to demonstrate how their inventions work. So many wonderful, imaginative solutions! I also wanted to highlight the creators of the crossings—the “animal lovers” like the scientists who study where the crossings will be most effective, the architects and engineers who draw up the actual structures, the construction workers who complete the on-site building of the struc- tures, and others who are instrumental in making these crossings happen. KH: Projects like Wallis Annenberg Wildlife Crossing can be quite expensive, but we’ve shown that local municipalities can support crossings within limited budgets. How can both large and small-scale projects be used to further public education? KD: I think larger projects that get a lot of press can be a great way to raise awareness for crossings in general. They may prompt the public and other governmental bodies to look at ways to protect the animals in their areas—even if it is not on such a grand scale. It comes down to doing what we can to raise awareness across the board; look to see where the problems arise and figure out ways to remedy them. Quality Of Life Extends to All Living Things As infrastructure engineers, we are trained to design solutions to
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