GRADING AND STAGING Once prostate cancer is confirmed, additional tests are done to learn the location (stage) and Gleason score (grade) of the tumor. Staging is the process used to find out if the cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body.
Grading, using the Gleason score and/or grade group, indicates how quickly the tumor will grow and spread. The grade is the description of the tumor based on how abnormal the cells look under the microscope.
GLEASON SCORES IN CATEGORICAL ORDER Gleason X Gleason score cannot be determined
The tumor tissue is well differentiated, less aggressive and likely to grow more slowly The tumor tissue is moderately differentiated, moderately aggressive and likely to grow but may not spread quickly The tumor tissue is poorly differentiated or undifferentiated, highly aggressive and likely to grow faster and spread
PROSTATE CANCER STAGES
Grade Group 1 Gleason 6 (or less)
Stage I (Localized) Stage II (Localized)
The cancer is small and only in the prostate.
Grade Group 2 Grade Group 3
Gleason 3 + 4 = 7 Gleason 4 + 3 = 7
The cancer is larger and may be in both lobes of the prostate, but is still confined to the prostate.
Stage III (Locally Advanced)
Grade Group 4 Grade Group 5
Gleason 8 Gleason 9–10
The cancer has spread beyond the prostate to nearby lymph glands or seminal vesicles.
The cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as to the bones, liver, or lungs. This is referred to as metastatic or advanced prostate cancer. If prostate cancer spreads, or metastasizes, to the bone, you have prostate cancer cells in the bone, not bone cancer.
Stage IV ( Metastatic/Advanced)
TREATMENT Take the time to get educated on all available treatment options and potential negative side effects to make the best decision for you. The best treatment for one person may not be the best for another. The right treatment for you depends on many factors including: • Age • Gleason score (grade) of the tumor • Stage of prostate cancer • Risk category • Other health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, or other chronic conditions • Your personal preferences Prostate cancer is a disease that can be treated by several different types of medical specialists. And the treatment chosen may mean that the doctor who diagnosed your cancer is not the one doing the majority of your treatment. You may meet with several doctors before you make a final decision about treatment.
Between 15 – 40% of men treated with localized prostate cancer will experience a recurrence (cancer later returns). About 5% of men are diagnosed with metastatic disease.
© 2010 Terese Winslow U.S. Govt. has certain rights
PROSTATE CANCER 101
PROSTATE CANCER 101
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