New Vehicle Weighing Laws Enable Faster Processing at the Scale
The NIST Handbook 44 standard defines the specifications and tolerances for weighing and measuring devices used in the United States, including vehicle scales. In 2022, single draft weigh-in-motion (SD-WIM) vehicle scales were added to the scope of Handbook 44.
This white paper will explain the potential impacts of this exciting new law change and how operations can capitalize on it to speed up weighing, reduce processing costs, and maximize the efficiency of their vehicle weighing.
Topic Overview: 1 HB44 Regulations 2 Static vs. Dynamic Weighing 3 Applications and Benefits 4 TruckPass TM 5 Terms to Know and References
This guide is designed for people familiar with the weighing industry and those just beginning to learn about weights and measures (W&M). Handbook 44 defines specifications, tolerances, requirements, and test procedures that US states adopt into law. Starting in 2022, Handbook 44 regulations allow weighments from single draft weigh-in-motion (SD-WIM) vehicle scales to be used in legal-for-trade (LFT) commercial transactions. What does this mean in two sentences?
• Pre-2022: Trucks had to come to a complete stop on the scale to obtain a legal-for-trade weight. • Today: Trucks can remain in motion while driving over the scale to obtain a legal-for-trade weight.
This white paper explains the regulation changes in detail, as well as the differences between static and dynamic weighing. The aim is to help you determine if a single draft weigh-in-motion vehicle scale is a good investment for your business.
Benefit from faster processing and increased throughput at your truck scale.
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1 Handbook 44 Regulations
What is Handbook 44? Handbook 44 is a standard developed by the National Conference of Weights and Measures (NCWM) and publis- hed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for use in the US. It defines the specifications, tolerances, and other technical requirements for weighing and measuring devices used to facilitate commercial transactions that are based on a physical measurement (e.g. weight, volume, length, etc.). Handbook 44 covers a wide range of weighing and measuring devices from scales to gas pumps to taxi meters and even to berry baskets. The objective is to permit fair competition among businesses and provide uniform and sufficient protection to all consumers in commercial weights and measures practices. Weighing and measuring devices that are not used in commercial transactions are not required to comply with Handbook 44. Handbook 44 is not the product of any federal legislation or action. It has no legal status except when it is offici- ally adopted by states. Individual states are responsible for the Weights and Measures laws in their jurisdiction. All states adopt some version of Handbook 44 into their state law. Most states (AL, AK, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, GA, ID, IL, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MS, MO, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NC, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, and WV) automati- cally adopt the latest edition of Handbook 44 every year. While the rest require some additional approval, the State W&M Director can approve an installation regardless of the state’s current status.
Handbook 44 covers a wide range of weighing and measuring devices.
How do devices comply with Handbook 44? Manufacturers of weighing and measuring devices must prove the devices they produce are capable of complying with Handbook 44. The NCWM sponsors the National Type Evaluation Program (NTEP) to independently test and evaluate weighing and measuring device types. Once an NTEP evaluation is completed, a Certificate of Confor- mance (CC) is issued for the device type. Most states require a NTEP CC before a weighing or measuring device can be placed into commercial service. Finally, a state W&M official or representative checks an individual device for compliance with Handbook 44 before it can be placed into operation in the field. If the device passes the inspector’s test and has a valid NTEP CC, the inspector places a seal on the device and it is ready for commercial service. At this point, the device is considered to be legal-for-trade. The device is then rechecked on a periodic basis to ensure its continued compliance with Handbook 44.
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How is Handbook 44 amended? Handbook 44 is published with additions, deletions and revisions every year. Proposed amendments are submitted to the NCWM. These proposals may come from consumers, manufacturers, W&M officials or other interested par- ties. The NCWM carefully considers each amendment since it will affect weighing and measuring devices used in commercial transactions across the country. Amendments are developed and voted on by the NCWM membership, which consists of representatives from every US state. If an amendment is adopted, the changes are implemented into the next edition of Handbook 44. METTLER TOLEDO proposed amendment SCL-20.12 to add single draft weigh-in-motion vehicle scales to Handbook 44 in 2019. The amendment allowed vehicles to be weighed in motion as long as the scales still met existing ac- curacy requirements. After careful consideration and a demonstration of the new technology, the NCWM voted to adopt the SD-WIM amendment into the 2022 edition of Handbook 44.
This amendment allows vehicles to be weighed in-motion, as long as scales still meet existing accuracy requirements.
What are the Handbook 44 vehicle scale requirements? Handbook 44 defines requirements for vehicle scales to ensure they are accurate enough to provide fair commer- cial transactions. First, design requirements are defined for vehicle scales to ensure they will produce repeatable and accurate weighments with precautions against fraud. Indications and recorded information must follow stan- dard protocols for consumer clarity. Second, tests and their associated tolerances are defined. These tests include: increasing load tests, decreasing load tests, shift tests, sensitivity tests, discrimination tests, radio frequency interference tests, zero load balance change tests, temperature tests and permanence tests. These tests are either completed as part of the NTEP test or in the field using certified test weights. Finally, there are user requirements directed towards device owners and operators that apply to the selection, installation, use, and maintenance of ve- hicle scales. Vehicle scales must be single draft scales, meaning all axles of the vehicle must be on the platform simultaneously during a weighment. Installation requirements also define the appropriate approach lengths for vehicle scales, minimum/maximum loads, and concentrated loads. Prior to 2022, the HB44 requirements applied to static ve- hicle weighing only, meaning vehicles were required to come to a complete stop on the scale during a weighment. Starting in 2022, HB44 also allows dynamic vehicle weighing, meaning the vehicle may be in motion on the scale during a weighment. All requirements that applied to static vehicle scales also apply to dynamic scales with a few new requirements added for dynamic testing and fault detection.
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2 Static vs. Dynamic Weighing
Static vehicle weighing A static weighment is the traditional way to complete a legal-for-trade weighing transaction. The vehicle pulls for- ward onto the scale and, once all the axles of the vehicle are on the scale, the vehicle comes to a complete stop. The driver may exit the vehicle to enter a scale house or use a kiosk to complete the weighment. The driver provides information about cargo and the weight is determined. The driver may then receive a paper or electronic ticket for the weighment. Once the transaction is complete, the driver pulls off the scale and proceeds to pick up or drop off the load. Meanwhile, other trucks to be weighed may be idling while waiting in line.
Total Weighing Time: 60 Seconds
Dynamic vehicle weighing Dynamic weighing improves legal-for-trade weighing transactions. A vehicle pulls forward onto the scale and conti- nues at a constant speed over it. Once all of the vehicle’s axles are on the scale, the weight is determined and then displayed to the driver on a scoreboard. If a fault has occurred, the fault is also displayed to the driver. If previously stored contact information for the vehicle is available, the vehicle can be automatically identified and the electronic ticket sent. The driver simply continues driving over the scale and proceeds to pick up or drop off the load. Meanwhile, other trucks drive over the scale in succession. They are not forced to idle or wait in line. These and other benefits of dynamic weighing are described in detail in the next section.
Total Weighing Time: 20 Seconds – 3x Faster!
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3 Applications and Benefits
Impact on legal-for-trade applications Dynamic vehicle weighing has the potential to dramatically improve the truck weighing process at operations who require legal-for-trade transactions. Previously, these facilities have required trucks to come to a complete stop on the scale to obtain weighments. Now, facilities can opt to install a system that will allow drivers to drive over the scale while still obtaining a legal-for-trade weight. This may be especially attractive to facilities that operate their own fleet of vehicles. Impact on checkweighing applications Although checkweighing applications are not required to comply with Handbook 44, they can benefit from techno- logies that are designed to satisfy SD-WIM regulations. Checkweighing applications that previously relied on axle scales can now opt for single draft weigh-in-motion to obtain weights that are more accurate and thus improve inventory control, etc.
Benefits of dynamic weighing The main benefit of weighing vehicles in motion is faster weighments. As observed in the comparison in the previ- ous section, weighing times are three times faster using SD-WIM scales than they are using a static scale. In addi- tion to increased site productivity and shorter truck lines, in-motion weighing can reduce vehicle wear and tear and reduce carbon emissions. Because the transaction is automatic, drivers do not need to exit the vehicle, increasing safety as well. Dynamic weighing is an especially helpful solution for sites where the truck scale is the bottleneck of the operation. Decreasing the amount of time on the scale can create a smoother process flow. This may be especially important if there are high vehicle volumes, peak times, or long wait lines for the scale. These types of conditions are com- mon at sites that perform aggregate, waste, agricultural, and chemical processing.
Benefits of dynamic weighing include: • 3x higher productivity. Complete more transactions per hour when drivers don‘t have to stop at the scale.
• Improved driver safety. Drivers do not need to exit the cab and cross traffic. • Reduced carbon footprint. Reduction in truck idling cuts down on emissions. • Reduced vehicle maintenance . Cut down on truck fleet tire and brake ware.
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4 TruckPass TM
Streamline vehicle weighing As a global leader in vehicle weighing solutions, METTLER TOLEDO is the first company to offer a legal-for-trade single draft weigh-in-motion vehicle scale: TruckPass TM . TruckPass is also the first such scale to receive an NTEP Certificate of Conformance (ref. CC 22-025). TruckPass is a dual mode scale that can operate as either a static or dynamic scale, and the scale can switch between modes automatically. This gives you the flexibility to use your scale in dynamic mode for your fleet trucks and in static mode for transient trucks. Or, use TruckPass in dynamic mode during busy times and in static mode during times of less traffic. Dynamic weighing has the potential to drastically improve your entire weighing process. METTLER TOLEDO TruckPass complies with new Handbook 44 regulations and automates your weighing process for significant time savings and throughput improvement.
Your well-rounded solution for in-motion weighing In addition to weighing vehicles in motion and capturing gross vehicle weight, TruckPass will also provide automa- tic identification of vehicles and axle/group weight information. Combine TruckPass with DataBridge TM Transaction Management software to create a complete end-to-end solution for legal-for-trade commercial transactions where trucks never need to stop. As mentioned above, key benefits of TruckPass include: • 3x higher productivity. Complete more transactions per hour when drivers don‘t have to stop at the scale. • Legal-for-trade commercial transactions. Determine vehicle gross weight in motion to legal-for-trade accuracy for regulatory compliance. • Automated processing. Reduce the workload for the scale house operator and eliminate the risk of manual er- rors in data handling.
Improve your weighing process with TruckPass, our legal-for trade weigh-in-motion solution.
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5 Terms to Know and References
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
NIST is part of the US Department of Commerce. Its mission is to "promote US innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life." NIST works in cooperation with the NCWM and publishes the HB44 standard. NIST has no regulatory authority. The NCWM is a US professional nonprofit association of state and local weights and measures officials, federal agencies, manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Its mission is to "ensure equity and uniform standards in a changing marketplace." The NCWM produces and maintains the Handbook 44 standard. Handbook 44 is a standard developed by the NCWM and published annu- ally by NIST for use in the US. It defines the specifications, tolerances, and other technical requirements for weighing and measuring devices. It has no legal status except when it is officially adopted by individual states. NTEP is a program sponsored by the NCWM to independently test and eva- luate weighing and measuring device types to the HB44 standard. Once an NTEP evaluation is completed, a Certificate of Conformance (CC) is issued for the device type. Most states require a NTEP CC before a weighing or mea- suring device can be placed into commercial service. A weighing or measure device that has been certified to meet the require - ments of Handbook 44 and can be used for commercial transactions based on a measurement (e.g. weight, volume, length, etc.). The device is inspected by a state W&M official or representative who applies a seal to the device to identify its status as legal-for-trade. Most states require a device to have a valid NTEP CC before it can be accepted as legal-for-trade.
National Conference of Weights and Measures (NCWM)
National Type Evaluation Program (NTEP)
The following resources were used during the research and drafting of this white paper:
www.mt.com/truckpass www.nist.gov/about-nist www.ncwm.com/about-ncwm
METTLER TOLEDO Group Industrial Division Local contact: www.mt.com/contacts
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