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THE COVER South Carolina Community Invests Heavily in Wastewater – story on page 10 CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 13 Carbon Planning STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 14 Construction Boundary Monitoring: Protecting Workforces and Communities 15 Reservoir Roof Replacement Leads to Innovative Fall Protection Plan 17 Award Winning Alabama Shelter Features Metal Building Solution 19 Managing an UnCommon Project 20 A Score for Sustainability TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 22 Shannon & Wilson Designs State of the Art Monitoring System to Prevent Severe Flooding on US 36 in Colorado 24 Rehabilitating Degraded Manholes for Long-Term Protection— Even in Harsh Conditions WATER + STORMWATER 26 From Bus Repairs to Water Reclaimation BUSINESS NEWS 28 The Challenge of Culture Change to Ensure Fire and Building Safety: An Architect’s View 29 Construction Safety Programs and the Labor Shortage 31 Six Steps to Creating a Value Engineering Model 33 Health and Safety Feature 34 Technology Can Help Make the Jobsite Safer 35 Addressing the Labor Shortage in the Construction Industry SOFTWARE + TECH 37 Reducing On-Site Accidents With Culture, Technology and Training UNPILOTED SYSTEMS 39 Difference between flying laser scanners and UAVs SURVEYING 40 Are You Paying Too Much for Your Mobile Mapping Imagery?


departments 8 Events 42 Reader Index

Columns 5 Industry insights: ElevateAEC Chad Clinehens 6 Looking Back, Moving Forward: TFrom Boom Town to Metropolis: San Francisco Luke Carothers



September 2022


VOLUME 8 ISSUE 9 csengineermag.com

publisher Chad Clinehens, P.E. | 479.856.6097 | cclinehens@zweiggroup.com media manager Anna Finley | 479.435.6850 | afinley@zweiggroup.com ART director Maisie Johnson | 417.572.4561 | mjohnson@zweiggroup.com Editor Luke Carothers | lcarothers@zweiggroup.com

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September 2022

Industry insights

Chad Clinehens Elevateaec 2022

At this year’s ElevateAEC Conference, we’ll celebrate and show the world what a successful career in AEC looks like. What makes the Elevate AEC Conference & Awards Gala different? The mission and the energy behind it. Launched in 2018, the rebranded event reflects Zweig Group’s vision to "elevate the industry." “Elevate the industry” means a lot of things. At its core, it is a recruiting and retention revolution, and it is a logical, yet magical evolution of Zweig Group’s long-standing mission to drive performance and purpose in AEC firms. The value creation and transformation of firms through Zweig Group’s numerous resources over the past 34 years has elevated the industry. When we launched this new big idea in 2018, I used John F. Kennedy’s quote, “A rising tide lifts all ships,” to paint a picture of what we are trying to do – work together to show the world the incredible impact this profession has on every human, and that you can make a good living doing this important work. Since 2018, the Elevate AEC Conference & Awards Gala has been the platform for people to gather to network, learn, and cel- ebrate – all important pillars of the event and the vision. There have been a number of things inspired by "elevate the industry," but there’s one in particular that we know is going to change the world: ElevateHER. ElevateHER, as the manifestation of our belief that diversity brings about positive change, is an initiative to better the future of the AEC industry. This movement is a commitment to embrace, promote, and ensure equal opportunities for everyone in the AEC industry regard- less of race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity, and thus recruit and retain the best in the industry, and I am thrilled we’ll be able to kick off ElevateAEC this year with the first in-person symposium for ElevateHER. Overall, the ElevateAEC Conference will facilitate the largest in-person gathering of industry leaders, the ElevateHER cohorts, and award-win- ning firms, all interested in advancing the "elevate the industry" vision. Here is more about what we have in store September 14-16 in Las Vegas: • ElevateHER Symposium – September 14. This program was launched in 2020 with virtual symposiums for the first two years. The virtual platform provided access to a much larger audience, however, we know the value of meeting in-person and this year we will welcome all three years of cohorts. The 2022 ElevateHER Symposium will be a combination of inspiring talks, roundtable discussions, and presentations from the 2022 ElevateHER cohorts. The 2022 ElevateHER cohort members met at the program kick- off in April, and received resources such as presentation coaching, training, Zweig Group research, and networking opportunities. They have since been working on smaller project groups on self-chosen topics, creating a focused deliverable to be shared with the rest of the industry at the symposium on September 14. Project topics run the gamut, and include a variety of methods to increase interest in AEC career paths, support for those at all stages of their career, resources for those looking to improve their workplace environment, diversify their firm, and so much more. This pre-conference symposium is the perfect complement to the ElevateAEC Conference & Awards Gala to be held in the same space the following two days, September 15-16. • Elevate AEC Conference & Awards Gala – September 15-16. The Elevate AEC Conference & Awards Gala is going to be better than ever. We are taking the “best of” from our events and putting it all into a big bash in Las Vegas. The pillars of the event – to network, learn, and celebrate – will stand tall this year through an expanded and packed agenda that includes the following: • Keynotes and “ZTalks.” We’ve got a dynamite line-up of speakers including Pete Hinojosa of Insperity, J.D. Enright of TMG- core, and Michael Renshaw of Trilon Group. • Panel discussions. There will be a panel of the No. 1 Best Firms To Work For and the top three Hot Firms. Hear the strategies and tactics they use to achieve the top of these prestigious lists. • Breakouts. We’ve got 16 sessions to choose from covering every area of the business from project management to marketing to ownership transition to recruiting and retention and more. • Roundtables. Back by popular demand, we’ll have time in roundtable sessions where you’ll rotate every 20 minutes, selecting the topics you want to discuss with peers. Facilitated by industry leaders, these sessions will focus on hot industry topics from our AEC Executive Roundtable in June. • Awards ceremonies and after party . Similar to last year, we’ll present our Rising Stars and Top New Venture winners during an awards luncheon on Thursday and present our Courage in Leadership, Best Firms To Work For, Hot Firms, Excellence in Client Experience, and Marketing Excellence Award winners during our black tie awards gala on Thursday night. Friday after the confer- ence, we will have an optional after party experience seeing Blue Man Group at the Luxor Hotel & Casino. We as an industry must tell the world how important and valuable our work is. If we won’t, nobody else will. That is what it means to "elevate the industry." We’ll celebrate and show the world what a successful career in AEC looks like. Join us from September 14-16 at Green Valley Ranch Resort for a rich experience that will be chock full of valuable takeaways. Spend some time with your peers, investing in yourself and your com- pany as we celebrate success and "elevate the industry" together. Viva Las Vegas!


September 2022


looking back, moving forward

were started until 1916. A journalist and former engineering student, James Wilkins, proposed a suspension bridge with a center span of 3,000 feet. This proposal also came with an unbearable $100 million price tag, but the idea of a suspension bridge with a massive center span sparked the interest of San Francisco’s city engineer Michael O’Shaughnessy who began searching for a similar but less expensive proposal. O’Shaughnessy soon found Joseph Strauss who proposed an even larger center span–at 4,000 feet–at a fraction of the cost. Strauss–a poet, engineer, and native Ohioan–revolutionized not only the design of bridges, but also the approach to building them. In the era of the Golden Gate Bridge’s construction, the injury and death rate of workers was astronomically high, and most large scale projects expected to lose dozens of workers to workplace hazards. However, Strauss was determined to change the way things were done. Although Strauss was originally chosen for the project partially due to his ability to shrink the budget, this frugal mindset didn’t apply to the health and safety of the people working on the project. Strauss required all work- ers to wear hard hats, making it the first project in the United States to do so. Additionally, Strauss ordered the construction of a $130,000 movable safety net suspended under the bridge deck. During the four years the Golden Gate Bridge was under construction, only 11 workers died as a result of workplace injuries. This was stag- geringly low compared to similar projects such as the San Francisco- Oakland Bay Bridge, which opened 6 months before and lost 28 work- ers during its construction. Strauss’ innovations are directly credited with saving the lives of 19 workers who fell but were caught by the safety net. When the Golden Gate Bridge opened in 1937, it was both the longest and tallest suspension bridge in the world–spanning 4,200 feet in length and 746 feet in height. The structure is iconic in its scale, design, and aesthetics, but it is equally important for its legacy in safety. Projects like the Golden Gate Bridge are emblematic of San Fran- cisco’s importance to the historical development of the United States. Just as the city’s earliest infrastructure projects laid the groundwork for a growing gold rush, the Golden Gate Bridge laid the groundwork for a new era of construction that pushed the boundaries of what is physi- cally possible while also maintaining a strict standard of safety. Safety measures such as hard hats and safety netting are now ubiquitous, and Strauss’ legacy has been elevated to new heights with each new safety technology development.

From Boom Town to Metropolis: San Francisco

Luke Carothers

Although San Francisco Mission was founded in the same year of America’s independence in 1776, the community that sprung from this Spanish settlement didn’t officially become part of the United States nearly nine decades later at the end of the Spanish-American War in 1846. Soon after, the 1849 Gold Rush began, and the small settle- ment expanded into a busy port. By the time California was granted statehood two years later, the town’s population exploded from around 1,000 to over 25,000. In addition to an expanding population to sup- port a gold mining industry, there was also a steady stream of Chinese immigrants moving to the area to work on the Central Pacific Railroad. A few years later, San Francisco’s population and wealth grew again when gold was discovered in Nevada. San Francisco’s location meant that there was a significant amount of infrastructure needed to support a modest population, let alone a grow- ing cosmopolitan port city. Sitting atop more than 50 hills, surrounded by marshland, the city sits at the end of the San Francisco Peninsula with the eponymous bay on to its east and the Pacific ocean to its west. San Francisco is also notable for its proximity to both the San Andreas and Hayward Faults, which means the area is highly seismically active. One of the first major infrastructure projects designed to support the growing population was started and completed in the late 19th century: a system of cable cars that would connect the city’s steepest hills, thus increasing the population’s mobility to different parts of the city. How- ever, despite this and many other infrastructure and building projects, much of the city was destroyed by an earthquake in 1906. Luckily, San Francisco’s economic importance and influence meant that the city would be rebuilt quickly and with improvements. This improve- ment and the subsequent World’s Fair just nine years later sparked a golden age of improvement in the city, which led to several notable infrastructure projects such as the construction of Treasure island as well as tunnels, reservoirs, and other projects that improved the city’s water supply and supported the population’s mobility. However, the most iconic of these projects–the one which has be- come nearly synonymous with San Francisco itself–is the Golden Gate Bridge. Spanning nearly two miles across the mouth of the San Fran- cisco Bay, the Golden Gate Bridge is one of the world’s most iconic structures. The structure is named for the strait it crosses, which opens the San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. Likewise, the bridge opens the city of San Francisco to Marin County and a large portion of the surrounding bay. The need for a bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait was first recog- nized when gold was discovered in the area, but no serious proposals

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.



September 2022

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events + virtual Events

september 2022

time. Without a doubt, you'll walk away with something new. Sessions and training cover a variety of industries, topics and skill levels. We attract the best trainers and experts to be your SketchUp sherpas at 3D Basecamp. Discover what is possible when you are surrounded by people who inspire you. https://3dbasecamp.sketchup.com AU 2022 is your opportunity to learn and connect with industry experts who are progressing architecture, engineering, construction, design, manufacturing, and media and entertainment. This year, we’re covering key topics to help improve your business—from driving digital transformation to building resilience through sustainability and cloud- based solutions. https://www.autodesk.com/autodesk-university/conference/overview Autodesk University september 27-29– New Orleans, LA Business of Automated Mobility Forum: Flight Path to UAM 2022 september 27-28 According to the Federal Aviation Administration, “Urban Air Mobility (UAM) envisions a safe and efficient aviation transportation system that will use highly automated aircraft that will operate and transport passengers or cargo at lower altitudes within urban and suburban areas. UAM will be composed of an ecosystem that considers the evolution and safety of the aircraft, the framework for operation, access to airspace, infrastructure development, and community engagement.” In support of this evolution, this virtual event will equip attendees with the most current regulatory and operational updates about UAM. https://hopin.com/events/uam-2022 October 2022 Following a record-breaking UAS Summit & Expo in 2021, we are ready to build off last year’s excitement in the Sili-Drone valley,” said Dayna Bastian, program coordinator for UAS Magazine and the UAS Summit & Expo. “Drone usage is increasing rapidly, and we are looking to showcase presentations reflecting a variety of sectors including counter-drone, emergency management, agriculture, military operations, government and commercial usage and operations, research UAS Summit & Expo October 4-5 – Grand Forks, ND

Commercial UAV expo september 6-8 – las vegas, nv

Commercial UAV Expo Americas is the definitive event for professionals integrating or operating commercial UAS. With top-notch education, thousands of attendees, and more exhibitors than any other commercial drone event, it’s the best opportunity of the year for anyone who needs to keep up with commercial UAS technology, trends, and developments. https://www.expouav.com/ The 2022 ElevateAEC Conference and Awards Gala registration is open for the annual in-person conference in Las Vegas, September 14-16. Celebrate the iconic black-tie awards gala 2022 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards. Register now for the AEC industry’s top IN-PERSON learning and networking event of the year. https://zweiggroup.com/pages/annual-in-person-elevate-leadership-summit ElevateAEC Conference & Awards Gala september 14-16– las vegas, nv We are pleased to announce that after our successful virtual conference in 2020 and our first ever hybrid in Bordeaux in 2021, we will return in-person to Belgrade and host it for the first time there. For the NSG2022, we’ll introduce the first of its kind or rebranded 3rd Conference on Airborne, Drone and Robotic Geophysics along with the 28th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, and the 4th Conference on Geophysics for Mineral Exploration and Mining in this attractive region of Europe. Balkans and especially Serbia is a region that our near-surface geoscience community would benefit to be present and exchange knowledge on a variety of emerging topics and societal challenges from access to the critical raw materials in this important era of energy transition and climate action to environmental issues as well as geohazards, water accessibility for agriculture, and archaeology. We have deliberately combined the newly branded conference of “robotic geophysics” with mineral exploration and mining geophysics to showcase new technologies emerging from these sectors so that the two parallel conferences would complement each other and attract new faces to our events. https://eage.eventsair.com/nsg2022/ Built for SketchUppers by SketchUppers, 3D Basecamp is where modelers of all levels come to learn and share their 3D skills. During 3D Basecamp, the best of the best share their tips, workflows and extensions. Whether you are just getting started or polishing your skills, the learning sessions at 3D Basecamp are jam-packed with knowledge that will enhance your workflow and get you modeling better in no Near Surfave Geoscience Conference & Exhibition september 18-22– Belgrade, Serbia SketchUp 3D Basecamp 2022 september 26-30– Vancouver, BC

and development, and more. www.TheUASsummit.com CMAA Annual Conference October 9-11 – San Diego, Ca

CMAA's Annual Conference, CMAA2022, is CMAA's flagship event which includes a comprehensive exhibit hall, plenary and breakout sessions, and the annual Industry Recognition Awards where our annual Project Achievement Awards, Person of the Year, and other individual honors are presented. Join CMAA in San Diego for three days of education, collaboration, and celebration for CMAA2022. This year’s event, a celebration of CMAA’s 40th Anniversary, will



September 2022

feature unmatched educational programming, solution and technology providers, invaluable connections and networking, and recognition of the projects and people that help define the construction management industry. https://www.cmaanet.org/cmaa2022

organizations to move their location intelligence forward with GIS. Join professionals specializing in infrastructure management from several interconnected industries—water; electric and gas; district heating and cooling; pipeline; telecom; transportation; and architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC). https://www.esri.com/en-us/about/events/imgis/overview November 2022 The Design-Build Conference & Expo comes at a critical time in our nation’s history. As Owners work to deliver infrastructure investment projects across all sectors and regions, they’re looking for qualified design-build teams. This event provides a unique opportunity for industry and Owners to come together with the shared goal of delivering the nation’s most collaborative, innovative and efficient projects. https://dbia.org/design-build-conference-expo/ DESIGN-BUILD CONFERENCE & EXPO November 2-4 – Las Vegas, NV Dimensions is going beyond what you’ve seen before. We’re taking things to a new level, bringing the digital and physical worlds together like never before. We’re going from Dimensions to Dimensions+. Trimble Dimensions+ is more than a conference. It's about making better connections. Sharing knowledge through planned and unexpected interactions. Meeting with old and new friends from your industry and beyond. https://www.trimble.com/en/our-company/news-and-events/ dimensions/overview virtual The Principals Academy 2023 The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm with this program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm leaders in key areas of firm management leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. Learning and networking at this premiere event challenges traditional seminar formats and integrates participatory idea exchange led by Zweig Group’s CEO Chad Clinehens, PE, and Zweig Group's Managing Principal, Jamie Claire Kiser, as well as the firm’s top line up of advisors. https://zweiggroup.com/products/2-the-principals-academy-2022 Trimble Dimensions+ November 7-9 – Las Vegas, NV

Chicago Build Expo October 13-14 – Chicago, IL

Chicago Build 2022 features 2 unmissable days of content (300+ Speakers and Workshops); an Expo; Networking; Women in Construction; Meet the Buyer and a Festival of Construction. Conference topics include: Government Contracts & Policy, Sustainability, Real Estate, Architecture, BIM & Digital Construction, Health & Safety, Future Construction, and Skills Hub, as well as AIA CES Workshops. https://www.chicagobuildexpo.com/welcome

ACEC Fall Conference October 16-19 – Colorado Springs, CO

ACEC Fall Conferences occurs every fall across the United States, Caribbean and Canada. Over 1000 attendees attend educational sessions, major networking events, forums, roundtables and ACEC/ PAC fundraising events. https://www.acec.org/conferences/fall-conference1/

Integro Conference October 18-20 – Colorado Springs, CO

The INTERGEO Conference reflects the motto "Inspiration for a smarter world" in all its facets. It shows current developments in surveying: from spatial reference and positioning to 4D geodata and geospatial IoT to mobile mapping applications. Trending topics such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the diverse application possibilities of the Digital Twins , but also the current requirements for the Smart City and rural areas have their place in the conference. In the context of climate change , the digital acquisition of data via remote sensing satellites, UAV, TLS or other sensors offers opportunities and solutions for a more sustainable human interaction with nature. The focus is also on the technology trends of tomorrow and the importance of digital realities. https://www.intergeo.de/de/conference Chief Executive Summit for the Architecture, Engineering, COnsulting Industry October 25-27 – Scottsdale, AZ We anticipate a full schedule of events including a data presentation on the latest trends, opportunities, and challenges in the AEC industry, keynote speakers, and panel discussions with CEOs to discuss KPI performance, M&A, internal ownership transition, leadership, diversity, technology, ESG, and the "new normal." https://aec-advisors.regfox.com/2022-chief-executive-summit

Esri Infrastructure Management & GIS Conference October 31-November 2 – Palm Springs, CA

This crossover event brings together users from across infrastructure sectors, creating a rich and valuable learning environment for

The Principals Academy


September 2022


Last November, with the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, Congress appropriated $55 billion for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to improve wastewater and drinking water infrastructure. Un- doubtedly, such investment is needed. A 2021 report card from the American Society of Civil Engineers awarded the United States a D+ for its wastewater infrastructure. The report found 15 percent of wastewater treatment plants are exceeding capacity. Of the 16,000 wastewater treatment plants Head Start Even Before National Legislation South Carolina Community Invested Heavily In Wastewater Pipeline By Thomas Renner

Work on the Dig Greenville project began in 2018 and concluded earlier this year. Photo: Black & Veatch

Growing Community Mayor White knows Greenville better than anyone. A city native, he joined the City Council in 1983 and became Mayor in 1995. When he took office, the city’s population stood at around 240,000. Now, the city’s population stands at more than 550,000. White and city leaders have transformed the municipality. His tenure as mayor has been defined by neighborhood revitalization, economic development, and critical projects for downtown. “I’ve always wanted Greenville to be the most beautiful, livable, welcoming city in America,’’ White wrote on the city’s website . White’s vision has helped him earn national recognition. In 2018, Time magazine selected White as one of “31 People Changing the South.” He has spearheaded economic development in the city, located in the state’s “Upstate Region” and about halfway between Charlotte and Atlanta. With shopping, restaurants, cultural events, craft breweries and events nearly 300 days a year, residents and visi- tors certainly dig Greenville. In many growing communities in the U.S. population growth strains existing infrastructure, and that problem also faced Greenville. Without more capacity, the community would be at risk from increased over- flows. This risk posed a direct threat to water quality, the environment and economic development. “If nothing is done, ReWa’s sewer lines and the area along the Reedy River would be at a higher risk for the environmental impact of sewer overflows,’’ Rich said. “Furthermore, economic develop- ment would be threatened because no additional wastewater flows can be added to the sewer lines. While the project is a long-term fix, Dig Greenville will also meet immediate needs by providing an increased buffer against sewer surcharges due to inflow and infiltra- tion during rain events.” ReWa considered 18 alternatives before deciding on the gravity sewer tunnel. Rebuilding the sewer line was prohibitive, and too disruptive to

in the U.S., 81 percent have reached their design limits. “As many treatment plants and collection networks approach the end of their lifespans, the financial responsibilities for operation and maintenance will become more costly” the ACSE report noted . The same analysis found that in 2019, the investment gap in the wastewater industry was a staggering $81 billion. Unlike many other communities, the city of Greenville, S.C., found itself ahead of the curve when it comes to improving its wastewater management system. Nearly 15 years ago, community leaders rec - ognized the population growth and understood that the city’s waste- water conveyance infrastructure needed a major upgrade. Earlier this year, a 1.3-mile gravity-fed sewer line opened in Greenville. The Dig Greenville project, also called the Reedy River Basin Sewer Tunnel, cost $46 million and is the largest infrastructure project in the city’s 191-year history. “It definitely puts not just the downtown, but rather the whole city in a better position for the future,’’ Mayor Knox White said when the project was introduced in 2016. Renewable Water Resources (ReWa), a 97-year-old organization that protects the region’s waterways and wastewater infrastructure, spearheaded the effort. Black & Veatch led the design and provided construction management services. The tunnel is expected to serve the Greenville community for the next century. “Dig Greenville is one of the most important infrastructure invest- ments needed to ensure economic growth in the area,’’ said Graham W. Rich, Chief Executive Officer of ReWa, when the project started. “With this investment and hard work, sewer lines and the area along the Reedy River will be at lower risk for sewer overflows, especially when rainfall is high. This investment and work were also required to ensure Greenville’s future economic development since, without it, no additional wastewater flows could be added to the existing lines.”



September 2022

“It cost us about 10 months of project time. The tunnel boring machine can dig out about 40-50 feet per day. We were only digging out about two feet per day. It was very time-intensive and labor-intensive just to get started.” The tunnel boring machine helped workers pick up the pace after com- pleting the starter tunnel. The 130-ton TBM, made by The Robbins Company in Canada, measures 249 feet and is one of only a handful of similar pieces of equipment in the world. Super Excavators of Wis- consin started tunnel digging in March 2018 and completed their work in September 2020. The TBM was critical to the completion of the project in that it offered a far more efficient drilling method. TBMs are used as an alternative to drilling, blasting and hand-mining to excavate tunnels with a circular cross-section through layers of soil and rock. The machines significantly minimize disturbance to the surrounding ground and area. They are frequently used in urban areas and reduce project completion times. Out of Sight For a project of this magnitude and duration, workers were surprisingly able to stay out of the public glare. Almost all the construction took place underground, out of sight of city residents. Teams constructed wooden fencing around the construction to mini - mize the aesthetic impact of the project. During a two-month winter period, one roadway was closed off to facilitate quicker construction for a sewer crossing across Richland Creek and to accommodate the city’s streambank restoration project. Project at a Glance What: Dig Greenville, also known as the Reedy River Basin Sewer Tunnel, is a 1.3-mile gravity-fed sewer line in South Carolina. Project details: The $46 million project started in 2018 and concluded in 2022. It is the largest infrastructure project in Greenville’s history. The project is expected to support Greenville’s wastewater conveyance needs for the next century. Why it’s important: The existing sewer line face pressure from increasing population. Without more capacity, the community would be at risk for overflow. Digging deep: The tunnel is located as far as 100 feet beneath the surface. Few people will even know it’s there. The only evidence visible are access points at each end. 13 floor access doors manufactured by BILCO provide workers access to install, remove and repair equipment. Did you know? Greenville is sixth in population and growth rate in South Carolina.

the city and water basin. Planners chose to install the new line under - ground, approximately 100 feet below the heart of the city. “While it is pricier to build, a deep sewer tunnel powered by gravity will be far less costly over its lifecycle for ReWa while providing the reliable additional capacity Greenville needed as it continues to grow,’’ said ReWa Chief Executive Officer Joel Jones, who took over as Ex- ecutive Director from Rich earlier this year. Hidden Tunnel The tunnel is 7 feet in diameter and virtually invisible to the public. Entry shafts at each end are the only hint of the massive pipe under the surface. The pipes are encased in granite, lined with fiberglass and grouted. The gravity fed system means no mechanical equipment is needed to convey the flow of wastewater. “The tunnel is bored from one end, resulting in surface impact only at either end of the tunnel, rather than all along the sewer route if conven - tional construction methods were used,’’ Jones said. The initial plan was to drill from the downstream access shaft through the hard rock below with a tunnel boring machine. Before the TBM could be launched, however, a geotechnical investigation found the tunnel zone was composed of soil and different types of rock in varying conditions. “The tunnel boring machine can only work through one type of mate- rial,’’ Jones said. “Right when we were getting started, we saw that the granite was not where we thought it was.” The complication resulted in hand-digging a starter tunnel. Starter tun- nel construction also included drill and blast methods that required 41 blasts over a 9-month period. Each blast was modified to fit the zone’s complex geology. Workers also fabricated and installed a customized steel shield to secure ground support for the 14-foot-round horseshoe- shaped starter tunnel. “What we found was about 240 feet of clay and rock that we had to dig out,’’ Jones said. The existing sewer line was near capacity and face pressure due to the increasing population in Greenville.


September 2022 csengineermag.com

“Some of the most concerned community members were our biggest advocates at the end,’’ Rich said. “They appreciated the transparency we provided. We told them they were going to hear noise and we’d do what we can to mitigate disruption. If they heard something of concern, they could reach out to us. Relationships with the community were our biggest challenges, but also one of our biggest accomplishments.” A Model to Follow When it comes to wastewater, America’s commitment to improvement has been sorely lacking. In 1988, the ASCE awarded the U.S. a “C” grade for its wastewater infrastructure. That is the high-water mark for the last 30-plus years. Every grade since has been a D+ or worse. Overall, the U.S. earned a “C-“ from the ASCE in 2021. While no categories earned a failing grade, 11 of the 17 categories earned marks of “D+” or worse. Rail (“B”) and Ports (”B-“) earned the highest marks. In most U.S. homes, such a report card would result in extra chores, confiscation of the smartphone and angry phone calls to educators. The federal legislation passed last year is a promising start. In addition, the Dig Greenville project sets up a template other communities can follow. Planning, research, communication and commitment – finan- cial and mentally – are solid starting points. While large-scale infrastructure projects frequently experience significant overruns in budget and time, the Dig Greenville project proved that does not always have to be the case. The project expe- rienced a setback in drilling the starter tunnel, but that was the only hiccup in a multi-year project that also included fallout from an international pandemic. “We had to add about 10 months due to the schedule, but we were able to keep it within the original project budget,’’ Jones said. “We were able to find some cost savings in some other areas and we had some good bids when we started.” On its own, Dig Greenville will do little to improve the nation’s poor infrastructure grade. Its completion is evidence, however, that com- munities that demonstrate vision, intelligence and commitment can provide solutions to address infrastructure issues. “It’s been a challenging project, but a fun one to be involved with,’’ Jones said. “It’s a good feeling to know that we are contributing to the long-term viability of the community. It took a lot of work to make it a success, and it came about through the efforts of a large group of people.”

While largely hidden from the public, the beginning and end points of the construction are identifiable by access doors. The BILCO Company manufactured 13 floor access doors of various sizes for the project. The doors allow access to vertical shafts – one is 35 feet deep, the other is 105 feet deep – in which workers will descend into the tunnel or lower equipment into the tunnel. BILCO floor doors are designed with engineered lift assistance to ensure safe, easy, door operation. “We used those types of doors fairly often on our projects, especial- ly at pump stations,’’ Jones said. “We find they have good durability and reliability.” Keeping Residents Connected While most of the work was hidden, ReWa made sure to maintain a dialogue with city residents. The construction sites were near city residences and a local zoo. Residents were understandably concerned about how the project would impact their quality of life. “We put in a good bit of effort to educate the public, get their feedback and learn what they had concerns about,’’ Jones said. “We wanted to gain the trust of the community from the very beginning. We had a series of meetings where we showed the community that we were seri - ous about their concerns and taking them into consideration.” While largely unseen, the community impact was substantial. Road closures, noise, vibration, safety and site restoration were all of com - munity concern. Two important community cornerstones, Cleveland Park and the Greenville Zoo, were directly within the conveyance line. ReWa established different communication vehicles, including a website dedicated to the project, a Facebook page, a 24-hour hotline, quarterly meetings and e-blasts. Greenville citizens had a wealth of resources to keep tabs on the project and voice their concerns. BILCO, a manufacturer of specialty access equipment, manufactured 13 floor access doors of various sizes for the project. The doors allow access to vertical shafts in which workers will descend into the tunnel or lower equipment into the tunnel.

THOMAS RENNER writes about construction, engineering, architecture, and other trade industry topics for publications throughout the United States.



September 2022

Carbon Planning By Dr. Torill Bigg

plastics, manufacturing using metals or glass, or constructing using aggregates – so a list of all of these items will form a list of emission sources that you can calculate your carbon footprint from. 2. Calculate Calculating your carbon emissions is not as tricky as it might sound. There are a number of online calculators, or you can consult the in - formation provided by the government. This information is readily available from the UK government, the United States government, and the Canadian government, to name a few, so consult the relevant government information on carbon emissions. This will tell you how to convert kilowatt hours of electricity, cubic metres of water and miles driven in a car, into carbon dioxide equivalents. If you add these num- bers to your list you now have a list of assets and activities that are emission sources, the amount of relevant emissions for carbon dioxide, such as kilowatt hours of electricity or litres of diesel, and the emis - sion figures from the government information multiplying the emission figures per litre or kWh by the number of litres or kilowatt hours gives you carbon dioxide equivalents in tonnes or kilogrammes for each individual item. A sum of these is your carbon footprint. 3. Reduce Set realistic changes for each one of the assets and activities that are potential emissions sources. For example, you might be able to change your electricity tariff to an eco-tariff, whereby the electricity you pur- chase is generated by a renewable source such as solar panels or wind turbines. You might even be able to set a longer term plan to fit solar panels of your own and so generate your own renewable electricity and also reduce your reliance on the National Grid. You could fit water saving devices, and so reduce the cubic metres of water, reducing at the same time the carbon dioxide equivalents associated with that water. You might elect, longer term, to buy electric vehicles instead of fossil fuel vehicles and even install charging points on the company premises and, with additional use of batteries, this could even be charged from solar panels. The first thing to do at this stage is to reduce demand on energy so you want to look at your assets and consider their efficiency. Any asset giving out too much heat, noise or vibration is running inef - ficiently and the energy is literally being wasted. So, a maintenance intervention would reduce that wasted energy and automatically make your assets both more efficient and cost effective but have the effect of reducing your carbon footprint too: Win-win. 4. Report Now is the time to share with all of your stakeholders; your custom- ers, your suppliers, your employees, your senior management, if you haven't told them, and the community. Let everybody know that you are on a carbon reduction journey. Let them know that you have measured your carbon footprint. Let them know that you have set yourself car- bon reduction targets. Go forth and put the plans into action. Monitor your success; with each new initiative measure electricity used before and after servicing machinery and equipment that had previously been inefficient, measure gas use before and after implementing insulation, calculate carbon emissions from diesel vehicles and compare them to the new calculation with electric vehicles. Monitor monthly over the year and in a year’s time remeasure your carbon footprint – and again tell the world how well you have done.

We are all aware that something needs to be done to reduce our carbon footprint, but many of us have no idea where to start. Naturally the best place to start anything is from the beginning and in carbon planning the beginning is to measure where you are now – what your current carbon emissions are. The principle is exactly the same as setting out to decorate a room; when you go out to buy paint you need to know how much to buy, and for that you need to measure your walls. 1. Measure In carbon planning you need to set a baseline by measuring your cur- rent carbon footprint. To complete this you will need to decide what to include – and what to leave out; this is called setting your scope and boundary. It's like deciding which rooms to paint and how many of the walls you are painting. You want to include all relevant emissions sources, and what is relevant is decided by what you have control over and what you are able to make changes to. So, make an inventory of the assets and activities of your business that are within your control and this is your list of carbon emission sources. If you have a large number of assets such as a fleet of pumping systems then you can record that list at a higher level such as at process level rather than individual component asset level. Next you'll need to be able to calculate the amount of carbon emis - sions from each of these sources and you'll be doing this for one years’ worth of carbon emissions. Start by recording data that you already have against each of your assets and activities. For example, you might know the total amount of electricity used per site or per submeter, by all of your electrical equipment in kilowatt hours from your electricity invoice or from your meter reading. Or you may be operating a 12 kilo- watt pump at 80 percent power for 5 hours a day and so could calculate in kilowatt hours the electricity used by that pump. So, record either electricity in total kilowatt hours over a year, or record an inventory of assets and sum up the total power requirement in kilowatt hours for the year. For your baseline an annual figure of kilowatt hours of electricity is sufficient. Later more detail will allow you to create a carbon reduc- tion plan itemised asset by asset, but at this stage we are looking to find your starting point. Likewise, you'll want to list items that use fuels directly on site such as heating boilers which use gas, or assets that burn oil, all solid fuels or other gaseous fuels. And, again, the writing of the item or the amount of that fuel purchased for one year will give you in kilowatt hours a value for those assets. You can repeat this for vehicles recorded in litres of fuel used, or you could calculate the carbon footprint from the number of miles covered by the vehicles. And then you want to include items such as water used, which can be completed from invoices in cubic metres of water pur- chased and wastewater treated. Finally, you want to include materials used and also those disposed of. In an office you might be using office paper for printing or photocopying, you might be using cardboard or


September 2022 csengineermag.com

Construction dust can compromise air quality, environmental noise pollution can be harmful to workers and local residents, and excessive vibration can have damaging consequences. Site management has a duty of care to protect against potentially dangerous conditions. However, this can be challenging to manage without reliable data streams and instru - mentation that gathers environmental information. Consequently, more companies are turning to boundary monitoring technology to measure the risks and ensure they adhere to environmental limits and guidelines. Site boundary or "fence line" monitoring is used widely on construction sites and other high-risk locations including demolition projects, mines and quarries and environmental remediation sites. Boundary monitoring units are set up on the exterior perimeter of the worksite to monitor for potential hazards that might cause compliance issues for the site or pres- ent a health risk to site neighbors. It is an essential part of the safety and risk management ecosystem of these sites, and helps control and mitigate potential environmental, health, and reputational risks. Identifying potential hazards Hazards that are typically monitored for include excess levels of dust, noise, vibration and, in some cases, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Volatile organic compounds include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short and long-term adverse health effects, and if these are present on a site or work their way into soil or groundwater, they can present a hazard to future development or remediation of a work site or property. Achieving compliance There are stringent legal and environmental controls surrounding levels of noise, dust and vibration that construction projects cannot exceed. For example, in the US, the Noise Control Act of 1972 establishes a national policy to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes their health and welfare. While primary responsibility for noise control rests with State and local governments, the act ensures that Federal action deals with major noise sources in commerce, control of which requires national uniformity of treatment. In New York, a city under constant renovation and construction, the Noise Code mandates Construction boundary monitoring: protecting workforces and communities Industry expert Tim Turney at occupational hygiene and workplace hazard monitoring expert Casella, shares how environmental boundary monitoring can help identify potential hazards, ensure compliance, and protect the public from health hazards By Tim Turney

that all construction must be conducted in accordance with noise mitiga - tion plans that address the specific location, type of work, and timing of a project. Sites must be able to provide evidence of compliance and maintain their reputations, and local communities must be considered. For example, when construction activity is planned near locations such as schools, hospitals, and houses of worship, the party responsible for construction is expected to design their noise mitigation plan to be sensi- tive to its neighbors. If noise complaints are received, an inspector will ensure the contractor has posted the plan and that it is being followed. To achieve compliance, site monitoring must be recorded and reported on, and action taken if limits are exceeded. If complaints arise, responsible companies using boundary monitoring have proof points to show they have been diligent with their monitoring in operations and abiding by operational requirements. Data evidence from a boundary monitoring system is also helpful if a worksite is ac- cused of issues caused by another operation, allowing site managers to respond rapidly, minimizing reputational damage. Ensuring accuracy Understanding how to mount any environmental monitor is essential to obtain accurate results. For example, noise monitors should not be mounted against flat surfaces because this will result in noise levels be- ing overestimated. Any microphone should be above hoardings with a clear line of sight to the nearest receptor. Inlets for any real-time dust measurements should also be clear of obstacles and be mounted away from buildings, ideally between 1.5 and 4 meters above the ground. When measuring vibration, the sensor should be mounted to a concrete plinth firmly attached to the ground to ensure accurate measurements. Taking advantage of combined solutions While a variety of different monitoring solutions can be employed and combined to give a full picture of site emissions and risks, increasingly project managers and occupational hygienists are turning to combined solutions, such as the Casella Guardian2. The Guardian2 continually measures conditions on or around a worksite and provides customiz- able, automated reports, allowing managers to check data streams across multiple units and multiple sites remotely. Site managers are of course busy people, so as little manual maintenance of environmental moni-



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