Measure Magazine, Vol. VII

Fashion Magazine at Marist Volume VII 2020-2021 Limited Digital Edition Resolution Edit The Global Pandemic and our Letters from Quarantine p. 134

A Vogue Italia Inspired Artist Salon Gone Digital p. 108

Marist Alum Cara Benevenia Debuts her new handbag line p. 10 Counterfeit Conscience A look inside the sustainable companies paving the way p. 60 For Every Action p. 38

A Vogue Italia Inspired Artist Salon Gone Digital p. 108

FM AM Fashion Magazine at Marist

Fashion Magazine at Marist Volume VII 2020-2021 Limited Digital Edition Resolution Edit The Global Pandemic and our Letters from Quarantine p. 134

A Vogue Italia Inspired Artist Salon Gone Digital p. 108

Marist Alum Cara Benevenia Debuts her new handbag line p. 10 Counterfeit Conscience A look inside the sustainable companies paving the way p. 60 For Every Action p. 38

For Every Action p. 38

FM/AM Mission Statement

6 Contributors 10 Off the Grid 22 More Than 3% Contempt 26 Secrets of the Fly

2020 is the year that the world stopped short. The COVID-19 outbreak has caused a major shift in perspective for all, even within the pages of this magazine. In the age of social distancing, we look inward for new means of connection, and we question what we think we need to be truly alive. We aim to challenge our readers to discern what deserves focus. Dualities and contradic- tions can blur our vision, leaving the truth warped. Authenticity isn’t always authentic. Volume 7 looks directly and fearlessly into this future, encouraging new and different perspectives on the human experience. We welcome the changes to come, at the hands of creative disruptors. For a time rife with uncertainty, we must keep our vision clear. Resolution Resolution is the firmness behind a choice. Resolution is the attribute of determination a person may hold. Resolution is the number of pixels in an image. Resolution is internal.

28 Not my Quirk 32 The Word Itself 38 For Every Action 58 Colophon

60 Counterfeit Conscience 72 Conversations with Peter Bohlin 78 Significant Language 94 Truth Serum 102 Stan Twitter 101 108 The Way They See It 132 Credits 134 Letters from Quarantine

FM /AM

Resolution is not subjective. Resolution is not objective. Resolution is powerful.

GRAPHICS Vecteezy https://www.vecteezy.com/vector-art/406130-data-visualization-dynamic-wave-pattern-vector

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Haille Dinger

ArtDirector Abigail Hess

Sara Kaseta

Charlotte Martin

Julia Meyer

Art Direction Team

Pre-COVID: Cherish the moments I get to spend with my family and friends from home.

Pre-COVID: Slow down; inspiration never disaspears. Post-COVID: Stop being afraid of change.

Pre-COVID: Counting down the days for school to be over. Post-COVID: Counting down the days for school to start.

Pre-COVID: To love myself more.

Pre-COVID: Create something each day. Post-COVID: Remain grateful for the little things.

Post-COVID: Recognize the good in every day, and do better for myself to create a ripple effect to help the rest of the world to heal.

Post-COVID: Be mindful of my privileges.

Creatives that push our imaginations to conceptualize thoughtful and emotional fashion editorials. Our goal is to execute artful fashion spreads that capture our reader’s eye while showcasing all of the talents within our program. Digital Layout & Design Team The blueprint between the binding: collectors and makers of art & digital assests, typography, color schemes, and layout.We use our innate creativity to execute the aesthetic of each piece in this issue.

Kerri DiSalvatore

Jacqueline Porcelli

Juneve Porciello

Morgan Franz

Nora Hogerty

2019-2020 2019-2020

Pre-COVID: Use my voice.

Pre-COVID: To embrace change.

Design & Layout Director Sarah Ditterline Pre-COVID: 18.5” x 12.25” @300dpi in CMYK Post-COVID: Use this unexpected free time to press the reset button and find new motivation to create. Pre-COVID: Travel and explore more of the beautiful world that surrounds us. Post-COVID: Take more risks while I still have the opportunity to do so.

Pre-COVID: Set a time dedicated for a self care moment where I can relax and appreciate the day.

Pre-COVID: Be more creative and waste less, mentally and physically. Post-COVID: Bring back matching tracksuit looks from my living room.

Post-COVID: Take the time to learn, listen, and take care of myself.

Post-COVID: To find beauty in the unexpected.

Post-COVID: Never take life for granted.

Our teams are divided according to each individual’s deepest passions and strongest skills, but all of the teams collaborate to achieve our collective goal. In March 2020, our project was forced to alter its intended format due to the global COVID-19 outbreak. Despite this unanticipated challenge, we used this opportunity to take a new route, reinterpreting the assets we gathered during the first semester and adapting our vision to create our best and most meaningful issue yet. Before COVID-19 turned the world on its head, we asked our teams to look inward and choose a personal resolution for 2020. But this unlikely circumstance put our lives into a new context, and it became important to note how this situation affected this project and the

Editorial Director Tara Kilcawley

Nicole Sullivan

Marley Gifford

Amanda Lauro

Pre-COVID: Embrace my natural curls. Post-COVID: Re-evaluate what is really “essential” in life.

Pre-COVID: Reduce my screen time and increase my outdoor time. Post-COVID: Savor every day and soak up every experience. Tomorrow is never promised!

Pre-COVID: Treat every day as an opportunity for self-improvement! Post-COVID: Find new outlets for creativity.

Editorial Team

Pre-COVID: Find something lovely in each day.

Post-COVID: Turn chaos into creativity, and

appreciate the small things that make life special.

The wordsmiths responsible for all things language. The ed- itorial team edits for copy and content, creates photo cap- tions and assigns image credits, ensures all posed facts are correct, and assists in the organization of magazine components.

Production Team

Managing Editor Jillian McCarthy

Grace Murphy

Janine Pultorak

Alyssa Cogliandro

people behind it. In line with our overarching themes of resolution,

Pre-COVID: Don’t take the simple things for granted. Post-COVID: Make the most of bad situations; there’s always some good to be found.

Pre-COVID: To lead with curiosity.

Pre-COVID: Don’t stress over what you cannot control. Post-COVID: Be grateful. You never know how much you have until it is gone.

Pre-COVID: Strive to do better, to be better.

perspective, and vision, we also created new resolutions that take into account what this outbreak has taught us.

Post-COVID: Welcome change and adapt to this unprecedented

Responsible for the research and logistics behind the creation of FM/AM.We develop and maintain a strict production schedule for the magazine, and work on a variety of projects, from organizing the Open Design Call and Artist Salon to managing the delivery of garments. Oh, and emails.

Post-COVID: Be in the moment.

situation with positivity and gratitude.

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PHOTOGRAPHY AND STYLING BY AMANDA LAURO

WRITTEN BY TARA GUAIMANO

CARA BENEVENIA PILOTS HER OWN LUXURY HANDBAG BRAND

L ugging a bulky canvas tote nearly half her size, Cara Benevenia sits down at a table in a small coffee shop in Morristown, N.J. “I’m heading to my nannying job after this,” Benevenia explains, as she takes off her dark puffer coat to reveal a black velvet tracksuit. The tote was filled with three artisan leather handbags, each an inaugural piece of the 24-year- old’s luxury accessory brand, ‘Cara Benevenia.’ “Every single step of the bag is done by hand,” Benevenia points out. Benevenia’s great-grandfather immigrated to the United States from a small town in southern Italy, and began an apprenticeship at a tailor shop in Hudson County, N.J. Today, the leather factory spearheading Benevenia’s manufacturing sits only a few miles down the road, preserving the family’s circle of craftsmanship on the very same soil.

Benevenia will soon trade her sophisticated leather bag for a babysitter’s tote. She has juggled multiple full and part-time jobs in the past few months, all in an effort to fund her luxury startup.

In 2017, Benevenia graduated with a degree in fashion design fromMarist College in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., where she won the award for Best Collection at Marist’s 31st annual Silver Needle Runway show.

MODELS Codou Diallo (Left), Rebecca Cole (Right) HANDBAGS Cara Benevenia FASHION Marist Fashion Archives

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Since then, Benevenia has worked in both the luxury and mass market fashion sectors, at brands such as Zac Posen’s House of Z. She eventually left the long days of celebrity fittings to draft the initial designs for her handbag collection. “When I left the design houses, I was thinking about making bags. My parents were really pushing me. They always told me, ‘You just keep going and you put your head in, like a bull,’ because I’m a Taurus,” Benevenia says with a smile.

Her self-titled brand is built around family values and careful artistry. Benevenia runs her business from her family home in New Providence, N.J. “I’ve taken over my mother’s dining room,” Benevenia laughs.

MODEL Codou Diallo HANDBAG Cara Benevenia FASHION Marist Fashion Archives

Benevenia tucks her hair behind her ears, revealing a pair of gold hoop earrings that once belonged to her grandmother. “She was a Jersey grandma, who wore so much leopard print and always went down to Atlantic City,” Benevenia says of her late grandmother. “I started looking through all her jewelry for my mom, and I found these, and I wear them every day.”

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MODELS Rebecca Cole (Left), Codou Diallo (Right) HANDBAGS Cara Benevenia BELTS Cara Benevenia FASHION Marist Fashion Archives

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Wearing the earrings is only one of the many ways in which Benevenia acknowledges her roots. The manufacturing for Cara Benevenia LLC is headquartered at Leatherworks by Arturo. The factory in Union City, N.J. is co-owned by Fashion Institute of Technology alum Christina Campagnoli, and the location allows Benevenia to be hands-on in the manufacturing process. With a background in clothing design, Benevenia was not versed in accessories at her start. The signature Cara Benevenia magenta plaid design was derived from a 1980s, Prince-inspired color palette she created during her collegiate design career. It was a plaid textile woven by hand with yarn purchased fromMichael’s that stood out in her college fashion show in 2017. “Seeing everything that Prince stood for were things that I personally struggled with in college, just being who you are or to do something that is different and that no one has done before,” Benevenia says. “I wanted to be someone that wasn’t afraid, and wasn’t going to just do what everyone else was doing.”

Elevating the seemingly mundane is Benevenia’s design specialty. Her woven leather bags are inspired by a reinvention of the classic plaid textile, turning what she calls a basic plaid into a bright pink, multidimensional textile.

She carried these skills with her when designing her first handbag, replicating her token plaid pattern — but this time trading flimsy yarn for imported leather from Florence, Italy. “It’s not out there, so I knew this was going to be really different. Let’s try to figure out what we can do with leather,” Benevenia says when explaining her inspiration.

"I WANTED TO BE SOMEONE THAT WASn'T AFRAID, AND WASn'T GOING TO JUST DO WHAT EVERYONE ELSE WAS DOING"

“Everything seemed so plastic and manufactured in bulk to me. I just never saw a bag that I thought was cool, and I just never saw something that I thought was worth the money. I kept reverting back to the textile I made in college because I felt it was so different and unique,” Benevenia says. According to Benevenia, this process is mathematical. As a former member of her high school’s physics team, her initial success in her craft began with fitting and construction rather than the creative process. “I could look at the book and it could tell me how to draft a pair of pants, I can do it one time and it would fit the model like a glove,” Benevenia says. “Being so precise and making clothes fit — I could just do it with my eyes closed.” Her mathematical thinking led her to an idea about utilizing the structure of a piece of mesh to hold the woven leather in place, breaking away from design patterns she had seen before in legacy handbag brands like Bottega Venetta or Loewe. “Because those bags are traditionally woven, and don’t have the mesh to hold pieces in place, it can only be interlocked in one way. Since its woven into itself, you can’t space it out and make different patterns because it’s using itself as a grid,” Benevenia explains. Benevenia launched her luxury handbag brand with three flagship design styles and color palettes — electric blue plaid, magenta plaid, and mixed metals. “The blue was inspired by this bag,” Benevenia notes, reaching behind her chair in the coffee shop and grabbing her Stella McCartney that she saved up for years back, comprised of a patchwork denim textile that resembles a similar craftsmanship to her woven leather plaid design.

MODELS Codou Diallo (Left), Rebecca Cole (Right) HANDBAGS Cara Benevenia FASHION Marist Fashion Archives

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MODELS Codou Diallo HANDBAGS Cara Benevenia FASHION Marist Fashion Archives

But being an eager, young designer came with limits.“Factories just hung up on me,” Benevenia says, reminiscing on when she first decided to build her brand. She began researching factories in New York City that gave her inflated prices for a single sample of the design she had been developing. “Maybe because I looked young, or I don’t have a name — I wasn’t going to be giving them 100,000 units,” Benevenia says. Struggling with keeping initial costs down, Benevenia dealt with not being able to meet purchase minimums when buying high-quality leather. “With these weaves, it’s trial and error in order to figure out where the colors are going to go. I can’t order all of this leather, test it out in a sample, and that color might not sell,” Benevenia notes.

She stuck with what she knew from her early design days, getting small quantities of overpriced material from the Garment District in Manhattan.

Her brand’s identity began to sharpen naturally when she found Leatherworks by Arturo. She walked into the factory with a top handle beach bag from Anthropologie that set her back $15, and a tiny mesh swatch with some strips of leftover leather woven through it. “I just kept thinking, if I made my woven plaid with leather, it would look so cool,” Benevenia says. “It was a little thing of mesh with two leather strips down the middle, and I go, ‘Could you work with this? Imagine it filled up with leather,’ and Christina just looked at me and said, ‘Let me go to the back.’” Campagnoli came back, and promised they’d work with it on an experimental basis. Now, Benevenia uses cow hides for the body of the bag, and custom treated lamb skins for the shiny leathers that, when foiled and laminated, produce the bright colors.

"but being an eager young designer came with limits"

“When the weave is done, it’s almost like a surprise,” Benevenia says. “Randomly combining colors, even ones that one wouldn’t typically think would sit well together.”

“That one is so new,” Benevenia says as she points to her rectangular matte black bag design, its top handle disconnected from the woven body and sourced from one of the last tanneries in America, one that specializes in leather for horseback riding saddles. “It’s really thick leather — then my factory cuts two parts of the skin together, they glue it, they paint it, they buff it, they stitch it,” Benevenia explains. The prototypes continued to evolve, as Benevenia cleaned up the design with different geometric combinations while working to overcome technical issues. “That was the development to get to this guy,” Benevenia smiles, holding up her Electric Blue Plaid Top Handle bag, already on its third iteration.

DISPOSABLES Shot on Kodak 35mm Single Use MODELS Rebecca Cole, Codou Diallo HANDBAGS Cara Benevenia

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"I want to make something meaningful," "and this has so much meaning to me.”

Since her brand’s founding in December 2018, Benevenia has been inducted into the Female Founder Collective, an initiative by Rebecca Minkoff to bring together female founders from the fashion industry. She continues to grow her brand while making sure she stays connected to her roots in the meantime. “I want to get it to people at a fair cost; I wouldn’t feel comfortable selling it for $700 or asking people to pay that much,” Benevenia acknowledges. “But there is a great story behind it, with being made in America, I weave part of it — it’s just about finding the right people to see it. You have to push yourself, and for something so expensive people are going to think about their purchases.” “I am not trying to mass produce these; I want to make something meaningful,” Benevenia says earnestly. “And this has so much meaning to me.”

MODEL Rebecca Cole HANDBAG Cara Benevenia FASHION Marist Fashion Archive

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R ILLUSTRATIONS Sarah Ditterline FM/AM 22

More Than

Contempt

The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the term, “bitch” to around 1000 AD, where it was originally coined to mean, “The female of the dog.” In Ancient Greece, “dog” was a derogatory term used to reference someone with improper behavior. Now, bitch is a name that has often been adopted by strong, independent women everywhere. “I just took a DNA test, turns out I’m 100% that bitch,” is the opening line to musical artist Lizzo’s hit song “Truth Hurts,” a song announcing to the world that she is the woman we all want to be. But a paradox has emerged. If everyone wants to be “that bitch,” why don’t they want “resting bitch face?” In his 2013 roundup of cultural terms for the New York Times, Grant Barrett defined resting bitch face (RBF) as: “A face that, when at rest, looks angry, irritated or aggressive.” Despite the slur

By Abigail Hess

showed levels of about 5.76% contempt, well over the 3% or less that would be considered “normal.” Examples of celebrities that have been tagged with RBF are Kristen Stewart, Anna Wintour, Victoria Beckham, January Jones, and even Queen Elizabeth II. In a departure from the term’s innate misogyny, Kanye West has also been included in this category. Rogers and Macbeth have proven that RBF is not just a female phenomenon, but is in actuality a result of our society’s social

norms. The study highlights that because FaceReader is ultimately an unbiased piece of software, it was able to detect emotions in female and male faces equally. If this is true, then why didn’t “resting asshole face” ever manage to take off? What are women supposed to do now that resting, their most vulnerable state, is being slandered? Many outlets suggest making changes to the natural contours of the face. In 2016, W Magazine wrote an article titled, “The Revered Miracle Lift Claims to Cure Resting Bitch Face, and It’s Changing the Fashion Industry One Jawline at a Time.” Candice

losing its bite over the last decade, our culture has found another way to punish women for having the audacity to greet her everyday tasks with a neutral expression instead of cheerfulness and warmth. In 2016, two behavioral researchers, Jason Rogers and Abbe Macbeth, utilized the latest facial recognition software in their study using Noldus’ FaceReader. The FaceReader software is able to automatically analyze the eight basic human emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, contempt, and neutrality. The software examines faces through an image upload or a live camera, maps out 500 points on the human face, and then uses these

I f we properly encourage girls and women to be themselves, no matter the facial expression , perhaps a woman who is thoughtful, intellectual, and occasionally perplexed, will be "that bitch".

Forness is responsible for the “Miracle Lift” that retrains your facial muscles through a treatment that is “part lymphatic drainage, part acupressure, and part Swedish massage.” The “holistic facelift” is applauded for its ability to create a face that is softer, lacks the look of fatigue, has a more pronounced jawline, and, most importantly, it claims to cure RBF. Recently, more invasive procedures are becoming commonplace to remove the resting appearance of facial features associated with RBF. In 2019, Melkorka Licea wrote an article for The New York Post entitled “Women Are Flocking to Plastic Surgeons to Fix ‘Resting Bitch Face.’” In it, Licea explained how doctors have been receiving requests for surgical treatments that will give women’s faces a more “approachable” look. Dr. David Shafer, a double board-certified plastic surgeon and the medical director of Shafer Plastic Surgery & Laser Center, told Licea that he actually receives several requests a week for such procedures. Dr. Shafer stated that the requests for such procedures have

points to determine levels of emotions and specific expressions based on a catalog of more than 10,000 images of human faces. The specific emotion that FaceReader associated with a resting bitch face is contempt. The study reports that contempt is recognized through the subtlety of lips tightened and raised more strongly on one side than the other, essentially giving the appearance that the lips and brow are not quite angry or sad but in fact contemptuous. Rogers and Macbeth ran a series of “neutral” faces through FaceReader to determine the baseline percent of emotions in the average resting face. The results were that a face judged to be expressionless contained 97% of the emotion neutrality. The remaining 3% of emotions were the key ingredients in deciding if a face was simply resting or was, in fact, a “resting bitch face.”

After Rogers and Macbeth analyzed a series of well-known celebrities who have been described as having RBF, the results

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more than doubled over the last year. Licea also spoke with Park Avenue plastic surgeon Dr. Melissa Doft, another doctor familiar with conducting procedures that aim to make patients look “less sad.” To achieve a “pleasant resting look,” doctors use techniques such as the injection of fillers or Botox treatments into the face. Overall, the procedure takes about 10 to 20 minutes and can cost anywhere between $500 and $5,000, depending upon the amount of contempt a patient seeks to lose. Women are not wrong to think that their “unfriendly” face needs fixing. “Through cultural conditioning, women have learned that in order for people to like them, they have to wear a smile even if they don’t think anything is particularly funny. Men who look thoughtful are seen as serious; women with the same expression are perceived as unfriendly and unlikeable,” wrote author Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Ph.D, in a 2015 article for Psychology Today. Thoughtful looking women should not be forced to think privately behind closed doors. The 2015 New York Times article, “I’m Not Mad. That’s Just My RBF,” by Jessica Bennett, described RBF as a face that a person may make when thinking hard about something – or perhaps when they’re not thinking at all. Meaning a woman’s silent intellectual moment has now labeled her an unfriendly person to the public.

Naturally, this misperception carries through to the workplace, where an IBM study of 2,300 organizations concluded that a mere 18% of senior corporate leadership roles were held by women. A portion of this gender bias could be the result of perceptions about RBF. In 2014, the Caliper Research and Development Department conducted a study to explore the personality traits related to successful female leaders, and to determine which challenges female leaders experience most in today’s workplace. Along with many earlier studies, this study concluded that several of the traits that are viewed as necessary for effective leadership, such as assertiveness and self-reliance, are characteristics more often attributed to men. Eighty five women currently holding leadership positions of Vice President or higher on the corporate ladder, and representing 60 different companies, made up the final sample for their study. The study concluded that personality both enables and hinders women in regards to overcoming the challenges and threats of stereotyping that are inevitable with their positions of leadership. The personality traits that will enable women to excel in leadership roles are being straightforward communicators, action-oriented risk-takers, and complex problem solvers. These traits, although originally seen as “masculine,” are proven to be universal leadership traits for all. In 2015, Meg Fry wrote, “Is There Something Wrong? No. That’s Just My Face,” for the business journal, NJBIZ. NJBIZ set out to investigate the implications in the workplace of women being labeled a bitch due to their RBF. “In an informal poll of more than a dozen female NJBIZ staffers between ages 21 and 50, 64% believe RBF has the ability to impact one’s career, or prevent one from getting ahead in business,” Fry reported. Objectively, RBF is just a calmly assertive or thoughtful facial expression. Is that not the face of a person who is simply mentally engaged in something besides how she is being physically perceived? When the lines and curves that denote her success or her depth leave a mark on a woman’s face, she is known to the world as a victim of the RBF epidemic. Ultimately, RBF relies on the outside gaze of others, not a person’s self-concept. If we encourage girls and women to be themselves, no matter the facial expression, perhaps a woman who is thoughtful, intellectual, and occasionally perplexed, will one day be affectionately labeled “that bitch.”

HAPPY

SAD

SCARED

EXCITED

ANXIOUS

CONFIDENT

CONFUSED

ANGRY

SHY

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SECRETS OF THE FLy By Isabella Parmeter

1964 Howard Kane, a dairy farmer, patents the zip-off convertible pant in the U.S. The style is designed with the working man and warm summer weather in mind,

1968 An amusement park ride called The Zipper is invented by Joseph Brown under Chance Rides. It was named

as the pants can be worn year round. The pants are popular as

athletic wear, and are still produced today by brands such as L.L. Bean, The North Face, and Columbia.

one of the world’s strangest amusement rides by Popular Mechanics. The ride still appears at carnivals today, despite the controversy regarding the series of deaths attached to it.

1969 As the Apollo 11 crew makes history during the first moon landing, they are protected by the Scovill zippers that appear on their uniforms.

1971 The Rolling Stones release their album

“Sticky Fingers,” with album art displaying a close up of a man’s jeans and visible zipper. It is criticized due to the sexually suggestive nature of the photo.

Early 1900s Judson’s patent is used on tobacco pouches and suits for the U.S. Navy. Now often credited with the invention of the zipper, Swedish inventor Gideon Sundback improves upon Judson’s design by creating his “Separable Fastener,” and creates zipper companies Talon in the U.S. and LF (Lightning Fastener) in Canada. 1930s Elsa Schiaparelli debuts a gown with zippers across the front. With many of their husbands away at war, the now-popular side zipper serves as a solution for women to zip up their own clothes.

1973 Author Erica Jong coins the term “zipless fuck,” the previous

1852 Elias Howe Jr. creates the prototype for what we now call the zipper. This “Automatic, Continuous Clothing Closure” proves to be well ahead of its time, but Howe doesn’t market it very much since he is busy promoting his other invention, the sewing machine. 1893 An American inventor, Whitcomb Judson, presents the modern zipper, the “Clasp Locker,” on shoes during the Chicago World’s Fair. He later develops two companies that become popular in the zipper industry.

1980s Smaller zipper companies start to succumb to the saturation of the zipper market. YKK

phrasing of “no strings attached,” in her novel, “Fear of Flying.”

continues to rise in power, slowly shrinking the company variety within the industry. Inspired by a jacket from the French movie, “Hôtel du Nord,” designer Azzedine Alaïa debuts a dress held together by one continuous zipper in 1989.

1947 Western working women are already accustomed to wearing men’s button up jeans. Popular jeans brand Levi’s adds zippers to women’s jeans to appeal to the East Coast woman.

1934 YKK, the current monopoly dominating the zipper industry, is founded by Tadao Yoshida in Japan.

1940s As spouses return from the war, zippers slide their way to the back of dresses and skirts once again.

1960s Talon is the largest zipper company in the United States, and Optilon of Germany is the largest in Europe. YKK controls 95% of the Japanese zipper industry. Talon decides to keep its business in the U.S., which gives YKK an advantage to expand across the world. YKK makes improvements to the Talon zippers after their patents expire, giving YKK the newest and most efficient zipper in the industry.

1990s Stuffed animals as pulls begin to appear in the zipper market. The invention of larger zipper pulls aids in accessibility for all ages and bodies.

2000s-Today As trends change over the course of months and years, so do zippers. Today, we have zippers that come in a multitude of different shapes and sizes. YKK remains the largest company, producing 45% of the world’s zippers. Talon and Optilon each have 7% and 8% of the zipper market, and the remaining percentage is produced by various Chinese factories.

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Not My Quirk By Olivia Galbraith

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techniques. “People with OCD do not stay with the things they fear long enough to learn the truth–that is, that their fears are unjustified and that the anxiety would have gone away anyway on its own, without a compulsion or neutralizing activity,” Penzel said. This shows that if people were given the right treatment to cope with these unwanted and intrusive thoughts, they would be able to determine what is real and what is not. The objective of CBT is to have the patient remain with whatever makes them anxious so that they develop a tolerance for the thought or the situation. This gives them the power to ride through the wave of emotion and experience tolerance for the feeling, learning that nothing negative will occur as a result. From personal experiences with CBT, I have had to sit with situations that make me uneasy to teach myself to question my compulsions. I have spent countless hours sitting in a room where the books on the bookshelf are not aligned and things are out of place. Being that it was not my office, I could not rearrange the books despite my deepest urges. Sitting through uncomfortable situations that seem impossible is to challenge the underlying logic, which often tends to be irrational. One main practice I follow is to focus on my five senses when I realize I am overwhelmed in thoughts, especially when I am kept up at night. I start by identifying five things I can see, four things I can feel, three things I can hear, two things I can smell and one thing I can taste. This countdown is not only a distraction, but it allows me to feel grounded and back in reality again. I think of it as a reset button. For those nights when I am up for hours wired with thoughts of everything I have done that day and what I have left to do the next, this becomes the only way for me to sleep.

Despite the challenges of this complex mind game, OCD does have some powerful benefits, like having an eye for detail, and the ability to maintain a level of attentiveness that is otherwise hard to achieve. People strive to be detail oriented in order to succeed in their daily lives- but I’ve got that covered. I also have the ability to think about concepts that would never occur to others. The second guessing and the repetitive thoughts can be what makes someone create the best circumstances for themselves and everyone around them. There is a hidden beauty in OCD. Allow people with OCD to show this part of themselves on their own, not when they’re told to. Reflecting on my own experience with OCD, I think back to Jack Nicolson’s character. After CBT and a collection of personal practices, I can say most of those compulsions I saw in that character at 11 years old are no longer relevant. With time and effort, my OCD has matured from predominantly physical actions into more mental compulsions. Although I no longer tap walls or color code my food, I still have OCD. But this is not my quirk- it’s my strength.

Apparently, everyone has OCD. Often used as an adjective to describe being a neat freak or a perfectionist, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has become a catch-all term people use to describe themselves and others based on their organizational habits. In reality, the

type. Obsessive compulsive is a term that is often overused in a joking manner, which has led to many myths surrounding the reality of the disorder, and also eliminates meaning from the diagnosis itself. To look at characteristics of OCD as being part of a personality type takes away from the people who face more paralyzing side effects. “With OCD, there are obsessions (unwanted thoughts, impulses, or images that repeat in a person’s mind) and compulsions (acts that a person repeats in order to ‘get rid’ of these obsessions). These compulsions are often done in a desperate attempt to protect oneself from the wave of anxiety the obsessions bring, not because the person actually wants to engage in the compulsion,” Tipu explained. Compulsive behavior is a means of self-protection from overwhelming thoughts and emotions. There are different levels of OCD based on the severity of the symptoms. When diagnosing this disorder, there is a checklist of symptoms people most commonly encounter. These symptoms include having unwanted ideas, worrying something bad will

obsessive compulsions that come from OCD have very little to do with cleaning. As a little girl, I would look out the window of the school bus and count the cracks in the sidewalk, a task that became impossible as the bus started to speed up, causing me to quickly lose count. It was a need that consumed my mind, and at 8 years old, it seemed logical that everyone would do that. I was about 11 years old when I walked into my parents’ room one day as they were watching “As Good As It Gets.” The main character of the movie is an older man who does

not want to be surrounded by people, and lives a life completely alone, which satisfies him. One of his compulsions is turning the lights on and off upon

THERE IS A HIDDEN BEAUTY IN OCD.

happen, shortness of breath, trouble sleeping, avoiding certain situations, and repetitive thoughts. This is a more complex set of circumstances than the average “neat freak” or “perfectionist” would experience. To discover more about each person’s individual symptoms, a therapist must meticulously catalog their patient’s types of compulsions and thoughts.

entering the house. He continues counting until he feels that he has done it the correct amount of times, which is a personal amount known only to him. He treated locking doors the same way. I noticed that the character and I acted similarly, and shared this observation with my parents. Although my behavior slightly varied, his repetitive counting and organizational needs were something I connected with. I saw myself in an aging Jack Nicholson.

Two of the main components of OCD are doubt and guilt. Everyone experiences feelings of doubt and guilt sometimes, but people living with OCD feel these emotions on a chronic, daily basis. By feeling undue guilt and constant self-doubt, it becomes nearly impossible to perform daily activities; a person loses confidence and becomes burdened by these heavy emotions. A daily routine can be destroyed by repetitive thoughts about a conversation with a friend or teacher. A person with OCD may doubt the way their world works and their own ability to perform even a simple task. OCD becomes a battle between ideas, obligations and recurring

Apart from these comparisons, some of the other compulsions I experienced as a child were less

stereotypical. The first one was wall tapping. When I would accidentally bump into a wall or my hand touched it, I would feel the need to tap it again. Typically, I would tap it about four times, but if I thought there was a chance that I accidentally did it an odd number of times, I would go up to six. This habit eventually died down after middle school. Another memorable event occurred during a sleepover with friends. My mom had bought us different types of candy and said to divide them up between ourselves. As a middle schooler with undiagnosed OCD, I assumed I would literally divide the candy up. My two friends sat patiently as I laid out the M&M’s, Sour Patch Kids and Skittles, and color coded them. Then, I further divided them based on their type and the amount, an extremely time consuming task. At this moment, I probably should have recognized that my urges were not typical. As I grew a little older, I would sit in classrooms and agonize over the half-erased whiteboards. Rather than paying attention to the lecture, I would focus on the various leftover scribbles, hoping the teacher would notice and remove them. In her article for The Atlantic, Fatima Tipu identified one important misconception about OCD: that OCD is a quirk, and its symptoms are the result of a specific personality

thoughts. It is easy to then agonize over this “unproductive time.” To think that someone living with OCD can control the thoughts that enter their brain is unreasonable, as

that task is an impossible one. “Obsessions are biochemically

generated mental events that seem to resemble one’s own real thoughts, but aren’t...As biochemical events, they cannot simply be shut off at will,” explained experienced psychologist Fred Penzel, Ph.D. As resisting an obsessive thought is basically unachievable, a common therapy practice is attempting to refuse to comply with the compulsion using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

ILLUSTRATIONS Sarah Ditterline

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All images were photographed with a Nikon D3300 DSLR of a Canon EOS Rebel SL1

The word "resolution" has its roots in the Latin, originating as the word "resolvere," meaning to loosen, release or explain. The term has expanded from its original meaning over time, and is now used to describe releasing yourself from a problem or mystery by resolving it; when some- thing reaches its resolution, the problem has been un- done. Resolution is often used to describe a promise to one’s self to do or not to do something, such as with a New Year’s Resolution. A resolution can also be used as a formal expression of the objectives and opinions of an assembled group, or to describe image quality. When describing a piece of photography, resolution refers to the number of pixels in an image. A pixel is the smallest addressable element in a visual display, a single particle of color that makes up the larger image. The more pixels in each inch of a photograph, the sharper the image. When an image is pixelated, the pixels in an image are enlarged and scrambled, obscuring the photographer’s details. An image with a high resolution is understandable and sharp, but an image with a low resolution is blurry and unclear. Any image must have 300 pixels in every inch to be considered to have high resolution in print. Every pixel is all or nothing. If it has the necessary quarter of a milli- meter of color, then it exists; if it does not have any color, then it doesn’t. You cannot alter them without altering the image itself. If an artist displaces enough pixels, it will distort the image’s clarity, which is sometimes done on purpose to give the subject of a photograph a dispersing effect, as though they were fading away. Removing pixels takes away the viewer’s ability to see an image clearly. If you lose pixels, you lose the building blocks of any artist’s achievement. Hand drawn art relies on nothing but the stroke of an artist’s hand, but every digital image is the sum of its parts. This magazine is more reliant on pixels than any other issue we have created. In the wake of exceptional changes, we are relying completely on digital art to convey our ideas. Every individual pixel was lovingly created and placed in FM/AM to offer readers inspiration and color amidst one of the most uncertain and disorienting times our wolrd has ever faced. When little else is certain, a pixel is.

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res o lu tion / res ‘looSH( )n/ __

10. a measure of the sharpness of an image or of the fineness with which a device (such as a video display, printer, or scanner) can produce or record such an image usually expressed as the total number or density of pixels in the image.

1. a firmness of resolve

2. sharpness-fine point

3. clarity

11. A detail you can see.

4. transparency or purity

12. The division of a prosodic element into its component parts. a. the substitution in Greek or Latin prosody of two short syllables for a long syllable.

5. the act of solving a problem, finding a way to improve a difficult situation, or distilling a complex notion into something simpler.

6. determination: a promise to oneself to do or not do something.

13. music: the passing of a discord into a concord during the course of changing harmony.

7. description of something such as a screen or photograph with the ability to show an image extremely clear, with lots of detail. 8. a formal expression of opinion, will, or intent voted by an official body or assembled group; an official decision that is made after a group or organization has voted. 9. the process or capability of making distinguishable the individual parts of an object, closely adjacent optical images, or sources of light.

14. medicine: the disappearance of of any symptom or condi- tion.

15. chemistry: the process of reducing or separating something into its components.

16. physics: the replacing of a single force or other vector quantity by two or more jointly equivalent to it.

glossary Related Terms

Via Merriam-Webster Dictionary Via Macmillan Dictionary Via vocab.com

•Sitzfleisch: (n.) The ability to endure or carry on with an activity; a person’s buttocks. [German word adopted to English slang] •Pluck: (n./v.) spirited and determined courage; sound (a musical instrument or its strings) with one’s finger or a plectrum.

•Stick-to-itiveness: (n.) Perseverance; persistence

•Loosen: (v.) make (something tied, fastened, or fixed in place) less tight or firm [Latin root word]

•Pixelate: (v.) divide (an image) into pixels. To display an image of (someone or something) on television as a small number of large pixels, typically in order to disguise some- one’s identity or to censor. •Fuzzy: (adj.) having a frizzy or frayed texture or appearance; difficult to perceive clearly or understand and explain precise- ly; indistinct or vague.

•Moxie: (n.) force of character, determination, or nerve

•Determination: (n.) firmness of purpose; resoluteness; the process of establishing something exactly by calculation or research; [Latin root word] •Resolve: (v.) settle or find a solution to (a problem, dispute, or contentious matter); decide firmly on a course of action; [Latin root word]

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T his photoshoot was inspired by the frustration around fashion pollution and a need to express our eco-anxiety about the world we are about to step into. Sets from this editorial were made almost exclusively by using sal- vaged materials and strictly digital assets. The series follows five different environmental issues caused by the fashion industry: water waste, plastic waste, paper waste, production waste and textile waste. Plastic waste is seen in the form of single use plastics like garment bags, packaging and plastic byproducts. Textile, pattern and pro- duction waste are represented through the muslin and pattern paper we collected from the studios of the Marist Fashion Design program. Chemicals used to dye and soften fabrics are harm- ful to us and the planet due to the sheer volume of apparel that is manufactured using synthetic dyestuffs and finishes. We used natural dyes and found materials whenever possible. Designers can still create dynamic and exciting work but must also take accountability for how their pieces are produced. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Art Direction team had to find a fresh way to explore this growing problem. The mixed media, collage, and illustration that you see throughout this story allow the textures and colors to come to life in a way that is difficult for even fashion photography to achieve. While unexpected, the digital format let us to take this issue into an even more literal definition of sustainability. This is the future, unless we use our creativity to stop it.

DESIGNER Sierra Robinson

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DESIGNER Sara Kaseta MODEL Emma Kaseta

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DESIGNER Isabel Holden MODEL Janine Tondu

DESIGNER Leandra Perelli MODEL Janine Tondu

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DESIGNER Briar Connors MODEL Janine Tondu

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DESIGNER Isabel Holden MODEL Kalah Hendricks

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DESIGNER Jontay Kahm MODEL Roger Seifert

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C O LL O P H O N

TYPOGRAPHY

(Body Text and Feature Titles Only) MADE Canvas Regular, Black By Made Type

Louis George Café Regular, Bold By Chen Yining

Bebas Neue By Dharma Type

Didot

Pixeled By OmegaPC777

Signatura Monoline Script By lanmikraz

Indy Women Suthi Srisopha

KUASQUE By ijem

Kids By JD Johnson

Clip By Martín Argüello

Pico Black By Maniackers

Deutschlander By Sharkshock

Courier Bold

Happy Time By KineticPlasm Fonts

GLADES DEMO By Knackpack Studio

Helvetica Light, Bold

Helvetica Neue Regular, Medium, Bold, Condensed Bold

COPYRIGHT

All content included in FM/AM is subject to copyright. No part of this magazine may be reproduced without the consent of the Marist Fashion Program.

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Counterfeit By Nora Hogerty Conscience Sustainability in 2020 evokes images of yoga-toned bodies, goopy kale smoothies, and Instagram-friendly belief systems. The sustainable woman cleanses with seaweed tonics, lemongrass potions, and charcoal-infused toothpaste. She is the epicenter of centeredness. However, her yoga studio is corporately owned, her kale sprayed with pesticides, and her hotness only as deep as the mica mined by Malagasy children in Madagascar for her highlighter. Welcome to greenwashing, an unfortunate side effect of environmentalism, where ethics are used only as a marketing ploy.

ILLUSTRATIONS Sarah Ditterline PHOTOGRAPHY Courtesy of OOKIOH, MINDFLOWERS, and The Clothing Warehouse

PHOTOGRAPHER Kate Hollowell MODEL Mollie Papouloute OOKIOH Campaign

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Greenwashing is a concept conceived by Jay Westerveld in the 1980s as a term to explain the overuse of environmental marketing on products or services to increase sales and change public perception. The process of greenwashing is simple. A product may be marketed as 100% natural wool, but in reality contains 96% polyester and can never be recycled. Brands may use earthy, woody neutrals to suggest ideas of tree bark and wheat grass. The truth is murky, with a side of inconclusive. Counterfeit authenticity is running rampant in the fashion industry. Fast-fashion retailing giant H&M has their own “Conscious” line, even though they are sitting on $4.3 billion in unsold clothing from 2018. The true cost of greenwashing is that smaller, truly conscious brands are being overlooked for larger imposter brands. This practice leaves ethical brands grasping for recognition and market share. OOKIOH (pronounced o͞okēō ) is a prismatic collection of hues; their candy-colored swimsuits induce a longing for watermelon soft serve and lavender scented meringue. Only a year old, the brand is based on the feelings of nostalgia, leisure, and community. Less advertised is their position as a conscious brand. “I didn’t start with sustainability as a motivation, or to build a moat around the brand. I never thought that there was another option; true sustainability is a responsibility, and that is part of OOKIOH’s DNA,” said Vivek Agarwal, the founder of OOKIOH. Their swimsuits are a combination of post-consumer waste, such as fishing nets, fluff from carpet tops, and rigid textiles, and pre-consumer waste, using the byproducts from polyester and nylon production. To Agarwal, OOKIOH’s honest marketing relies on very careful wording. “Greenwashing has a significant impact on brands that are trying to be more responsible. Responsible, not sustainable, because sustainability is loosely used in the industry. If a brand is promoting the consumption of items that are carbon positive, it isn’t sustainable; repurposing or wearing used/old clothes is sustainable,” Agarwal said. Carbon positive is another term used to describe being climate positive or carbon neutral. For a brand to be climate positive means that they are going beyond achieving net zero carbon emissions, and are actually removing additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. “We stay away from calling ourselves a ‘sustainable’ brand. We have been very mindful of using that term. However, others aren’t. They are conscious of the choice of words used to mislead the customers,” Agarwal said. Agarwal’s strategy to counteract the low price standard set by fast fashion is to produce products of greater quality at a more reasonable price point. “We offer suits at $98 and use the same materials as some $150 plus suits. We do this by lowering our profit margins. We don’t believe in using ‘sustainability’ as a pricing tool. To grow our brand and impact, we have been working on our product offerings and categories,” Argarwal explained. Agarwal recognizes that this strategy isn’t a quick solution to overcome the challenges created by fast fashion. “It is becoming increasingly difficult to compete with brands that are using cheaper and unsustainable materials, greenwashing customers, and raking in millions that go back into their marketing blitzkrieg,” Agarwal said.

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