Optical-Connections-Q1-2016-OFC-Edition-LR2 (1)

ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016 | OFC Edition

RFoG taps into cable FTTH Opportunities p16

p18 The end of hard choices in the metro? p24 Why photonic integration and silicon photonics is forcing companies to act p32 Bandwidth engineering enhances core networks

Optical Connections: Bringing the World the Latest in Optical Communications News


Cover Story

4 Industry news

The future is Orange County. Once again, in excess of 13,000 optical

16 RFoG taps into cable John Williamson

communications professionals will gather on the West Coast of America for the industry’s largest annual event, OFC. Over 600 exhibiting companies will take part, with 500 contributed papers, 120 invited speakers, 16 tutorials and 10 workshops. Key media organisations will also be present, including Optical Connections and you can visit us at stand 1557. In this issue, as well as highlighting all of the latest installation, networking systems and product news, we will provide an in-depth report into how a growing number of cable and multiple system operators are investing in radio frequency over glass (RFoG) to strengthen their broadband fibre access capabilities. We also highlight an Anritsu, Coherent Solutions, Oclaro and Teledyne LeCroy collaboration, which took place at ECOC 2015 and implemented the industry’s first commercially available research and development platform for testing single-carrier coherent optical communication systems at 50GBaud and above. Focusing on the business side, Light Counting Founder and CEO, Vladimir Kozlov, asks ‘Is silicon photonics a disruptive technology?’ and Daryl Inniss, Practice Leader at Ovum Networks, explains why it can only be a matter of time before next-generation developments will raise the game in optical networking. Our OFC feature offers an insight into the latest products and developments attendees can expect this year, with a list of key pre-show announcements and ‘must see’ exhibitors. As always, we welcome your contributions to our website, newsletter and future publications. Matthew Peach Contributing Editor, Optical Connections

18 The end of hard choices Paul Momtahan

20 Industry partnership

demonstrates 56GBaud Matthew Peach

22 Disruptive technology Vladimir Kozlov

24 Optical networking transformation Daryl Inniss

26 Driving DWDM Roy Rubenstein

28 Implementing flexible transport Faisal Dada

30 Evolution of core networks Andrew Lord

32 Bandwidth enhances core networks Chris Liou

34 Centralising traffic engineering Dirk van den Borne

36 OFC 2016 feature

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UCL sets new record for fastest optical data transmission over fibre

A new record for the fastest ever data rate for digital information has been set by UCL (London) researchers in the Optical Networks Group. They achieved a rate of 1.125 Tb/s as part of research on the capacity limits of optical transmission systems, designed to address the growing demand for fast data rates. Lead researcher, Dr Robert Maher, UCL Electronic & Electrical Engineering, said: “While current state-of-the-art commercial optical transmission systems are capable of receiving single channel data

the ubiquitous connectivity of smart devices referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT). Professor Polina Bayvel, the principal investigator of the UNLOC programme at UCL, said: “This result is a milestone as it shows that terabit per second optical communications systems are possible in the quest to reach ever higher transmission capacities in optical fibres that carry the vast majority of all data generated or received. A high- capacity digital communications infrastructure underpins the internet and is essential to all aspects of the digital economy and everyday lives.”

Game of Thrones series to be downloaded within one second.” The study, published recently in Scientific Reports, used techniques from information theory and digital signal processing to custom build an optical communications system with multiple transmitting channels and a single receiver. As part of the EPSRC-funded UNLOC programme, the project set out to investigate ways to improve the optical network infrastructure to support the explosion of digital content, cloud and e-health services, as well as

rates of up to 100 gigabits per second (Gb/s), we are working with sophisticated equipment in our lab to design the next generation core networking and communications systems that can handle data signals at rates in excess of 1 terabit per second (Tb/s). “For comparison this is almost 50,000 greater than the average speed of a UK broadband connection of 24 megabits per second (Mb/s), which is the current speed defining “superfast” broadband. To give an example, the data rate we have achieved would allow the entire HD

All-new multi-purpose programmable optical chips for telecoms and more R esearchers at the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, say they are at Today, the team led by Prof. José Capmany at the UPV’s Institute of Telecommunications

and Multimedia Applications (iTEAM) are in the process of defining a starter chip that can be programmed to offer two functions: filter and instant frequency measurement. Manufactured from indium phosphide, the chips are expected to be incorporated in up to six functionalities by the end of 2016. Capmany commented, “This the first step towards a complete overhaul of the telecommunications sector. The programmable optical chip, once available on the market, will trigger an exponential drop in chip manufacturing costs. In the not-too-distant future, we will have generic optical processors with a standard configuration and universal core, which will be programmable on demand. Manufacturing processes will be unified -whatever they are used for, the chip will be manufactured in the same way- which will lead to massive savings across the board.”

“the forefront of a revolution in microwave photonics”, by successfully developing what they are calling the first all- purpose programmable optical chips – currently at laboratory scale only. Optical chips or processors are used in many application areas, ranging from telecommunications networks to biomedical devices. As it stands, each chip has to be custom designed and manufactured for each task, which keeps production costs high and the sector fragmented. What the UPV researchers have achieved is to design a generic optical chip that can be programmed on demand to carry out any number of functions. In fact, they first proposed the concept of an all-purpose optical processor in 2013, putting them at the forefront of the state-of-the-art in the field of microwave photonics.

José Capmany (right) said the research was “the first step towards a complete overhaul of the telecommunications sector”.

types of chips. Now we can use the same hardware platform for all three functions”. The group has recently published a paper describing this work in the journal Nature Photonics. Also collaborating in this line of research at iTEAM are Pascual Muñoz, Ivana Gasulla, Javier Sanchez- Fandiño and Daniel Pérez.

Besides the economic advantages, the programmable chip will also usher in efficiency gains and all- important versatility: “Let’s imagine, for instance, that I want to manufacture three types of circuits: one that takes a delay line, another to generate signals and a third to filter. Until now we needed to manufacture three different

ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016 4


Xtera completes marine installation of its second repeatered subsea cable

and technology company Telstra, have announced the successful validation of Infinera’s Advanced Coherent Toolkit for super-channels. This new technology will cover the Telstra Endeavour subsea cable stretching 9,000 km between Sydney, Australia and Oahu, Hawaii and extract the maximum capacity from subsea and long haul terrestrial cable systems carrying super- channels – whether for new large area fibres or existing cables. In trials on a range of next- generation super-channel coherent modulation technologies conducted late in 2015, two unique super-channel based capabilities were successfully X tera Communications, a provider of high-capacity, cost-effective optical transport solutions, has completed the marine installation of its second repeatered submarine cable system, deployed in the last quarter of 2015 in the Atlantic Ocean. Xtera completed testing of all the fibre pairs between the two landing sites in Q4 of 2015 on schedule. The approximately 1,500km- long cable system is built with Xtera’s Raman-based repeaters offering multiple optical transmission benefits, including wider spectrum, better noise performance, longer repeater spacing and higher tolerance to strong increases in span loss compared with repeaters based on erbium-doped fibre amplifiers.

“This new repeatered project has been deployed after the successful upgrade of the high capacity, undersea Guernsey optical-fibre subsea cable system connecting Porthcurno and Guernsey (both UK) and Lannion in France, where Xtera’s next generation wideband repeaters were inserted into the existing cable plant to increase system capacity,” said Stuart Barnes, Senior Vice President and General Manager, Xtera Submarine Business. “Our innovative repeater adds nicely to our portfolio of flexible solutions for building new subsea infrastructure, upgrading existing underwater cable assets, or recovering and re-laying existing cable assets and confirms Xtera’s position as a global turnkey supplier for the subsea cable system industry.”

Xtera’s second repeatered submarine cable system was deployed in the last quarter of 2015.

Xtera provides high-capacity optical transport solutions, supporting the high growth in global demand for bandwidth. It sells solutions to telecommunications service providers, content service providers, enterprises and government entities worldwide. Xtera’s proprietary Wise Raman optical amplification technology leads to capacity and reach performance advantages over competitive products. The company’s solutions enable cost-effective capacity to meet customers’

Xtera pioneered Raman optical amplification in long-haul optical transmission infrastructure with its Wise Raman solution that offers unrivalled optical transmission performances, unparalleled optical spectrum and operational excellence with a seamless integration of Raman amplification into optical networks. In April 2013, Xtera launched the industry’s first optical wideband repeater featuring Raman amplification for long-haul subsea cable systems. The new repeater adds to Xtera’s turnkey solutions for building new subsea cable systems or upgrading existing wet plant, including repeater replacement or re-lay of decommissioned cable systems.

bandwidth requirements to support the industry’s increasing bandwidth demand.

Infinera and Telstra validate advanced coherent toolkit on 9,000 km Endeavour Pacific cable I nfinera, a developer of intelligent transport networks, and leading global telecommunications demonstrated in the trial – Nyquist subcarriers and Soft Decision Forward Error Correction (SD-FEC) gain sharing. “The comprehensive modulation and compensation techniques in our Advanced Coherent Toolkit enable individual

service providers can leverage these advances to help their business models keep pace with downward pricing pressure. Infinera has one of the leading coherent engineering teams and I applaud them for developing these innovative optical techniques,” said Mr. Jackson. Andy Lumsden, Head of Network Services, Telstra Global Enterprise and Services said, “The flexibility of PIC-based super-channels has proven to be a major advantage in subsea operations, and the addition of next generation coherent processing provides an important capacity boost. These capabilities see us continue to exceed the demands of our customers, and provide exceptional service levels across the Telstra Global Network and North American region.”

carriers and subcarriers in the super-channel to maximise the overall reach and capacity of the customer’s fiber,” said Scott Jackson, VP of Infinera’s Subsea Business Group. “For example, leveraging these techniques allows cables that previously could only support BPSK to move to higher modulation formats in the future, or support a mix of formats across carriers and subcarriers, for increased fiber capacity and a better return on the asset. This next generation of coherent technology has the potential to dramatically extend the useful life for existing cable systems while also improving the performance of new cables.” “With trans-Pacific traffic rising at 49 percent annually,

The trial validated the benefit of Nyquist subcarriers that have been shown in other studies to offer around a 20% increase in reach compared to single carrier transmission. In addition, the trial validated SD-FEC gain sharing in which carriers with the highest performance can be paired with carriers with lower Optical Signal to Noise Ratio to improve performance. Other capabilities demonstrated as part of this trial include a new Matrix Enhanced Phase Shift Keying modulation technique that handily surpasses Binary Phase Shift Key reach performance; and the new, high-gain SD-FEC algorithm.




Cape Town deploys Adva’s FSP 3000 CloudConnect for 400G metro trial

networks of optical fibres that crisscross cities, regions, and countries. To better handle the glut of information, a research team from NOKIA Bell Labs, have developed a new device that could become a crucial component of new flexible and optimised networks. The device, a bandwidth variable transmitter (BVT), converts electronic signals to optical signals – but with a bandwidth that can change depending on need, it works without service interruptions, an advantage known as being “hitless.” “It’s really the first transmitter that can transmit data in optical transmission networks with a bit rate change in a hitless way,” said Arnaud Dupas, NOKIA A dva Optical Networking and the City of Cape Town, South Africa, have successfully transmitted data rates up to 400Gbit/s across the city’s metro transport network. The trial combined existing Adva FSP 3000 infrastructure and the latest CloudConnect 400Gbit/s technology to connect the nearby townships of Nyanga and Mitchells Plain. This was one of the country’s first demonstrations to transmit traffic at data rates of 200, 300 and 400Gbit/s over a deployed metro network. Using existing WDM equipment to achieve such high capacity underlines how the Adva FSP 3000 scales to accommodate growing bandwidth demand. The trial is also notable for being one of the first field demonstrations of DP-8QAM to achieve interim capacity of 300Gbit/s. The showcase underlines the City of Cape Town’s commitment to delivering

high-speed connectivity throughout the metropolitan area and to underserved townships. ADVA Optical Networking’s Elite partner XON Systems was integral in facilitating the trial. “What we’ve showcased here with ADVA Optical Networking is a genuine technology landmark. Now that we know we have the power to create a 400Gbit/s backbone the possibilities are immense,” said Leon van Wyk, telecommunications manager, City of Cape Town. “Ultra-fast connectivity will give government departments access to innovative new solutions. It will also make a huge difference for businesses and residents in this area,” he added, “Successfully connecting the townships of Nyanga and Mitchells Plain with a 400Gbit/s transmission shows that we can bring high-speed broadband to

Using Adva’s latest CloudConnect technology, data rates up to 400Gbit/s have been transmitted across Cape Town’s metro transport netwwork.

and makes the transmitter hitless, allowing it to work without interruption and data loss. Normally, transmitters have to reconfigure themselves when interrupted, which can take several seconds or minutes and requires the traffic to be stopped. But the new transmitter can configure itself in less than 450 microseconds. The device connects to a commercially available optical transport network switch, which aggregates all kinds of signals, such as video and audio, and puts it through the transmitter. It works at a bit rate between 10 and 107 Gbits/s. The BVT is still a prototype, and would be only one piece of a large flexible optical network. The next step, Dupas says, will be to test it in the field with network operators, integrating it with the management software and systems that control a network from end-to-end. optimisation. To achieve the phenomenally high channel capacity, the demonstrators created a two-wavelength super-channel. Data rates were then switched between 200, 300 and 400Gbit/s to show how capacity can be automatically adjusted according to the network’s shifting traffic and transmission quality requirements. Successfully transmitting a 300Gbit/s channel at just DP-8QAM is a significant milestone. This modulation format can handle lower signal-to-noise ratios for increased reliability, yet optimised fibre utilisation.

constantly evolve over time, as people add and change those filtering functions. A transmitter that can adjust for varying bandwidths allows for optimised performance without requiring constant upgrades of infrastructure – which would be impractical and expensive. Most BVTs work by changing the format of the optical signal, converting between digital and analogue formats, Dupas said. But the researchers’ new BVT instead changes the symbol rate, also known as Baud rate, which is the number of signal events transmitted per second (a single signal event can encode one or several bits of information). The advantage of focusing on the symbol rate is that it’s easier to implement with electronics and is cost-effective, Dupas explained. This approach incorporates smart processing areas that need it most. We know the power the Internet has to expand horizons, raise aspirations and enrich lives. Connecting people and local businesses with each other and with the world will regenerate entire communities.” The 400Gbit/s trial made use of the City of Cape Town’s existing WDM infrastructure, which stretches over more than 100km and covers the whole metropolitan area. The meshed network is built on the ADVA FSP 3000, a modular optical networking platform designed for scalability and bandwidth

New optical transmitter enables better communication networks A ll the world’s data – pictures, video, sounds, and text – has to traverse complex Bell Labs, France. “As network demands continue to grow, this device will help to enable optical networks of the future with seamless network optimisation and flexibility.”

Dupas will be describing the device at The Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC), held 20- 24 March in Anaheim, California, USA. The growth of data traffic has required the development of elastic optical networks, which are flexible enough to handle a wide range of data types and transmission rates. But even without these networks, traffic is dynamic, depending on the time of day and changing demands. Signals also don’t simply travel from one point to another. Nodes in the networks have filtering functions that select and redirect signals, adding another level of variability. And, the networks themselves

ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016 6


Juniper Networks enters definitive agreement to acquire BTI Systems J uniper Networks, a developer of innovative routing, switching and security optical The combination of BTI Systems’ accomplished team, innovative and open solutions with Juniper’s longstanding

switching and IP routing expertise is expected to position the company to take advantage of the fast-growing DCI (data centre interconnect) and metro markets. The acquisition is subject to customary closing conditions and Juniper is not disclosing the terms of the agreement “as the terms are not considered to be material to our financials,” it stated. Davidson added, “However, we look forward to sharing more information after the transaction closes, which is expected to be in Q2 of 2016. We are excited to take this next step and welcome BTI Systems to our team.” According to BTI Systems’ website, the company

networking technologies, has announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire BTI Systems, a leading provider of cloud and metro networking systems and software to content, cloud and service providers. Jonathan Davidson, executive vice president and general manager, Juniper Development and Innovation (JDI), commented, “We expect the acquisition will allow Juniper to accelerate the delivery of open and automated packet optical transport solutions that integrate with our NorthStar Controller and include network management features that enable end-to-end provisioning of new services.”

Jonathan Davidson, executive vice president and general manager, said the company was “excited to take this next step and welcome BTI Systems to the team.

customers in over 40 countries, BTI has served carriers, service providers, content providers, collocation providers and cloud infrastructure companies, and has deployments in major metros and data centre hubs around the world.

develops software-driven network infrastructure solutions that deliver “massive scale, improved efficiencies and rapid services innovation to networks that until now have been closed, static and hardware- centric.” With more than 380

Cisco commits $100m to drive digital acceleration of Italy F ollowing a meeting in mid-January between Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins and training to teachers and students through the Cisco Networking Academy® program; this will help students to develop the new digital skills best national startups and encourage hi-tech innovation in Italy Over the next three years,

opportunities with Italian academic institutions, focusing on training and research in the cybersecurity area; Cisco will also further expand its efforts in helping Italian manufacturing and agribusiness companies in their path toward digital transformation, accelerating the adoption of technological solutions to strengthen their global competitiveness and assert the primacy of “Made in Italy” innovation and quality. Chuck Robbins, Cisco CEO, said: “I greatly admire Prime Minister Renzi for his strong vision to digitise Italy, and Cisco is honoured to be Italy’s partner. Through our increased investments, Cisco will develop an ecosystem of talent, entrepreneurship and innovation to accelerate Italy’s digital journey and help them realise the unprecedented opportunity ahead.”

Cisco has committed to pursue initiatives related to research and development, collaboration with Italian universities, and initiatives to accelerate digital transformation in two Italian industries of excellence, manufacturing and agri-food business. Cisco will continue investing in Research and Development efforts within Cisco® Photonics laboratories, based in Vimercate (MB), Italy. These labs lead global Cisco R&D activities focused on technologies for optical networks and have a long-standing collaboration with the most important Italian academic research centres.

required in the workforce of today, and thus have greater employment opportunities. The company will expand its already successful Networking Academy® program designed to equip people with the skills to succeed in today and tomorrow’s increasingly connected world, with courses focused on industry 4.0 and cybersecurity technologies. Cisco, as the first step in developing the Italian startup ecosystem, is pursuing investment opportunities together with Invitalia Ventures, a national venture capital firm. This will enable Cisco to invest in the development of the

Cisco Italy General Manager Agostino Santoni, Cisco has announced a series of strategic commitments in Italy that will total $100 million over the next three years. The news today sees Cisco complement the heightened focus from the Italian government to drive digital transformation and reap the benefits of digitisation by way of a twofold approach: increasing digital skills and awareness in Italy, and fostering Italy’s innovative technology startup community. Cisco signed an agreement with Italy’s Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) to provide

The company will look to develop new collaboration

ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016 8


New UK homes to have superfast broadband T he UK Government has worked with Openreach – BT’s local access network business - and the Home Openreach will make a significant contribution itself before seeking any funds from developers. We recognise that high-speed broadband connectivity is a major factor for homeowners

Telia Eesti deploys ADVA 100G Core throughout national backbone network Adva Optical Networking recently announced that Estonian operator, Telia Eesti, has deployed its 100Gbit/s core technology across the country’s national backbone network. Telia Eesti is one of the largest telecommunication providers in the Baltic States and will use the Adva FSP 3000 solution to link all of its major cities in an ultra-high bandwidth long-haul network. Adva were selected for the low-maintenance requirements, future-proof scalability and plug-and-play simplicity their technology provides. Tarko Tikan, chief network and infrastructure architect at Telia Eesti, said “When we began the process of selecting the ideal 100G core technology it quickly became clear that the Adva FSP 3000 was the perfect fit. Operational simplicity was a crucial differentiator and Adva Optical Networking’s turn-key system proved to be brilliantly simple to install, maintain and manage. Having direct access to their very responsive technical team at every stage has also helped to make the whole experience a smooth and happy one.” The major upgrade is Telia Eesti’s response to exploding bandwidth demand from mobile, residential and business customers. TeliaSonera and Cisco connect hub SUP46 to 10 Mbps backbone TeliaSonera International Carrier (TSIC) and Cisco Systems have connected Stockholm- based start-up hub SUP46 to their global backbone. The infrastructure provides 100 Gbps and effectively turns the hub’s downtown Stockholm premises into a high-capacity Internet PoP (Point-of- Presence). TSIC CEO, Brendan Ives, said “We wanted to see what happens when you remove the limits on innovation. Innovation is already borderless thanks to the Internet and we wanted to see what happens when we also remove the limits on connectivity. We believe limitless connectivity will give big ideas the space to grow”. NEWS IN BRIEF

when deciding to buy a house. That’s why we’re offering to deliver fibre to all new build developments either for free or as a co-funded model.” Selley added, “With the support of the HBF we’ve delivered a series of measures to give developers greater clarity, choice and more funding. Today’s announcement underlines Openreach’s commitment to further extend its fibre network – which reaches more than 24m premises – to benefit even more communities across the country. Stewart Baseley, executive chairman of the HBF said: “Housebuilders are constantly striving to deliver on and surpass the expectations of customers as we continue to see housing supply grow. Broadband speeds are an increasingly important factor in the home buying process and this offer to developers will see more new build purchasers benefit from the very best connectivity to go alongside the many other advantages of purchasing a brand new home.”

The HBF will promote and support uptake of the co- funding offer amongst their members, and emphasise the need to plan for connectivity early in the development. This new offer sets a high bar for all suppliers and developers in the market, and Government will be working with industry closely to monitor success over the next year. Digital Economy Minister Ed Vaizey said: “The Government’s ambition to build 1m new homes over the course of this Parliament will house families and future generations to come. Broadband connectivity is just one thing that home buyers now expect when buying a new build, so this industry-led push to make superfast, or indeed ultrafast, broadband speeds available by default in new homes represents a very important step in meeting the UK’s digital needs.” Clive Selley, CEO Openreach, said: “This is an important step towards bringing fibre broadband to as many new build properties as possible.

Builders Federation (HBF) on an agreement, which aims to deliver superfast broadband connectivity to new build properties in the UK. The new deal will see fibre- based broadband offered to all new developments either for free or as part of a co-funded initiative. It is estimated that more than half of all new build properties can be connected to fibre broadband free of charge to developers. As part of the agreement, Openreach is introducing an online planning tool for homebuilders. This will tell them whether properties in a given development can be connected to fibre for free, or if a contribution is needed from the developer to jointly fund the deployment of the local fibre network. The UK’s house building industry will now have access to a ‘rate card’ from Openreach which details the fixed cost contributions required by homebuilders in those cases where joint funding is required.

The UK government and BT Openreach have agreed a deal to provide fibre-base broadband to all new housing developments.

10 ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016


MACOM and AOI collaborate to enable production shipments of 100G transceivers M ACOM Technology Solutions Holdings, a leading supplier of high-performance RF,

Oclaro’s Q2 results show continued growth in 100G Oclaro has announced financial results for its second quarter of fiscal year 2016, which ended December 26, 2015. Greg Dougherty, Chief Executive Officer, commented, “With a second consecutive quarter of 20% sales growth in our 100G portfolio we have again delivered stronger financial performance.” Dougherty added, “The quarterly revenue growth drove higher gross margin and net income. We continue to see robust demand for our 100G product portfolio combined with favorable market conditions. As we expand capacity in Asia, both for our current and new 100G products, we expect revenue growth in 2016 to continue.” Oclaro’s guidance for the next quarter’s trading, ending March 26, 2016 was as follows: revenues in the range of $97 - $103m; non-GAAP gross margin in the range of 26-28%; and non-GAAP operating income in the range of $2 - $6m. Over 100 million Gigabit subscribers forecast by 202 Broadband market intelligence firm, Point Topic, have forecast in excess of 100 million people will be subscribed to gigabit labelled services by 2020, with G.fast technology supporting the growth. Speaking at the Broadband Forum’s quarterly meeting, in Hong Kong, Point Topic CEO, Oliver Jonhson, said G.fast is a “vital technology for operators with copper in their networks”. Johnson predicted that most of today’s markets will have some G.fast in the next five years, with some coverage approaching 50 per cent of the market. A compound annual growth rate of gigabit tariff subscribers over the next five years is projected to be at least 65 percent and much of the growth is expected to come from the APAC region. NEWS IN BRIEF

S panish telecom giant Telefonica new global company which will combine certain infrastructure assets belonging to the group, like 31,000km of submarine fibre optic cable, which includes SAM-1, a submarine cable connecting the US with Central and South America, and 15,000 Spanish cell towers. Telefonica said that Telxius will enable them to manage the company’s infrastructure on a global scale, allowing has announced the creation of Telxius, a microwave, millimetre wave and photonic semiconductor products, and Applied Optoelectronics, Inc., a leading provider of fibre-optic access network products for the Internet datacentre, cable broadband and fibre- to-the-home markets, today announced their collaboration to support initial orders and production ramp of 100G QSFP28 optical transceiver solutions for datacentre applications. “We believe we have the requisite technology, products and application support to enable datacentre customer’s faster time to market while solving their most complex connectivity issues.” Today, the QSFP28 transceiver is the predominant form factor for 100G switching and routing connectivity, and a key enabler as 100G begins to ramp in datacentres. As part of the collaboration, Applied Optoelectronics will leverage MACOM’s broad portfolio of CDRs, drivers and TIA chipsets

Applied Optoelectronics will leverage MACOM’s broad QSFP28 solutions portfolio.

Italia have all created separate companies for network assets in order to optimise investment and strategic focus. Telefonica’s international fibre optic network connects more than 40 countries across Europe and the Americas, providing Telefónica Group services as well as other fixed and mobile operators, internet service providers and content providers. The company said that more assets could be added to the new subsidiary in the coming months. transceivers optimised for datacentres.” “This multimillion dollar order from AOI marks the beginning of a collaboration in support of AOI’s market leading position in the 100G optical datacentre access market, builds upon on our success in the 100G Long-Haul and Metro optical market and underscores that MACOM is well positioned to benefit as 100G continues to ramp in datacentres,” said Preet Virk, Senior Vice President and General Manager, Networks, MACOM. “We believe we have the requisite technology, products and application support to enable datacentre customers’ faster time to market while solving their most complex connectivity issues.”

‘a more specialised and focused approach, with the aim of increasing the services provided to other operators, improving the return on capital invested and allowing Telxius to participate more actively in the growth opportunities that exist in the industry, including the possibility of incorporating third party assets’. The move follows a recent trend among telecom operators to separate their network infrastructure from services to customers. Over the last twelve months, America Movil, O2 Czech Republic and Telecom in its QSFP28 solution. MACOM chipsets provide low power and a small form factor, which are critical enablers for the QSFP28 solutions. “MACOM offers an extensive chipset product portfolio for datacentre applications for both CWDM and PSM-4 applications, that is key for the transition of the mega- datacentre customers from 40G to 100G,” said Joshua Yeh, Senior Vice President of AOI’s Network Equipment Module Business Unit. “Through this collaboration coupled with our internally sourced 25G laser diodes and 100G light engines, AOI is excited to offer customers volume production of 100G

Telefonica forms new global infrastructure company




Fujikura extends its portfolio with launch of traditional 62S splicer F ujikura Europe has announced that it has expanded its fibre fusion splicer range knowledge and experience of developing new splicing technology,” said Neil Bessant, Fusion Splicer Divisional Manager at

with the launch of a new product – the 62S. The latest addition to Fujikura’s splicer family adds to the company’s portfolio to deliver a complete offering of splicers and accessories for the telecom and speciality markets. This includes the popular 12S (FTTH splicer) and the ultra- compact 22S (Advanced FTTH splicer), as well as the market-leading, flagship 70S (core-alignment splicer). The 62S is a dependable, high specification core-alignment splicer, which delivers a shrink time of 15 seconds. It is also very robust, withstanding a 30 inch drop test on five sides. “Our new 62S is a great addition to our product line up and demonstrates our

Fujikura Europe. “We have been making high quality, unparalleled products since 1978 and pride ourselves on always delivering the speeds and performance detailed on the specification sheet.” The 62S sits beneath the flagship 70S in Fujikura’s portfolio. Specifically designed for speed, durability and ergonomics, the 70S is the fastest splicer on the market, with a splicing time of just six seconds and an improved shrink time of nine seconds. The 70S has a rugged construction design to provide the highest reliability by resisting shock, rain and dust, allowing it to This trade-off means the time it takes to pay for this infrastructure investment is often protracted. Enter the Huawei Any Media Giga Access Platform able to support fibre, copper, coax, combined fixed and mobile access methods. The innovative new tech going into the platform provides the way to the Gigaband era with ultra-broadband network enablement. “The impressive rate of development in ultra-HD video, virtual reality, Smart Home, and other services is moving broadband networks from the 100M-level to the giga-level,” said Zha Jun, President of Huawei’s Fixed Network Product Line, “Huawei’s Any Media Giga Access Platform can make full use of existing

Neil Bessant, Fusion Splicer Divisional Splicer Manager, said that 62S was “a great addition to our line-up”.

In comparison the 62s offers traditional style with manual wind protector and conventional tube heater but still offers high-speed splicing. “We have a range of robust, reliable, technologically advanced splicers and accessories, as well as an unparalleled ability to distribute our products globally,” said Bessant. “The 62S is a great addition to our line-up”.

withstand a 30 inch drop test on six sides. It also features a fully automatic wind protector and automated tube heater developed to reduce the number of operational steps and provide quicker splicing cycles. The unit includes a high-resolution LCD monitor, powerful Li-ion battery for longer operation time and built-in videos for on-the-go training.

Huawei releases Any Media Giga Access platform to deliver ‘gigaband enablement’ H uawei has launched its Any Media Giga Access Platform that allows needed for the rollout tends to be long. copper, coax and fibre resources to help operators achieve their Gigaband strategies early on, in order to provide a better user

In the field of coaxial cables, Huawei’s distributed DOCSIS 3.1 D-CCAP solution was the first to complete CableLabs testing and was also the first solution to pass commercial testing and field trials in Denmark and New Zealand. The Huawei fixed and mobile convergence solution helps customers boost bandwidth for improved user experience and ensure higher levels of network protection. In addition to gigabit-capable bandwidth to power Smart Home, all-optic campus, U-vMOS monitoring of video viewing quality, virtual access management and other intelligence services. Huawei empowers operators with the means to construct a better connected experience with gigabit-capable offerings. ultra-broadband pipes, Huawei’s Giga Access Platform provides the

operators to make full use of the various access media on their existing networks to quickly deploy gigabit-capable ultra-broadband (Gigaband) networks with unified architectures, software, and management. The company stated, “the Gigaband Era is truly upon us now.” Broadband networks are moving from the 100M level to giga-level access at the home as 4K TV, virtual reality, holographic imaging, and other new bandwidth-hungry services emerge. All-optical network is the optimal medium for Gigaband. However, in some regions, exclusive use of optical fibre to build gigabit networks requires huge investment and ROW acquisition, and the time

experience and achieve even greater commercial success. Huawei continues to stay on the gas with its technological innovations into the field and contributions into the industrial chain.” Huawei’s continued development has yielded substantive results, the company stated: “In fibre optics, we have shipped more than 100m FTTH ONT units and as the market share leader, has helped the FTTH industry to achieve higher penetration rate. In copper line, Huawei was the first to finish commercial G.fast field trials in Switzerland and recently completed long- distance G.fast field testing in the UK.”

12 ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016


EXFO announces entire OTDR and iOLM product line revamp E XFO recently announced the and automated loopback test method that tests two fibres at once and iMF, an automated MPO. and the latest innovations to the iOLM, we are delivering the best mix of intelligence, A complete Windows 8 OS that enables third-party integrated applications for communications, remote assistance, file storage and

complete overhaul of its OTDR range, with 42 new and redesigned models. Hosted in the popular MaxTester tablet-inspired form factor, as well as the ever-evolving FTB-1V2 and FTB-2 platforms, the new C-series OTDR portfolio provides powerful, fast and efficient solutions for everyday OTDR testing. Added features include iLOOP, a fast

performance and automation in a completely recharged OTDR portfolio. EXFO keeps raising the traditional OTDR standards to the highest level ever seen in the market.”

connectivity, technicians will be able to deploy faster and better fibre optic networks.

Stéphane Chabot, vice- president, physical layer test division, said “With the introduction of the C-Series, EXFO’s seventh generation of OTDRs, we bring unprecedented optical performances that increase the quality of the results you expect from your favourite OTDR. Combined with the power of the new FTB Pro platforms

The new C-Series OTDR portfolio provides powerful, fast and efficient solutions for everyday OTDR testing.

Source Photonics announces shipment of 10,000 single mode 100G QSFP28 modules S ource Photonics has announced the shipment of its 10,000th single mode 100G QSFP28 module. Source data centres has been making headlines over the last 3 years, attracting many new suppliers and technologies” – commented this opportunity is real. We expect that shipments of these products will exceed 100,000 units in the first 6-9 months of 2016.” Due to high demand,

meet the needs of customers as QSFP28 moves deeper into the data centre fabric. Source will also exhibit its full portfolio of 100G products and demonstrate next generation technologies from its broadening portfolio of higher speed products at OFC this year.

Vladimir Kozlov, CEO and founder of LightCounting Market Research. “The early shipments data from Source Photonics clearly shows that

Photonics began production shipments of 10km QSFP28 LR4 and 2km QSFP28 LR4- Lite modules in Q1 2015 after a successful introduction and sampling program with several leading customer-partners throughout 2014. Major applications for this first-to-market technology include cloud scale and Web 2.0 data centres worldwide and represent the first single mode 100G modules deployed in data centres, signifying the beginning of the transition from a 10G/40G data centre architecture to a 25G/100G architecture. “Potential market opportunity for 100G optics in mega

Source Photonics expects to leverage a vertically integrated operations infrastructure to

After a successful sampling programme, Source Photonics began production of 10km QSFP28 LR4 and QSFP28 LR4-Lite modules.

14 ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016

Skylane Optics The Solution for every Network Application













RfoG taps into cable

RF over glass taps into cable FTTH opportunities

A growing number of cable and multiple system operators (MSOs) are looking to strengthen their broadband fibre access capabilities with investments in radio frequency over glass (RFoG) systems, writes John Williamson.

there is the added bonus of cable operators being able to re-use existing head-end, back office and customer premises equipment when they implement RFoG. Also relevant here, from the CapEx perspective, is the potential that RFoG offers to be rolled out in an incremental fashion. OBI: downbeat However, notwithstanding the considerable advantages of RFoG technology, and the adoption of the standards five years ago, overall market uptake of RFoG has so far been distinctly modest. Why could this be? According to Cornel Ciocirlan, EMEA Chief Technology Officer at ARRIS, one explanation is that early operator RFoG experiences have been mixed, with some reporting that they

proposals were approved by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) the following year. RFoG: the attractions There are several reasons why RFoG is an attractive technology for cable companies and MSOs. In general, service providers of all stripes are under intensifying competitive market and marketing pressures to provide fibre connections to their end users. In the RFoG context, the use of RFoG optical networking units (R-ONUs) as micronodes enables multiple subscribers to take optical signals from one R-ONU, and moves the optical/electrical conversion process much closer to the customer premises than is the case with conventional HFC networks. Furthermore,

were experiencing unhelpful packet error rates. The reason for the latter, says Ciocirlan, is the phenomenon known as Optical Beat Interference (OBI), a chronic signal degradation issue caused by multiple optical transmitters communicating with closely- spaced wavelengths at the same time over the same fibre. Ciocirlan likens the OBI phenomenon to the “tremolo effect” encountered in certain audio systems. Unfortunately, the potential for OBI degradation is increased in the micronode scenario, outlined above. With multiple users being serviced off each R-ONU, the probability of multiple R-ONU lasers being active simultaneously is higher. The introduction of the Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification 3.1 (DOCSIS 3.1) also raises the likelihood of OBI effects occurring by virtue of the increased upstream throughput it supports. With up to 1 Gbits/s upstream throughput available, many cable modems will transmit simultaneously, thus increasing the probability of R-ONU laser wavelengths colliding. The DOCSIS 3.1 specification, introduced by the CableLabs cable telecommunications research and development organisation in October 2013, is designed to enable a new generation of cable services and help operators continue to meet consumer demand for high speed connections and sophisticated applications (see panel story DOCSIS 3.1 speeding things up, right).

John Williamson

I mplementing a Radio Frequency over Glass access networks involves replacing the coax in hybrid fibre coax (HFC) systems with passive optical network (PON) technology. The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers proposed a set of RFoG standards in late 2010. These included the use of AM or FM wavelengths in the upstream direction, a downstream wavelength of 1550 nm, and an upstream wavelength of either 1310 nm or 1610 nm. The SCTE

1550 nm


• CMTS allows upstream bursts on different frequencies to overlap • Such overlap creates no issues in traditional HFC

1610 nm RFoG CPE

85 MHz - 1 GHz

1550 nm




1610 nm RFoG CPE







• With RFoG, upstream bursts from different homes are nominally on the same optical wavelength • In reality each laser is slightly different due to manufacturing tolerances. Different wavelengths could have minimal interaction • However bursts on identical wavelengths that are coincident in time (overlap) create strong interaction in the receiver • This is called Optical Beat Interference (OBI)

1550 nm


1610 nm RFoG CPE

Background of optical beat interference (OBI)... “Upstream optical collisions”. Copyright ARRIS International.

ISSUE 6 | Q1 2016 16


I n October 2013, CableLabs, the not-for-profit research and development consortium for the cable industry, announced the availability of its DOCSIS 3.1 PHY (physical layer) and MULPI (MAC and Upper Layer Protocol) specifications. Inter alia, the DOCSIS 3.1 specification can support the following: • Higher speeds, defining support for up to 10 Gbits/s downstream and up to 1 Gbits/s upstream network capabilities; • Improved Quality of Experience, by utilising so-called Active Queue Management to significantly reduce network delay as data traffic grows in the home network; and a significant increase in network capacity, with the ability to transmit up to 50 percent more data over the same spectrum, on existing HFC networks. More recently, in a 2015 Infonetics/IHS survey of the cable operators worldwide that collectively control 87% of the world’s cable CapEx, it was revealed that about one third of their residential subscribers will be passed by DOCSIS 3.1-enabled headends by April 2017. In December 2015, Comcast – the American multinational mass media company and largest broadcasting and cable company in the world by revenue – reported that it had installed what it believed to be the world’s first DOCSIS 3.1 modem on a customer-facing network. DOCSIS 3.1 speeding things up

Beating OBI A number of approaches have been developed to mitigate or eradicate the undesirable effects of OBI. One is to limit the number of simultaneous upstream transmissions via the use of only a single upstream channel. However, this has the downside of not exploiting the full potential of RFoG. A second approach is to ensure that the network does not schedule transmissions from different R-ONUs at the same

combiner. This involves replacing passive splitters/ combiners with low-powered active combiners that eliminate OBI at the point where it occurs. With the OBI problem addressed, by whichever means, ARRIS is predicting great things for RFoG. “We needed to solve OBI before RfoG technology could be feasible for mass market deployments,” concluded Ciocirlan. “Now that we’ve solved it we see great potential for the technology.”

A third approach is to arrange the network and its elements such that separate R-ONUs which are sharing the same fibre splitter are wavelength- separated. This means either physically configuring the R-ONUs to transmit at slightly different wavelengths, or tuning the lasers in the R-ONUs to perform in that way from their installation. A fourth approach, and one embodied by ARRIS in its AgileMax Hybrid PON (HPON) product line, is to tackle the problem in the optical splitter/

time. Critics of this approach concede that it works well when only one or two upstream channels are considered, but contend that scheduling becomes inefficient much above three channels, particularly when DOCSIS 3.1 is part of the mix. DOCSIS 3.1 aside, there is also the suggestion by some in the industry that the scheduler method is best suited to low bitrate applications in the 20 Mbits/s to 30 Mbits/s range, at a time when more and more cable operators are increasingly looking to provide 50 Mbits/s to 100 Mbits/s.

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