Reverse Osmosis

1. ORP: Used to monitor de-chlorination. Manufacturers of membranes require chlorine levels to be less than 0.5 ppm. 2. pH: Membrane technology allows a wider window for processing water at low pH levels. Many end users adjust pH on the front end of the RO process to reduce the amount of pH adjustment after the process is complete. 3. Influent pressure: Pressure to the membrane vessels must be maintained at a proper level to process the water through the membranes 4. Influent Temperature: Water temperature has a direct effect on rejection rate of the membrane. Lower temperatures reduce the ability of the membrane to reject minerals. Increased pressure is usually required to maintain product water levels. 5.Influent flow: Monitors the total amount of water being processed through the membrane to track maintenance scheduled for backwash and cleaning 6. Conductivity/TDS (membrane industry usually measure water quality in TDS) Measuring the feed water TDS level and comparing it to the permeate TDS level allows the allow the operator to monitor the amount of mineral rejection the membrane. Rejection rate is an indicator of the membranes efficiency. 7. Permeate flow: Monitors the amount of permeate water from the first stage in a double RO system or the amount of water for the final process. 8. Concentrate flow: Tracks the amount of concentrate or brackish water being sent to drain. 9. Concentrate TDS: Monitors the TDS levels being sent to drain

Chemical Manufacturing

1. Conductivity: Dilution with RO or DI water reduces the concentration levels of chemicals before being mixed in the finished product tank. 2. Flow sensors: Turbine type flow meters offer additional accuracy over paddlewheel systems during chemical dilution. 3. pH: Final pH adjustment according to the final product requirement. 4. Temperature: Some chemical reactions require temperatures to be controlled at a specific level for proper catalyst mixing. 5. Pressure: Some processes require pressure control for proper catalyst mixing 6. Flow sensors: Discharge to drain after proper waste treatment keeps accurate records for local treatment plants.

1300 PIPING (1300 747 464)

V 4.1

PAAS Source Book 179

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