MMS Endodontics - October/November 2017

9000 Coombs Farm Dr. Ste. 304 Morgantown, WV 26508

PRST STD US POSTAGE PAID BOISE, ID PERMIT 411

WV (304) 594-1670 MD (240) 362-7107 PA (724) 438-0600

www.mmsendo.com | info@mmsendo.com

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How We Forge Our Path

Use Events to Nab New Leads

Client-Submitted Case Study

Insight Into Nike’s Success

An Overview of Cracked Teeth

The Origins of Fear

WHICH FEARS ARE INSTINCTUAL, AND WHICH ARE LEARNED?

Where does fear come from? As the jack-o’-lanterns show their grinning, glowing faces and skeletons, cobwebs, and gravestones adorn yards around the neighborhood, it’s a question hanging in many of our minds. When you recoil from the giant mechanical spider suspended above your neighbor’s garage, is that fear instinctual, or is it learned?’

According to the Association for Psychological Science, there are only two fears we inherit at birth: the fear of falling and the fear of loud sounds.

A 1960 study, conducted by psychologists Gibson andWalk for Cornell University, sought to investigate depth perception in human and animal species. They suspended a sheet of transparent plexiglass about 4 feet off the ground and covered one half of it with a checkerboard-pattern cloth, creating a simulated cliff. Infants, both human and animal, were then encouraged by their caregivers, usually their mothers, to crawl off the “cliff” onto the clear half of the platform. Both avoided stepping over what they perceived as a sharp drop, and pre- crawling-age infants showed heightened cardiac distress on the “suspended” side. Coupled with this innate fear of plummeting to the ground is something called the Moro reflex, one of several involuntary reflexes healthy newborn infants have at birth. Often called the “startle reflex,” it occurs when a baby is startled by a loud sound or movement, especially a falling motion. The reflex usually triggers the newborn to lift and spread their arms as if grasping for support, followed by crying. Though the Moro reflex usually disappears at around 5 to 6 months of age, our instinctive aversion to sudden loud noises stays with us throughout our lives.

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