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THE COVER A New Road Opens New Opportunities for Growth – story on page 10
CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY
12 Sustainable Marine Lumber Helps Bridge Environmental and Structural Goals for the Ponquogue Bridge Restoration 14 Improve Energy Infrastructure Resilience with GEOWEB® 3D Soil Stabilization STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 16 ELIMINATOR® Waterproofing System Protects Landmark New York Bridge 18 Why it’s Time for the Industry to Wake up to Bridge Rehabilitation 20 Creativity and Collaboration Transform a Historic Downtown Gateway TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 23 Bishopsford Bridge 25 Los Angeles Regional Connector Will Open Up Options for Commuters 28 ASU Engineers Offer Insight on Tempe Railway Bridge Collapse 31 Bridging Kentucky Program 33 Bentley Advertorial WATER + STORMWATER 33 Sub-Slab Drainage Systems SOFTWARE + TECH 36 Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) 40 New Era of BIM Lifecycle Implementation UNMANNED SYSTEMS 44 CAVs: A Federal Opportunity SURVEYING 46 Army Corps' Data Driven to Improve Coastal Projects 49 Repeated Imaging Success in Schiphol
departments 8 Events
52 Benchmarks 53 Reader Index Columns 5 Bridges and the Power of Connection Chad Clinehens 6 Emily Roebling and the Brooklyn Bridge Luke Carothers
VOLUME 6 ISSUE 9 csengineermag.com
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from the publisher
This month we celebrate bridges, one of the most transformative engineering marvels of all time. From iconic bridges like the Golden Gate bridge to the municipal bridge that cuts your commute in half, bridges are a powerful creator of opportunity. Bridges connect people, communities, and economies, creating possibilities out of impossibilities. But a bridge is more than just spans of pavement across a chasm, a bridge as a metaphor is about connecting through communication, bringing people together on an issue or idea, and helping us get to a destination. As a civil engineering student, structural and bridge design courses were the most challenging for me. Ironically, I went to work for an engineering firm whose founder was the first bridge engineer for the state of Arkansas, Neal Garver, and where bridge design had evolved into major specialty of the firm. Although I never was on the bridge design team, I worked close enough with them on my transportation projects that I could confirm, bridge design is in fact, at the upper end of the engineering design difficulty index. The reward of the long hours of complex design, however, is extraordinary. One of our iconic projects was the “Big Dam Bridge” over the Arkansas River. At 4,226 feet in length it was, and I believe still is, the longest pedestrian/bicycle bridge in the world designed and built for that purpose. In other words, the longest pedestrian bridge that has never been used by trains or motor vehicles. When this bridge opened in 2006, it transformed the cycling community as well as fueled a culture of outdoor fitness that has benefited many thousands of people as it connected two communities and over 7,000 acres of parks. For me, it was something that I got great joy out of using on a regular basis as an avid cyclist. My quality of life, along with many others, was positively impacted by this project. It also confirmed why I love civil engineering. To be a part of a firm that designed something that extraordinary and be able to use it every day and see it impact an entire community was extremely rewarding. Part of what made it possible is that the span across the river utilized the existing and still active, Murray Lock and Dam . That is also what made the design more complex. Another example where challenging design leads to an awesome result. The complexity of bridge design is not just for infrastructure, it also applies to the metaphoric use of the word “bridge”. The next chapter of my career involved my joining Zweig Group eight years ago. Since then, I’ve been working with engineering firms to help them perform better and solve the issues that hold them back - a different kind of bridge building. The difficulty in bridging communication and bringing people together on an idea or issue is also far more difficult than I ever imagined. It’s why the big issues of our world like racism, gender inequity, and other social injustices continue today. Although we’ve come a long way, we’ve got a long way to go. Our mission, to elevate the industry, aims to not only help firms elevate their performance, but also to help the industry in some of the bigger issues, like solving the recruiting and retention challenge. One of the essential aspects of the mission is to share the stories. Stories like “Emily Roebling and the Brooklyn Bridge” featured in this issue remind us why the pillars of our mission - Promote, Diversify, Educate, Change, and Celebrate – are so important. This story hits so many of them as it inspires us to think big about this profession and to realize we can accomplish anything when we are open to it. To the civil and structural engineers of our past, present, and future – all of you transform our world every day. Your work truly elevates our industry.
Bridges and the power of connection Chad Clinehens
CHAD CLINEHENS, P.E., is Zweig Group’s president and CEO. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Emily Roebling and the Brooklyn Bridge Luke Carothers Looking back, moving forward
The Brooklyn Bridge looms eternally large over New York City’s East River. Since it opened in 1883, it is a vital artery between Manhattan and Brooklyn, and it has witnessed its fair share of history. From champagne cellars carved into the foundation, through trendy social clubs underneath its span, to Cold War bunkers hidden deep within, the Brooklyn Bridge is a tapestry covered in the history it has lived. None of this would exist without Emily Roebling, the daughter-in-law of the bridge’s original creator. It seemed fitting that John Augustus Roebling would be in charge of spanning the East River. After all, he had already bridged the Niagara Gorge and the Ohio River. Soon after the first boats began to lower caissons into the water of the East River, tragedy struck, and John succumbed to tetanus as a result of an accident at the worksite. It was left for his son Washington to take over as chief engineer. Washington picked right up where his father left off, working alongside his men inside the pneumatic caissons. These caissons were lowered into the river and constantly pumped with pressurized air so that workers could drive the foundation deep into the bedrock. An incredibly dangerous place, engineers detonated explosives within these caissons, which was a first in the engineering world. The danger of explosives in confined places was obvious, and scores of men were maimed or killed by explosions and falling equipment. However, the more serious danger was invisible and far more insidious. After coming to the surface from the bottom of these caissons, workers complained of pain in their joints and nausea, while some became paralyzed and others died. Little was known about Decompression Sickness at the time of the bridge’s construction, and workers were rightfully inclined to rush to their surface after their shift was done. The result was a host of terrible cases of what they deemed “Caisson Disease”, including those sustained by Washington himself. Washington’s bout with Caisson Disease left him paralyzed and bedridden for the rest of his life. Being unable to tend to the physical challenges presented by being chief engineer of such a large project, Washington knew he could turn to his wife to get the job done. Emily was tasked with relaying Washington’s orders to the men as he sat, overlooking the project from his bedroom window. Emily wasn’t just a messenger, though. She was also an expert in the construction of suspension bridges and spent her honeymoon with Washington traveling around the world to study caisson technology. Before that, Emily had spent time studying various aspects of tension on bridges, and she would resume that study with fervor when Washington fell ill. Eventually, after it became clear thatWashington Roeblingwould not recover fromhis brushwith decompression sickness, Emily assumed the day-to-day role of chief engineer for the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge although her husband still held the nominal title. When word eventually spread that Washington Roebling had become fully incapacitated by his sickness, Emily met with local officials to secure her and her husband’s continued work on the bridge. Officials tied to the infamous corrupt political circles of 19th century New York City tried to argue that the project was too much for Emily with her husband’s condition. Emily disagreed, making an impassioned plea before them, and was able to convince the city officials of her position. When the Brooklyn Bridge was finally opened in 1983, Emily was one of the first people to triumphantly cross the bridge, riding in a horse drawn carriage alongside President Chester A. Arthur. The crossing and completion was also marked by a speech, given by one of her competitors named Abram Hewitt. In it, Hewitt’s praise rings with gratitude towards a life spent dedicated to a purpose, calling the Brooklyn Bridge “an everlasting monument to the self-sacrificing devotion of a woman and of her capacity for that higher education from which she has been too long disbarred”.
LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at email@example.com.
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events + virtual Events
elevate aec virtual conference september 30 - november 20 – virtual
AUVSI UNMANNED SYSTEMS- DEFENSE PROTECTION SECURITY september 8 -10 – virtual AUVSI Unmanned Systems—Defense. Protection. Security. (USDPS) is the only event focused on equipping our armed services and civil protection agencies with the unmanned tools they need to meet today’s threats while preparing for tomorrow’s opportunities. You’ll join military officials from across all branches, federal security personnel, and industry leaders to understand the latest programs of record, navigate procurement processes and explore opportunities to do business with federal agencies. https://www.thedefenseshow.org Don’t miss a first in virtual events. You’ll hear from top technical global leaders on topics from offshore wind technology to outer space and everything in between all on an innovative and interactive platform. Advance your knowledge in your specialty and gain insights from advances in other disciplines that will affect your projects. https://vtech.asce.org/ October 2020 ASCE V-TECH CONFERENCE september 14 - 18 – virtual AUVSI XPONENTIAL 2020 is the global stage for everything unmanned — from state-of-the-art propulsion technology, sensors, energy storage and UAS mitigation solutions to what’s coming over the horizon in AI, 5G, edge computing, and more. As the largest, most significant event for the unmanned systems industry, you’ll find your edge as you explore the latest technology innovations, develop new perspectives as you hear from industry luminaries, and cultivate creativity at special networking events where you will meet some of the most influential leaders in the unmanned and autonomous space. https://www.xponential.org/xponential2020/public/enter.aspx Case Studies to Green Infrastructure october 8 – virtual The menu of products and practices available to site design professionals has grown significantly since the Clean Water Act was signed into law a half century ago. Presenter Peter M. Hanrahan, CPESC will draw on more than 42 years of industry experience to discuss specific green infrastructure projects he has been directly involved with in the Northeast and Midwest. The presentation will focus on evolving technology and best management practices that now provide a significantly expanded toolbox for green solutions on challenging sites. http://www.cvent.com/events/case-studies-in-green- infrastructure-webinar-1-pdh/event-summary-0f3adcc2e9c 84b479722881059681609.aspx AUVSI Xponential rescheduled: october 5 - 8 – virtual
You’ve asked. We’re answering. The Elevate AEC Conference can now be experienced 100% virtually. That’s right—the same world- class experience, but no travel required. The 2020 Elevate AEC Virtual Experience will be an eight-week long event, providing attendees meaningful content and networking opportunities from afar, highly produced with live interactions. This virtual experience will include daily doses of keynote speeches, Ted Talks, breakout sessions, virtual social mixing events, and awards celebrations. The Elevate AEC Virtual Experience will also include the ElevateHer TM Symposium which will include presentations of our 2020 ElevateHer TM Cohort’s research findings. This is one of the most exciting and requested events of 2020. With one cohort presentation each week, the ElevateHer TM Cohort presentations will be open to all and for anyone interested in learning more about how to solve the AEC industry’s top challenge: recruitment and retention. https://www.zweiggroup.com/virtual-conference/ Program Description: This is a 6-week program of 2 hours each week of a live zoom meeting with our seminar instructors. These meetings will be a mix of presentations as well as open-ended Q&A sessions. This will be the same great content that is taught during our in-person The Principals Academy seminar that has trained over 800 attendees in the last 5 years. The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm with this program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm leaders in key areas of firm management leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/webinars/products/ the-principals-academy-virtual-seminar-starting-october-13- 2020?variant=35160826151063 The evolution of three-dimensional products has dramatically expanded the site solution toolbox for civil engineers, site planners and property owners. Certainly, two-dimensional products such as geotextile fabrics, erosion control blankets and geomembranes have proven highly effective in applications such as soil separation, soil surface protection, and filtration. http://www.cvent.com/events/erosion-control-in-the-third- dimension-webinar-1-pdh/event-summary-299d5617db874928b5f87 0ffb45ccc4a.aspx The Principals Academy starting october 13 – virtual Erosion Control in the Third Dimension october 15 – virtual
leaders in key areas of firmmanagement leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/the- principals-academy?variant=30871424860195
Learn the Language of Business: Financial Management october 20 – dallas, tx Solid financial management is crucial to the success of any company, and firms in the AEC industry are no exception. This course provides an overview of business financial management – specifically tailored to our industry – to help firm leaders make informed decisions. Topics include: interpreting financial statements; key performance metrics; benchmarking and predictive cash flow management; and how strategic decisions drive the value of the firm. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/financial- management-for-non-financial-managers?variant=15425604845603
CEO Roundtable Retreat november 12 - 13– napa, ca
The CEO Roundtable Retreat is a unique opportunity for AEC firm leaders to engage and interact with industry peers to discuss current issues facing firms today, explore industry trends and next practices, and confront the biggest challenges they face leading their firms. Zweig Group’s CEO Chad Clinehens, PE, moderates the program guiding group conversations, encouraging integration and networking, and ensuring attendees gain valuable insight, new ideas and tools – and a new network of colleagues – to foster effective leadership at their respective firms. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/ceo-roundtab le?variant=30872181014563 Elevating Doer-Sellers: Intensive 2-DayWorkshop is a two-day seminar specifically developed to help design and technical professionals in architecture, engineering, planning, and environmental firms become more comfortable managing clients and promoting the firm and its services. Led by two retired and current CEOs with extensive experience from the design desk to the board room, this one-of-a- kind seminar presents business development techniques proven to drive real growth and value in your AEC firm. Beyond the buzzword heavy, ra-ra approach of other business development and sales training seminars, Elevating Doer-Sellers: Intensive 2-Day Workshop focuses on what really works in today’s AEC firm utilizing practical and proven techniques that resonate across the organizational chart. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/elevating- doer-sellers?variant=30892964577352 Elevating Doer-Sellers: Intensive 2 Day Workshop november 12 - 13– san francisco, ca
design-build conference and expo october 28 - 30 – national harbor, md
Design-Builders in the Water/Wastewater and Transportation sectors will be the focus of two dedicated tracks of education targeting the unique needs of each sector. https://dbia.org/conferences/design-build-conference-expo/
asce 2020 convention october 28 - 30 – virtual
The American Society of Civil Engineers’ (ASCE) Convention is the Society’s premiere membership event. It is the single annual opportunity where the entire Society joins together reflecting the diversity thatASCE encompasses. The Convention program is designed to have integrated, multi-disciplinary, technical, and educational components to meet the needs of the profession. https://www.asceconvention.org/registration Practical leadership skills are vital to the health and success of every company in any industry. Effective leaders motivate their teams to achieve exceptional results, inspire others to be better than they thought possible, and create an environment where their team is focused and working towards a common vision. Zweig Group’s team of management experts – who have extensive experience working with AEC firms providing solutions to the challenges facing AEC firms today – deliver practical solutions that technical professionals can put to work immediately to lead their firms to success. https://shop.zweiggroup.com/collections/events/products/leadership- skills-for-aec-professionals?variant=30889848569891 november 2020 Leadership skills for AEC Professionals rescheduled: october 29 - 30 – dallas, tx
The Principals Academy november 5 - 6– phoenix, az
The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm at this impactful two-day program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm
The Principals Academy starting october 13 – 12 pdh/lu Program Description: This is a 6-week program of 2 hours each week
The Southern Ohio Veterans Memorial Highway (also known as State Route 823 or Portsmouth Bypass) is the largest single transportation project in the State of Ohio’s history, as well as Ohio’s first true public- private partnership (P3). Due to its route around the city of Portsmouth, this 16-mile stretch of new four-lane highway reduces commuting time by up to 30 minutes, while providing opportunities for economic growth and commerce. Construction of the $634 million project began in 2015 and was completed on schedule in December 2018. Extreme site requires seamless materials testing The company of record enlisted Terracon for our expertise in quality control and quality management. Not only is it unusual to complete 16 A NEW ROAD OPENS NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR GROWTH By Matt Lehmenkuler, P.E. and Jason Sander, P.E. cover
miles of new roadway in a single phase, nearly 23 million cubic yards of Appalachian mountain earth had to be cleared and moved first, at times cutting as deep as 200 feet into the rock to meet design grades. Our quality control technicians monitored the placement of material into the valleys to build road, or back into the terrain. We established an onsite AASHTO accredited laboratory to perform concrete com- pressive strength testing and index testing of native soils. This reduced sample transport distance and time, allowing for faster delivery of quality results. We also evaluated the cut slopes, providing the risk rat- ing for the exposed rockface consisting of shale, sandstone, and clay stones. In addition to the onsite natural materials, working seamlessly with the public-private partnership(P3) team, we helped design, develop, and provide quality control for the construction materials used in the 21 bridges needed to complete the bypass, more than half of which required mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls for support. In all, 300,000 square feet of MSE walls were built. There were also numer- ous structures and substructures for bridges, as well as culverts, that required verification of the specified material and foundation installa- tions. We utilized our onsite lab to cure and test all concrete compres- sion test cylinders.
Ohio; Charleston, W. Va.; and Cleveland, and Lexington, Ky.) to assist, and by project completion, more than 100 Terracon employees were involved. With the flexibility and resources to meet changing needs throughout the project, Terracon provided the resources and creative problem-solving required to make this complex project a success. Safety was always a priority, which was demonstrated by Terracon re- porting zero recordable injuries. This impressive record was achieved using a robust system comprised of daily pre-task planning, additional safety communication prior to the task and during the tasks, docu- mented near-miss reporting, documented onsite safety check-ins with managers, and regular safety toolbox talks. We partnered with “Ohio Means Jobs” within the State of Ohio’s Of- fice of Workforce Development to bolster the project workforce by hiring local materials technicians and providing on-the-job training. This investment in the community benefited all involved. Five of the local technicians remained full-time Terracon employees after the project’s completion. Responding to supplemental engineering or additional approved scope changes during the life of this project allowed our team to demonstrate the partnership and flexibility needed to keep the work moving. Terracon was glad to contribute to this history-making roadway, while facilitating economic growth with new, easier access, and a
The geology and subsurface conditions, including the soil types and characteristics, as well as depth to suitable bearing material and bed- rock, ultimately were the factors used to select the proper foundation system for each bridge structure. The engineer of record determined the foundation type based on their analysis of the site conditions. Our inspections varied for each foundation type. For spread footings, we verified that conditions specified by the engineers in the plans were the conditions found in the field. To do that, we verified soil and rock types, looking for fractures or other visual differences. For pile foundations, our inspectors verified pile sizes and blow counts for the pile hammer. For drilled piers, we verified size, depth, and end bearing conditions, inspected reinforcing steel, and tested the concrete. Primarily using visual inspection, Terracon reviewed the reinforcing steel and formwork prior to concrete placement. This included count- ing reinforcing bars, verifying bar type, measuring lengths and spac- ing of bars, and measuring formwork. Industry standards and project specifications required protection of concrete during cold weather, defined as ambient temperature below freezing. The goal was to keep the concrete warm enough to prevent freezing and allow for proper curing, but not so warm that the concrete generated too much heat. The team conducted strength testing and remote thermal monitoring during cold-weather placements to avoid cracking by confirming the concrete was cured at the temperatures and durations specified. As required by the project specifications, all test report data was pre- pared and uploaded within 24 hours to a proprietary electronic data management system that simplified analysis for two additional owner- ship reviews. In the three and a half years of the project, more than 13,000 material reports were provided, illustrating the complexity and wide scope of the project. Use of an Electronic Data Management Sys- tem (EDMS) enabled efficient management of documents. An extensive team at the ready A project of this magnitude required significant (and trusted) manpow- er. Our team was equipped to send 22 quality control technicians and inspectors from multiple locations (including Cincinnati, Columbus,
safer alternative route. Watch the video here.
MATT LEHMENKULER, P.E. is a project manager at Terracon’s Cincinnati office specializing in large project construction materials quality control. Matt joined Terracon in 2014 prior to his graduation from the University of Cincinnati with his Bachelor of Science degree in civil engineering. JASON SANDER, P.E., is senior vice president and national director for Materials Engineering Services, based in Terracon’s Cincinnati office. With the company since 1995, he was previously regional manager for Terracon’s Cincinnati and Lexington, Ky., offices.
For anyone whose travels have taken them to Long Island’s East End and, in particular, the old whaling town of Sag Harbor, New York, the Ponquogue Bridge is a recognizable structure. This 2,812 foot long bridge traverses over the Shinnecock Bay. Its piers are a favorite place for fisherman, and the waters under the south side of the bridge harbor a vibrant marine ecosystem making them a popular divers’ location. Looking at the Ponquoque Bridge today, you might not have imagined its history and the destruction it has withstood since it was first built in 1930. With this background, there becomes an even greater apprecia- tion for the value of the sustainable marine lumber used in its latest restoration project. A 1,000 Foot Long Wooden Drawbridge The Ponquogue Bridge began as a 1,000 foot long wooden drawbridge. Over the years, a lack of proper maintenance contributed to significant rotting of its wood. This ultimately resulted in the reduction of its weight limit in 1976 from 15 tons to eight tons. Years before that, there had been considerable discussion between the United States Coast Guard and the local municipalities (i.e., the Town of Southampton and Suffolk County where Sag Harbor is located) on how to improve the bridge. By 1977, Suffolk County put forth an application for a new bridge to be built 300 feet from the original structure at a cost of $6 million. The building permit was denied because the project would have negatively impacted 3.5 acres of wetlands. Subsequently, in 1980, a new plan was submitted which would come in at a higher cost of $14 million, but would affect a reduced area of 1.5 acres of wetlands. This too and other designs were deemed unacceptable. It wasn’t until 1982 that the Coast Guard finally approved a plan for a new bridge to be constructed 150 feet from the old Ponquoque Bridge structure. During the course of its construction, in 1985, a145-foot, 90-ton girder valued at $29,000, being transported on a crane for part of the bridge’s construction, fell 30 feet onto a barge, splitting in half. Ultimately, the bridge was constructed, but that incident paled in comparison to damage the bridge would sustain at the hands of two natural disasters. In 1986, the County replaced the timber bridge with a reinforced con- crete bridge that provided more vertical clearance for boat traffic. The timber from portions of the bridge piers were repurposed for fishing piers, a diving pier and a boat launch. Then, in 2011, Hurricane Irene Sustainable Marine Lumber Helps Bridge Environmental and Structural Goals for the Ponquogue Bridge Restoration By Richard Zimmerman, Jr.
hit Long Island, causing substantial damage. It was followed by Super Storm Sandy in 2012. With winds of over 100 mph and tides 14 feet above normal heights, Sandy struck a devastating blow to the bridge. This prompted new discussion about its fate. Initial consideration was given to tearing down the bridge, but public outcry and further consid- eration prevailed based on the significance of the bridge both from a historical and community value standpoint, but also for its importance to the marine ecosystem underneath and around it. Multiple meetings with many concerned environmentalists, divers and community activ- ists led to the decision to restore the bridge. A new restoration plan developed by the Town in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the local community ensued. Af- ter FEMA funding was secured, the $1.9 million construction project began in October 2017 and was completed in 2018. A key component of the new bridge design and construction was the use of sustainable marine lumber. Sustainable Marine Lumber For marine environments, sustainable marine lumber offers a strong value proposition. It supports the guidelines provided by the U.S. En- vironmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Com- merce as put forth in their Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program. Its features are also aligned with the technical guidance offered by the Permanent International Commission for the Navigation Congresses (PIANC) relating to sustainable design, construction and management of ports, marinas and related structures. Specifically, PIANC guidance focuses on preventing hazardous chemicals from entering the water, materials degrading and entering the water, and structures interfering with live habitats and ecosystems under and around a marine structure. Sustainable marine lumber meets these and other important perfor- mance criteria. Sustainable marine lumber is responsibly harvested from forests that are carefully managed from an environmental perspective. Many sup- pliers of sustainable marine lumber provide products that are Forest
Stewardship Council® (FSC ® C117772) Certified indicative of their having been harvested from responsibly managed forests. They are fully aligned with the principles of environmentally sound construc- tion and “engineering with nature.” If you look at premium Ipe, also known as Brazilian Walnut, the marine lumber used in the Ponquoque Bridge restoration project, the sustainability aspects of this hardwood is evident. Ipe (Brazilian Walnut) Ipe has properties that made it the optimum material for the Ponquogue Bridge project. It is extremely strong, durable and dense – twice as dense as most woods and five times harder. Able to withstand heavy pressure, Ipe has a hardness measurement of upwards of 3,500 which is over 2.5 times the hardness of oak, placing it at the top of the Janka rating. It is also naturally resistant and without any chemical treat- ment, is impenetrable to insects, including termites. Ipe has proven to remain naturally resistant to insects and marine borers for 15 years which far exceeds any other wood’s ability. Its density also contributes to its water resistant, making it slip-resistant. This feature, along with its Class “A” Fire rating from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) helps reduce slip and fall and fire related risks and exposures. Unlike other wood specified for marine projects, Ipe requires minimal maintenance or the use of hazardous, toxic chemicals. Maintaining its warm red and brown hue requires cleaning with a wood cleaner and an annual UV protection coating. Because of its high density grain and natural oils, it is almost completely impervious to rotting, mold and fungus growth. With its low maintenance and lifespan of between 50 and 75 years, Ipe delivers a strong return on investment, far greater than other construction materials including composites, concrete, and softwoods. In addition to Ipe, another widely-specified hardwood used in marine projects is Greenheart (Sipiri). It too possesses outstanding strength and durability, is pest and marine borer resistant and immune to rot, mold, algae and fungi growth. It also holds a NFPA Class “A” Fire Rating. Among its specifications are: an air dried density (12 percent) of 970 kg/m3, bending strength (at 12 percent) of 240 N/mm 2 , modulus of elasticity (at 12 percent) of 24500 N/mm 2 , compression parallel to grain of 89.9 N/mm 2 and crushing strength (at 12 percent) of 98 N/mm 2 The Bridge Restoration Project Leading the Ponquogue Bridge project were the engineering design group of L.K. McLean Associates, P.C. (Brookhaven, NY) and the marine construction/engineering firm of Chesterfield Associates (Wes- thampton Beach, NY and Westport, ME). The project involved the reconstruction of the south side of the old bridge, and redesign of the north side as an additional 60 foot long fishing pier that encompassed flow-through grating to accommodate the rise and fall of storm tides and prevent future damage. The project began with the design, survey, and securing of environ- mental permits (i.e., NewYork State Department of Conservation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and New York Department of State) for the partial demolition and reconstruction of the Old Ponquogue Bridge and piers. Twenty four pile bents were evaluated and rehabilitated across both the north and south piers. The actual restoration encompassed the
replacement or rehabilitation of existing timber pier piles and replace- ment of horizontal wales, longitudinal cross bracing, transverse cross bracing, riders, and stringers. The first phase of the project involved Chesterfield Associates’ col- laring of an estimated 48 of the wood pilings supporting the former bridge. The pier, which lies on the south side of the bridge and is used primarily by divers, juts out into the Shinnecock Bay and is longer than the northern pier which serves as a fishing pier and was shortened by an estimated 300 feet in the project. The project components included: a sustainable deck and handrail, new bulkheads, and recreational access ramps. Three truckloads of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant Ipe lumber for the sustainable deck and handrail were pro- vided by Evergreen Forest Products, Inc. (Wading River, NY). Protecting the Ecosystem The use of Ipe marine lumber in key components of the restored Ponquogue Bridge, along with the project’s design, contributed to its eco-friendly status both from a protecting the water standpoint and the protection of the area’s marine ecosystem. The bridge’s pilings are home to anemones and serve as a nursery for young striped bass and black fish, as well as a habitat for tropical fish (e.g., scamp, snowy grouper, spotfin butterflyfish, roughtail stingray, etc.) that arrive via the Gulf Stream through the incoming tide of the Shinnecock Inlet. The bridge infrastructure also serves as a place for seasweeds, barnacles, inverts, sulfer and red beard sponges, and tunicates to attach to which, in turn, provide food and shelter for other marine organisms, small fish, crabs, mussels and shrimp. Helping to support this ecosystem with sus- tainable marine projects like the Ponquogue Bridge project featuring a wood like Ipe is why sustainable marine lumbers are gaining broader application and respect across the engineering and design community.
RICHARD ZIMMERMAN, JR. is Sales Manager at Evergreen Forest Products, Inc.
When natural disasters, power surges, accidents, or general equipment failure threaten the reliability of the power grid, maintenance crews must be able to quickly and safely access transmission lines and substations to make repairs. Designing resilient energy infrastructure that ensures power companies have a reliable, regular supply of energy and contingency measures in place in the event of a power failure is crucial to their business and the communities they serve. Build Sustainable Roads for Utility Transmission & Substation Access Accessing sites in remote or undeveloped areas can present several challenges for the energy industry when it comes to building, operating, and maintaining power transmission lines and substations. Soft soils and low-water crossings can make it difficult for utility vehicles to safely and effectively reach sites for routine maintenance and emergency repairs. The GEOWEB® 3D Soil Stabilization System is ideal for shallow ground improvement applications and can easily be incorporated into unpaved access roads for transmission lines and substations. The GEOWEB geocells, made from an all-weather high-density polyethylene (HDPE) mate- rial, are durable, chemical resistant, and outperform standard two-dimensional geosynthetics through lateral confinement of infill materials, facilitating what is known as the “mattress effect” for distributing loads across weak subgrades. The GEOWEB system offers an economical way to construct low-maintenance unpaved access roads that are fast to install and require less maintenance than their unreinforced counterparts. The GEOWEB-confined aggregate is stable and resistant to shoving and movement that can occur with unpaved access roads sub- jected to heavy-traffic loading conditions. With the GEOWEB system, roads are built with 50 percent less ag- gregate to support heavy vehicles with minimal environmental impact. The use of low-cost, local infill—such as sand or limestone—lowers the overall project cost, and the GEOWEB reinforcement extends the life of the unpaved road and reduces annual maintenance costs Reduce Touch & Step Hazards at Substations Aggregate is commonly used for electrical substation pavements and transformer pads to create a safe, non- conductive insulation layer between workers and the ground. This aggregate must contain fines to create a stable surface to resist heavy vehicle stresses, and the presence of these fines can create touch and step hazards. The GEOWEB system allows the use of open-graded base course (OGBC) with no fines, providing greater surface permeability and a more stable driving surface that resists rutting. The permeable GEOWEB confinement system delivers exceptional drainage, which prevents the accumula- tion of dangerous surface water ponding. Roads and substation pads constructed with the GEOWEB system require virtually no maintenance and provide a safer environment for workers. Case Study: Geocells Stabilize Soil & Manage Stormwater for Hospital Power Line Installation The Alabama Power Co. (APC) saw a need to install a second substation to provide a reliable alternative power source for Providence Hospital in Mobile, Alabama; however, wetlands near the project site compli- cated installation of the substation and power line. Construction of the access road was also wrought with environmental and regulatory concerns from citizens and local officials. Construction is strictly governed in wetland areas, so APC could not fill the wetland for soil stability. City of Mobile regulations required the project to establish stormwater retention areas due to its size. Rather than retain the water in ponds, however, APC used Presto Geosystems’ GEOWEB confinement system to stabilize the soil to ensure the access road was permeable in the upland portion of the project. Improve Energy Infrastructure Resilience with GEOWEB® 3D Soil Stabilization Presto Geosystems | www.prestogeo.com
The geocellular system stabilizes the aggregate, preventing movement under vehicle loads, and allows stormwater to drain into the soil rather than run off and create problems for residents and the environment. Because water so easily infiltrated the access road, Mobile did not require APC to build the retention pond per its regulations. Had an impervious surface been installed, stormwater would deviate from established flows, and nearby residences likely would have complained about stormwater on their properties. The substation provided Providence Hospital with two sources of power. In the event of a power failure at one, electricity would shift to the other, keeping the hospital’s vital machinery online. Design Support & Resources for Utilities & Electrical Transmission The engineering teamat PrestoGeosystems works closelywith civil engineers, offering free project evaluation services and on-site support for utility maintenance roads and substations. Contact the Presto Geosystems team to request a free project evaluation or to learn more about the GEOWEB® 3D Soil Stabilization System.
ELIMINATOR ® Waterproofing System Protects Landmark New York Bridge
By Tom Carter and Greg Laugeni
Designing bridges to stand the test of time is no mean feat at the best of times. When it came to replacing the old Tappan Zee Bridge with a new 3-mile twin span bridge across the Hudson River, the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA) and design-builder Tappan Zee Con- structors (TZC) needed to ensure the highest level of protection was achieved. With the added challenge of variable and extreme weather conditions, restricted working hours, and short possession times, the choice of waterproofing solution was crucial. Here we explore how these challenges were tackled, and review the results following the project’s completion. A massive fast-tracked waterproofing project The Governor Mario M. Cuomo Bridge is the largest single design- built contract for a transportation project in the U.S. and the longest bridge in the State of New York. Constructed of precast concrete deck panels that sit atop steel girders, the bridge is designed to achieve a 100-year service life. Both the scale and the construction schedule of the $3.98 billion project are noteworthy. This extends to the waterproofing of the bridge, which required surface preparation as well as the application of two layers of liquid waterproofing over 1.2M square feet in just three months. Early design support When it came to selecting the waterproofing solution, the specifiers were looking for a product with a proven track record on long span bridge decks. This led them to discover GCP Applied Technologies’ ELIMINATOR® system from Stirling Lloyd (now GCPApplied Tech- nologies). This liquid waterproofing membrane system has been used to protect the deck of many of the world’s biggest steel and concrete deck bridges for more than 25 years. After conducting an in-depth site visit, including inspection of the bridge deck, GCPApplied Technologies’Design Support Team worked closely with the project team to develop the waterproofing specifica- tions. This called for a solution that would provide speed and ease of installation, minimizing traffic disruption and facilitating contract pro- gression. The ELIMINATOR® waterproofing system satisfied these requirements, as it is spray applied and cures quickly (typically within the hour) to form a highly durable, seamless membrane. GCP also conducted compatibility testing of the bridge deck with the ELIMINATOR® membrane, and realized exceptional adhesion
Overcoating of ELIMINATOR® waterproofing can be done at any time, giving contractors greater flexibility.
results. The specifications also called for the use of a thin asphalt wearing course. Veteran waterproofing applicators working together Due to the massive scale of the waterproofing operation, a site visit by pre-selected certified ELIMINATOR® applicators was scheduled by TZC. It was recognized that only a select few, highly experienced, well-trained and well-equipped applicators would be able to perform all the work required within the parameters of the project construc- tion schedule. A shortlist of experienced ELIMINATOR® applicators visited the site to get a hands-on view of the scale, scope and timeline for waterproofing. TZC selected a joint venture led by Venture Con- struction, the largest ELIMINATOR® applicator in North America, and Thomarios, the applicator with the longest track record in North America, to install the ELIMINATOR® system. Supported by Venture’s large fleet of surface preparation machines and multiple crews from Venture and Thomarios, the applicators were able to cover 250,0002 feet a week, including surface preparation and ap- plication of the tack coat. Contractors were able to quickly apply ELIMINATOR® waterproofing to the Mario M. Cuomo Bridge using special spray machines.
with naturally occurring moisture and suffer severe limitations in hot conditions, which severely hampers productivity on-site. The versatility of the ELIMINA- TOR® system meant the crews could maintain pro- ductivity in hot temperatures (up to 120° F) and high periods of humidity without shutting down. On-the-spot QA tools Quality assurance (QA) was also an integral part of each step of the waterproofing project. First, adhesion test- ing was done to validate early on that there was a full chemical bond between both the waterproofing layer and the substrate below. Wet film-thickness testing was then performed to verify that the liquid waterproofing was being applied at the specified thickness. Film thick- ness was checked at the time of application rather than post-application, enabling real-time QA checks to be taken. Since this QA step could be done immediately, applica- tors were able to swiftly identify and touch up any areas in need of additional waterproof coating. The ELIMI- NATOR® system was applied in two color-coded lay- ers, making it easy to see at a glance that all surface areas were covered. This gave the applicators greater confidence that the membrane would perform optimally. A successful, fast-tracked project The combination of a high-performance waterproofing membrane and seasoned waterproofing experts working together enabled the project team to open the first span of the bridge to traffic in the summer of 2017 followed by its second span a year later. More than 50 mil- lion vehicles cross the Governor Mario M. Cuomo Bridge annually.
GCP Applied Technologies provided onsite technical support and immediate adhesion testing to help keep the Mario M. Cuomo Bridge project moving forward smoothly.
Since the ELIMINATOR system cured quickly, multiple trades could finish their work on the bridge quickly.
Preventing common application delays In addition to the demands of waterproofing such a large surface area in just three months, there were additional logistical challenges to the project. Work was being executed at other locations on the bridge deck at the time that waterproofing commenced. This could have created a problem with other waterproofing systems. However, the ELIMINATOR® waterproofing system gave the applica- tors the flexibility to have multiple crews working at the same time. They could stop the waterproofing application at a certain place and come back at time later to tie-in the day joints. In addition, the waterproofing membrane was being applied at the height of the summer. Many liquid waterproofing membranes react
TOM CARTER is Business Development Director for Stirling Lloyd Products at GCP Applied Technology in Cambridge, MA. He has over twenty years’ experi- ence working on bridge and tunnel projects and has been involved in some of the largest civil engineering projects in North America, Europe and Asia. GREG LAUGENI is the North America Technical Manager for Stirling Lloyd Products at GCP Applied Technologies in Cambridge MA. He is a qualified National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) Level 3 Certified Coating Inspector/QA/QC Manager who has worked for GCP for over 4 years with nearly 35 years of cross-functional experience within the architectural, bridge, civil, and marine industries. He earned a BA degree from the College of the Holy Cross. He holds numerous certifications from The Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC).
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