2022-04-01_ART_V3

Advanced Rescue

Training Module

V3

Publication date: 1 April 2022

GWO ADVANCED RESCUE TRAINING MODULE V3

2022_TS_ART_V03

1 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................................................................................... 5

2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................................ 6

3 CHANGE LOG – REVISION 3 ...................................................................................................................... 9

4 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................... 11

5 GENERAL REQUIREMENT TO GWO ADVANCED RESCUE TRAINING ........................................................ 12

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

Overview.......................................................................................................................................................... 12 Target group .................................................................................................................................................... 12 Aims and objectives ......................................................................................................................................... 12 Duration of ART Modules ................................................................................................................................ 12 Guidance on delivering lesson elements ......................................................................................................... 13 Validity period ................................................................................................................................................. 13 Course codes.................................................................................................................................................... 14 Participant prerequisites for the ART modules................................................................................................ 14 Physical demands ............................................................................................................................................ 14

6 GENERAL RESOURCES REQUIRED TO DELIVER GWO ART MODULES....................................................... 15

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Training instructor ........................................................................................................................................... 15 Practical training facilities ................................................................................................................................ 15 Wind turbine environment explained.............................................................................................................. 18 Training equipment ......................................................................................................................................... 18

7 UNDERSTAND GWO LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND TAXONOMY .............................................................. 20

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Learning objectives .......................................................................................................................................... 20 Learning activities ............................................................................................................................................ 20 Participants assessment and evaluation.......................................................................................................... 21 The GWO Taxonomy Framework..................................................................................................................... 22

8 MODULE 1 -HUB RESCUE........................................................................................................................ 25

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

Aims and objectives of the Hub Rescue Module ............................................................................................. 25 Competencies of the Hub Rescue Module....................................................................................................... 25 Participant prerequisites for the Hub Rescue Module..................................................................................... 25 Duration of the Hub Rescue Module ............................................................................................................... 25 Hub rescue instructor to participant ratio ....................................................................................................... 26 Equipment for Hub Rescue Module................................................................................................................. 26 Hub Rescue Module timetable ........................................................................................................................ 26

8.8 Detailed description of the Hub Rescue Module ............................................................................................. 28 Lesson 1 - Introduction to the training ..........................................................................................................28 Lesson 2 - Emergency response plan in own organisation ............................................................................32 Lesson 3 - Measures to prevent injury during training..................................................................................36 Lesson 4 - Head support during rescue .........................................................................................................37 Lesson 5 - Packaging the injured person .......................................................................................................41 Lesson 6 - Lowering / raising rescue system .................................................................................................42 Lesson 7 - Hub rescue exercise 1 & 2 (from blade) ........................................................................................45 Lesson 8 - Hub rescue exercise 3 & 4 (from spinner) .....................................................................................48 Lesson 9 - Outside evacuation of injured person...........................................................................................50 Lesson 10 - Training review...........................................................................................................................53 9 MODULE 2 – NACELLE, TOWER & BASEMENT MODULE ......................................................................... 56

9.1 9.2 9.3

Aims and objectives of Nacelle, Tower & Basement Module .......................................................................... 56 Competencies of the Nacelle, Tower & Basement Module ............................................................................. 56 Duration of the Nacelle, Tower & Basement Module...................................................................................... 57

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9.4 9.5 9.6

Nacelle, Tower & Basement instructor to course participant ratio ................................................................. 57 Equipment for Nacelle, Tower & Basement Module ....................................................................................... 57 Nacelle, Tower & Basement Module timetable............................................................................................... 58

9.7 Detailed description of the Nacelle, Tower & Basement Module ................................................................... 59 Lesson 1 - Introduction to the training ..........................................................................................................59 Lesson 2 - Emergency response plan in own organisation ............................................................................63 Lesson 3 - Measures to prevent injury during training..................................................................................67 Lesson 4 - Head support during rescue .........................................................................................................68 Lesson 5 - Packaging the injured person .......................................................................................................72 Lesson 6 - Lowering/raising rescue system ...................................................................................................74 Lesson 7 - Evacuation of an injured person from the nacelle to the base of the tower ................................76 Lesson 8 - Rescue from enclosed space .........................................................................................................80 Lesson 9 - Rescue from crawl space ..............................................................................................................84 Lesson 10 - Rescue up....................................................................................................................................87 Lesson 11 - Training review...........................................................................................................................92 10 MODULE 3 - SINGLE RESCUER: HUB, SPINNER & INSIDE BLADE RESCUE (SR:HSIBR) ............................... 95

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

Aims and objectives of the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module............................................................................... 95 Competencies of the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module........................................................................................ 95 Participant prerequisites for the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module ...................................................................... 95 Duration of the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module ................................................................................................ 95 Instructor to course participant ratio for the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module................................................... 96 Equipment for the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module............................................................................................ 96 Timetable of the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module .............................................................................................. 96

10.8 Detailed description of the Single Rescuer HSIBR Module .............................................................................. 98 Lesson 1 - Introduction to the training ..........................................................................................................98 Lesson 2 - Single rescuer rescue strategy ....................................................................................................102 Lesson 3 - Measures to prevent injury during training................................................................................103 Lesson 4 - Hub rescue exercise 1 & 2 (from blade) ......................................................................................104 Lesson 5 - Hub rescue exercise 3 & 4 (from spinner) ...................................................................................107 Lesson 6 - Training review...........................................................................................................................109 11 MODULE 4 - SINGLE RESCUER: NACELLE, TOWER & BASEMENT RESCUE (SR:NTBR) ............................. 111

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5

Aims and objectives of the Single Rescuer NTBR Module ............................................................................. 111 Competencies of the Single Rescuer NTBR Module....................................................................................... 111 Duration of the Single Rescuer NTBR Module ............................................................................................... 111 Instructor to course participant ratio for the Single Rescuer NTBR Module ................................................. 112 Equipment for the Single Rescuer NTBR Module .......................................................................................... 112

11.6 Timetable of the Single Rescuer NTBR Module ............................................................................................. 112 Lesson 1 - Introduction ................................................................................................................................113 Lesson 2 - Single rescuer rescue strategy ....................................................................................................117 Lesson 3 - Measures to prevent injury during training................................................................................119 Lesson 4 - Evacuation of an injured person from the nacelle to the base of the tower ..............................120 Lesson 5 - Rescue from enclosed space .......................................................................................................123 Lesson 6 - Rescue from crawl space ............................................................................................................125 Lesson 7 - Rescue up....................................................................................................................................128 Lesson 8 - Training review...........................................................................................................................133 12 COMBINED GWO ADVANCED RESCUE TRAINING ................................................................................. 136

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

Duration of the Combined GWO ART Module ............................................................................................... 136 Trainer/Course Participant Ratio of the Combined GWO ART Module ......................................................... 136 Requirement to upload training record in WINDA ........................................................................................ 137 Timetable of the Combined GWO ART Module ............................................................................................. 137

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ANNEX 1 - EQUIPMENT LISTS........................................................................................................................ 141

ANNEX 2 - ART GUIDELINE: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION .................................................. 146

ANNEX 3 - HEAD SUPPORT DURING RESCUE................................................................................................. 149

ANNEX 4 - GUIDELINE FOR WARM-UP EXERCISES......................................................................................... 152

ANNEX 5 - MANUAL HANDLING RISK ASSESSMENT ...................................................................................... 160

ANNEX 6 - CHANGE LOG – VERSION HISTORY ............................................................................................... 169

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1 L IST OF A BBREVIATIONS

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

AS/NZS

Australia and New Zealand Standard

ART

Advanced Rescue Training

BST

Basic Safety Training

CSA

Canadian Standards Association

EMT

Emergency Medical Treatment

GWO

Global Wind Organisation

HSIBR

Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue

LOTO

Lock Out Tag Out

NTBR

Nacelle, Tower, and Basement Rescue

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

SAR

Search and Rescue

SRL

Self-Retractable Lifeline

WTG

Wind Turbine Generator

IP

Injured Person / Ill Person

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2 T ERMS AND D EFINITIONS

Shall

Verbal form used to indicate requirements strictly to be followed in order to conform to this training standard and from which no deviation is permitted

Must

For clarity where the word must is used in this standard it shall have the same meaning as shall

Should

Verbal form used to indicate that among several possibilities one is recommended as particularly suitable, without mentioning or excluding others, or that a certain course of action is preferred but not necessarily required

Fall arrest

Preventing the user of a personal fall protection system from colliding with the ground, structure, or any other obstacle during a free fall.

Fall prevention

Preventing the user of a personal fall protection system from going into a free fall

Personal fall protection system

Assembly of components intended to protect the user against falls from height, including a body holding device and an attachment system, which can be connected to a reliable anchorage point

Restraint system

Personal fall protection system which prevents the user from reaching zones where the risk of a fall from height exists

Working positioning system

Personal fall protection system which enables the user to work in tension or suspension in such a way that free fall is prevented

Fall arrest system

Personal fall protection system which limits the impact force on the body of the user during fall arrest

Rescue system

Personal fall protection system by which a person can rescue themselves or others, in such a way that a free fall is prevented

Hip overhang

A technique used during the rescue of a casualty from a ladder where the rescue line is diverted using the side D-ring located at the hip of the rescuer’s harness. This creates greater space between the casualty and the ladder. a. technician A is giving information to technician B b. technician B repeats the information c. technician A confirms that the repetition is correct d. i f repetition was not correct the technician starts at “a” again.

Clear / precise communication

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Flexitime

The time that must be utilised in the course, either theory or practical elements, where training provider sees the most valuable for the participants.

Injured Person

The affected person requiring first aid treatment and rescue/evacuation

PPE

Includes Personal Fall Protection Equipment

Passive Setup (Rescue device in stationary mode setup) Active Setup (Rescue device in stationary mode setup)

Rescue device in standard mode setup, i.e. the rescue device rigged in the WTG

Rescue device in inverted/reverse mode setup, i.e. the rescue device attached to the injured person (and the rescue device rope’s loaded end is rigged in the WTG) When an advanced rescue operation is performed by one rescue personnel only. Relevant for personnel working in two-person teams, where advanced rescue preparedness is required. Aerial ropeway for injured person transportation. Setup horizontally with a rescue device rope rigged between two structural and/or certified anchor points.

Single rescuer advanced rescue operation

Tensioned line

TP

Transition piece

Zip line

In this standard a zip line has the same definition as a tensioned line.

Generic principle

As oppose to product specific training, a generic approach to teaching safety equipment focuses on the similarities and differences in design, functionality and operation between different equipment products. The generic approach is achieved by teaching a variety of rescue equipment products within each rescue equipment category (e.g. rescue stretchers) enabling the delegate to conduct pre-use inspection and to use other rescue equipment products compared to those taught during this Module (based on the manufacturer’s user manual) but without additional formal training. Consequently, a potential task is placed upon the delegate on course completion, requiring them to familiarise themselves with other rescue equipment products in their own organisation e.g. prior to site or work, based on the manufacturer’s manual.

Rescue head support

A device or technique which will support the head of an injured person during a rescue operation (a cervical collar falls into this description)

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Power driver for rescue device

Detachable power driven unit for operating the ascending function of the rescue device

Transfer board

A tool that is used to transport the injured person and is not to be used for immobilisation. Examples of a transfer board are a spine board, extraction board, spec pack, half board, half stretcher etc.

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3 C HANGE L OG – R EVISION 3

1 st April 2022

Amendment Date

Approved by & date

GWO TC April 2022

Version

03

Description of changes

Taxonomy alignment throughout

The section Understanding GWO learning objectives has been updated to reflect the reviewed GWO Taxonomy Framework.

All learning objectives have been updated with action verbs that reflect the taxonomic levels (basic, intermediate, and advanced level) and the domain (knowledge, skills, and ability) without changing the content of the element.

Action verb ‘demonstrate’ in learning objectives is changed to relevant action verb level/domain.

Learning activity “demonstrate” was changed to ‘practise’ because during training activities, the participants are in a learning process and abilities should be trained, not evaluated.

Learning activities have been aligned to match the updated learning objectives with a focus on participant engagement.

Delegates have been changed to Participants, as participant is the proper designation for a person participating in an activity.

Training staff has been changed to Instructors.

The instructor’s perspective has been changed to a generic perspective accommodating different types of training.

All instructor guidelines have been compiled in one section under the individual elements.

More guidelines on the use of feedback have been added to emphasise its importance and ensure its effective use by involving the participants.

All learning objectives have been numbered throughout the standard.

New learning objectives have been created for all lessons that describe the overall ability the participants should acquire during the specific lesson. This focuses the attention on how knowledge and skills support the responsible performance of the employee in the context of the job and the deeper involvement enables participants to learn and remember more deeply. Learning objectives previously positioned at the beginning of a training lesson have been moved to the relevant lesson elements and updated with new taxonomic levels (basic, intermediate, and advanced) and action verbs that reflect these levels. This makes more evident the connection between the learning objectives, the instructor actions, and the participants actions.

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The Introduction lesson for all standards has been updated to ensure alignment between all GWO training standards for generic lessons.

The Training Review lesson for all standards has been updated to ensure alignment between all GWO training standards for generic lessons.

For all modules, the title of lesson Learning outcomes of the XXX Module changed to Detailed description of the XXX Module.

There are no changes to the technical content and the time duration of the standard. A typo change in the duration text for the Hub module has been amended.

The most recent change log (version three has been moved to section three to align with other standards resulting in a renumbering of sections throughout the following that follow.

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4 S COPE

Global Wind Organisation (GWO) is a non-profit body founded by wind turbine manufacturers and owners. Our members strive for an injury free work environment in the wind turbine industry, setting common international standards for safety training and emergency procedures. GWO training standards describe the requirements for training courses that are recommended by members of GWO. This standard has been developed in response to the demand for recognisable advanced rescue training in the industry. It has been prepared in co-operation with the members of GWO based on specific risk assessments and data from incident and accident statistics pertaining to the installation, service and maintenance of wind turbine generators and wind power plants. This standard describes the requirements for advanced rescue training courses that are recommended by the members of GWO. The standard comprises of four modules:

1) Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (HSIBR)

2) Nacelle, Tower and Basement Rescue (NTBR)

3) Single Rescuer: Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (SR:HSIBR)

4) Single Rescuer: Nacelle, Tower and Basement Rescue (SR:NTBR)

GWO recognises trained persons as competent within advanced rescue in the wind industry and accept the trained person as possessing the required knowledge, skills and abilities to conduct rescue operations, in a WTG, using standard wind turbine industry rescue and fall protection. Training is verified through GWO’s WINDA database. This standard has been developed by the GWO Training Committee. Disputes and potential non-conformities should be brought to the attention of the GWO Audit and Compliance Committee.

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5 G ENERAL R EQUIREMENT TO GWO A DVANCED R ESCUE T RAINING

Upon completion of the Global Wind Organisation (GWO) Advanced Rescue training (ART) participants will be able to access and rescue an injured person from the hub and the nacelle, tower, and basement section of a wind turbine. These training modules can be delivered independently of one another or as stand-alone training.

5.1 O VERVIEW

The GWO Advanced Rescue Training is divided into the following four Modules:

1) Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (HSIBR)

2) Nacelle, Tower, and Basement Rescue (NTBR)

3) Single Rescuer: Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (SR:HSIBR)

4) Single Rescuer: Nacelle, Tower and Basement Rescue (SR:NTBR)

5.2 T ARGET GROUP

Personnel who will be working in the wind industry or related fields and will have their duties in a wind turbine environment. Personnel that may need or is selected by their employer to perform advanced rescue or lead an advanced rescue operation, where training according to one or more modules of the GWO advanced rescue training may mitigate the identified risks.

5.3 A IMS AND OBJECTIVES

The ART modules shall enable participants to perform entry-type injured person rescue operations, in a WTG, using industry standard rescue equipment, rescue methods and techniques, exceeding those of GWO Working at Height.

5.4 D URATION OF ART M ODULES

The total contact time for completing the stand-alone modules in this advanced rescue training standard is estimated to be 29 hours. This is based on the time estimates given in the module timetables and summarised in table 5-4.1 below.

The training provider must not exceed the times per day given in table 5-4.2, below.

The training provider must ensure that sufficient time is allowed for participants with prior experience to share their experiences related to the modules of the basic training standard in a way that is constructive for the entire class.

Module

Duration

Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (HSIBR)

7 hours

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Nacelle, Tower, and Basement Rescue (NTBR)

14 hours

Single Rescuer: Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (SR:HSIBR)

4 hours

Single Rescuer: Nacelle, Tower and Basement Rescue (SR:NTBR)

4 hours

Table 5-4.1 - Duration of the ART Modules (excluding meals & breaks)

Maximum duration per day

Contact time

8 hours

Total training day

10 hours

Table 5-4.2 - Maximum durations for training days

Note:

Contact time includes delivery of lesson contents, practical exercises and activities directly related to these.

The total training day includes contact time, meals and breaks and travel between training sites (where applicable).

5.5 G UIDANCE ON DELIVERING LESSON ELEMENTS

Within the module timetables, approximate durations for each of the lessons are given. The training provider may choose to deliver elements of the training according to other timetables, as long as the total duration is not reduced, and the duration of practical elements is not reduced in length. Theoretical elements may be delivered during the practical exercises when feasible. Individual exercises can be combined and integrated to create a more challenging scenarios, e.g. connecting the crawl space exercise to the descent exercise into one scenario. During the exercises the instructor is free to introduce new elements or change the circumstances of the exercise, to challenge the participants and to provide a more dynamic scenario. For example, removing equipment, or marking anchor points as a defect.

5.6 V ALIDITY PERIOD

The advanced rescue training modules are valid for the period stated in the table below. Certificates and training records shall be renewed before the end of a given validity period. A certificate or training record can be renewed up to two months prior to expiry and maintain the original certification date by uploading the previous certificate’s valid until date in WINDA. If a certificate or training record is renewed outside of two months of expiry, it must carry the new date of certification. An e-participant is only allowed to attend a refresher course in the specific training module prior to the date of expiry on the current certificate or training records. If a certificate or training record is expired, the participants must attend the full advanced rescue training module(s) to obtain a new training record.

The validity period is automatically calculated in WINDA by entering the completion date.

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Course/Module

Certificate Validity

Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (HSIBR)

24 Months

Nacelle, Tower and Basement Rescue (NTBR)

24 Months

Single Rescuer: Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue (SR:HSIBR)

No Expiry

Single Rescuer: Nacelle, Tower and Basement Rescue (SR:NTBR)

No Expiry

Table 5-6 - Validity period of GWO ART Modules

5.7 C OURSE CODES

Module

Course Code

Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue

ART-H

Nacelle, Tower, and Basement Rescue

ART-N

Single Rescuer: Hub, Spinner and Inside Blade Rescue

SART-H

Single Rescuer: Nacelle, Tower, and Basement Rescue

SART-N

Table 5-7 - Course codes for ART modules

5.8 P ARTICIPANT PREREQUISITES FOR THE ART MODULES

All personnel participating in advanced rescue training shall be medically fit and capable of fully participating.

Training providers shall have a procedure that requires participants to sign a statement stating that they are medically fit to participate in the safety training and that they do not suffer from any medical illness or are under influence of any narcotic substance or alcohol. The Medical Self-Assessment Form in the Requirements for Training Providers shall be used if no other equivalent procedure is in place. Participants’ signatures testifying to their medical fitness shall be collected prior to the start of the advanced rescue training course. Valid WINDA training records for GWO BST, Working at Heights Module, GWO First Aid and GWO Manual Handling are prerequisites for participation.

5.9 P HYSICAL DEMANDS

The GWO advanced rescue training modules are expected to be physically demanding.

If there is any doubt regarding the medical fitness of any participant, the training provider shall stop training the participants and seek a physician’s advice.

Note : Practical exercises shall be designed and delivered solely to meet this standard and shall not place any physical or mental demands on the participants other than those required to meet this standard.

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6 G ENERAL R ESOURCES R EQUIRED TO D ELIVER GWO ART M ODULES

The training provider shall ensure that staff, facilities, and equipment are in place to support the training of participants.

6.1 T RAINING INSTRUCTOR

The instructor shall possess appropriate qualifications and experience to ensure that all training and supportive activities are carried out in accordance with current legislation and current GWO training provider requirements.

The instructor must be:

1) trained in instructional / lecture techniques and / or have documented instructional / teaching experience

2) qualified GWO WAH instructor

3) qualified GWO manual handling instructor

4) trained in GWO BST/BSTR First Aid

5) included in an on-going training program, which includes visits to onshore and/ or offshore WTGs (tower, nacelle, hub) prior to instructing GWO ART modules, to enable them to maintain and update skills related to the GWO modules they instruct. The instructor shall physically visit the tower, nacelle, and hub of WTGs. 6) able to apply knowledge and practical skills in alternative rescue methods, techniques, and rigging setups comparable to those executed by the participants during the practical exercises of the ART modules 7) able to analyse and justify the ART rescue equipment used, uses and limitations of this equipment included.

A person with first aid qualifications shall be present during all practical training.

All staff shall possess the appropriate competencies to conduct / assist in the delivery of elements of training they have been assigned to.

6.2 P RACTICAL TRAINING FACILITIES

All facilities shall be maintained and where appropriate, inspected and tested in accordance with current national legislation and manufacturers’ recommendations. Risk assessments shall be conducted and documented for all training facilities. The training provider shall hold the required permits to operate the facilities. The learning process is facilitated by identical or comparable elements comparing the training environment and the participants’ working environment. Identical or comparable elements enha nces the application of what is learned. The practical training facilities and the training environment are therefore expected to

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incorporate as many identical or comparable elements to a real wind turbine working environment as possible. The objective is that the practical training facility should enable each participant to individually and/or as part of a team, see, hear, and practise the taught subject matter in such a way that it resembles the working practises in a real wind turbine environment.

The following training facility items will be required for the ART training:

1) Mock-up with enclosed space to simulate the hub, with a height differentiated crawl way

a. figure 6-3.1 provides dimensions to the GWO recommended hub mock-up b. the training provider can deviate from the recommended hub measurements to facilitate a specific turbine design 2) A mock-up to simulate access between hub and blade with a maximum access hatch diameter of 0.60m

a. this diameter can be reduced to 0.50m to simulate a pitch cylinder partly blocking the hatch

3) Mock- up for the “rescue up” exercises, to simulate basement/tower rescue

4) Mock-up to simulate under the gearbox with a max. 60cm diameter access crawl way into the crawl space, a height between 60 and 30cm and minimum 2.0m length (Nacelle, Tower and Basement Rescue Module)

5) Mock-up to simulate the nacelle

a. figure 6-3.2 provides dimensions to the GWO recommended nacelle mock-up b. the training provider can deviate from the recommended nacelle measures to facilitate a specific turbine design c. the nacelle mock-up must be filled with sufficient simulated assets, to create a realistic nacelle environment d. the maximum available contiguous floor space must be less than 3.0m 2 , excluding walkways of less than 60cm width e. the sides of the nacelle should be designed in such a way as to prevent direct visual contact

from within the nacelle to the teams outside of the nacelle f. structural and certified anchor points (both modules)

It is recommended to connect the various mock-ups to recreate a realistic sequence. For example, connecting the nacelle mock-up with the hub mock-up. Rather than connecting a blade mock-up with the nacelle mock-up. This would provide a more realistic scenario. However, if there are practical reasons to separate the individual mock-ups, then this is allowed. For example, to allow different teams to train at the same time

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Figure 6-3.1 - Recommended dimensions for the hub mock-up

Figure 6-3.2 - Recommended dimensions for the nacelle mock-up

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6.3 W IND TURBINE ENVIRONMENT EXPLAINED

What is a wind turbine training environment?

To apply what participants have learned (e.g. during a course) is a learning process of its own.

This process is facilitated by identical elements comparing the training environment and th e participants’ working environment. Thus, identical elements enhance the application of what participants have learned. The more identical elements; the merrier. The training providers‘ goal should be to achieve training facilities and a training environment with as many identical elements to a real wind turbine working environment possible. In addition, ‘ train as you work ’ , i.e. executing training end to end the way participants should perform in practice, enhances real work behaviour.

So how to ‘ train as you work ’ and design a training environment with a high degree of identical elements?

Depending on the participant’s job and tasks in the wind industry, many technicians work in the wind tur bine tower and nacelle during pre-assembly, erection, commissioning and troubleshooting, or service of the wind turbine. For access up/down the tower, the tower is in general fitted with ladder sections provided with a vertical fall protection system, and tower section platforms with ladder hatches fitted with certified anchor points for attachment of personal fall protection equipment. The wind turbine may hold a basement section fitted as mentioned, and primarily holding electrical cabinets. In the geared type WTG, access in the nacelle is in general limited to narrow pathways along the left or right side of the main shaft and generator etc. These pathways are often ‘ fitted ’ with mechanical components and the like, as well as steps and small ladder sections due to variations in floor level, as part of the WTG design increasing the risk of trips and falls. Access between nacelle and hub is possible through low and often very narrow passageways. Train as you work training should be executed by doing real work tasks end to end under the actual working procedures, and/or realistic emergency situation (fire, first aid, evacuation or injured person rescue) end to end scenarios, in a wind turbine environment.

6.4 T RAINING EQUIPMENT

The equipment required for training as listed in Annex 1must be available and must fulfil national legal requirements as listed in table A1-1a in Annex 1 where applicable. A generic approach to teaching rescue equipment is applied to this module aiming to avoid potential product specific addi tional training on completion of this module, which may be required by the participant’s organisation e.g. prior to site or work. The generic approach is achieved by teaching a variety of safety equipment products within each safety equipment category (e.g. rescue stretchers), enabling the participants to conduct pre-use inspection and to use other safety equipment products compared to those taught during this module based on the manufacturer’s user manual but without additional formal training.

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Where reasonably practicable the training provider shall eliminate the risk of a fall from height. Where it is not possible to eliminate the risk of a fall then the fall factor experienced by any person shall be kept as low as is reasonably practicable. GWO recommends a maximum fall factor of 0.5. To calculate this the following formula has been used, using the maximum allowed lanyard of length 2.00m and a fall of 1.00m,

𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐹𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑛 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑟𝑑

𝐹𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 (𝐹𝐹) =

1.00 𝑚 2.00 𝑚

𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 (𝐹𝐹) =

𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 (𝐹𝐹) = 0.5

During the evacuation exercises in this module the anchor points used for the attachment of fixed length fall arrest lanyards must be high enough above the ground, or structure below them, so that in the event that a person experiences a fall the shock absorber in their fall arrest lanyard can fully deploy and prevent them from contacting the ground (or structure directly below the anchor point). During the evacuation exercise the participants must be able to experience a minimum amount of descent using an evacuation or rescue device to ensure that they gain the experience of the speed of descent using these devices. This can be achieved by having the participants descend from a minimum height using a rescue or evacuation device. To ensure that for all fall protection equipment that may be used that there will be enough clearance below the anchor point, and to ensure that the participants can experience a descent of sufficient duration for meaningful learning transfer, the GWO recommends that the anchor point is a minimum of 6.75m above the ground or structure directly below the anchor point. The recommended 6.75m clearance under the anchor point is explained in detail in Annex 3. If a training provider deviates from the recommended anchor point height of 6.75m to a lower height, then the following additional control measures must be in place, a. the training provider shall document a risk assessment for the lower height, this shall include calculations for the equipment to be used during the evacuation exercises, the calculations shall: i. use the value for shock absorber elongation that is provided by the equipment manufacturer, and, ii. demonstrate that the equipment will prevent the person from coming into contact with the ground or structure directly below the anchor point, and, iii. use a formula provided by the equipment manufacturer or national legislation that is for the purpose of calculating anchor point clearance height or, where no such formula exists, use the formula in Annex 1 and,

b. the potential fall factor shall not exceed 0.5 and,

c. participants must experience a descent from a platform that is a minimum of 4.5m above the ground

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7 U NDERSTAND GWO L EARNING O BJECTIVES AND T AXONOMY

7.1 L EARNING OBJECTIVES

Learning objectives describe what the participant should know and be able to do when the training is completed. The learning objectives in a training standard are based on the mitigating precautions analysed in the risk assessment. They are the foundation of the learning activities, the course contents and what the participant performance assessment must be based upon.

Coherence between the learning objectives, the learning activities and the assessment is essential.

The purpose of this alignment is twofold:

1. To conduct learning activities that are directly focused on reaching the learning objectives. 2. That assessment of how well the learning objectives are met is done in close coherence with what the participant is practising during the learning activities and in a comparable environment.

Figure 7-1 Alignment figure

Defining learning objectives in relation to all training elements ensures the alignment between objectives, activities, and the on-going participant assessment. More guidance about learning activities and evaluation can be found in the GWO Taxonomy Framework, annex to Requirements for Training Providers. To be able to focus training on building up the necessary abilities, the learning objectives are described according to the GWO taxonomy in the three domains: Knowledge, Skills and Ability. Ability is what is performed and demonstrated during real-life exercises as well as in the real work situation and is the sum of personal experiences, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

7.2 L EARNING ACTIVITIES

Learning activities are planned, and systematic activities designed to create learning and enable the participants to reach the learning objectives. An important part of learning activities in GWO’s approach is that participants must be actively taking part, for example in verbal discussions and practical training. Hearing or seeing a presentation without any subsequent reflection or critical thinking can only create learning on a very low level and such one-way activity should be avoided. While the participants are practising, the instructor can assess whether they demonstrate that they have reached the actual learning objective. Furthermore, when participants succeed through trying things out on their own, when they bring their relevant experience into play and when they use learning points from feedback; they develop a positive attitude towards the subject and a desire to improve their abilities in the work situation.

Reflection and experiential learning

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Reflection is an essential part of the learning process and must be facilitated in all learning activities. We learn from experience and we create experiences when we do something and afterwards reflect on and think about what just happened or what we just did and how it worked. Learning activities are what the participants must do to create the necessary experiences and learn and thereby reach the learning objectives – facilitated by the instructor.

This process is illustrated in the Experiential Learning Cycle to the left.

Reflection is more than just thinking about something. Reflection is critical and constructive thinking, that must be initiated by the instructor’s feedba ck, questions, and challenges.

Figure 7-2 Learning Cycle, by David Kolb

Feedback

The aim of feedback is to reduce the gap between the participant´s current performance and a desired goal. Feedback is by far the most effective way to generate reflection and so learning. At the basic taxonomic learning level, feedback must be provided to correct faults and encourage the participants to engage further. At the higher levels, feedback is more about coaching participants to find their own solutions. Suggestions help participants to figure out how they can do better, modify, and develop their knowledge and understanding relative to the learning objective. By posing challenging questions related to the given feedback the instructor initiates the necessary reflection within the participants. At the advanced level, feedback must be conducted in a dialogue where exploratory questions are the generator for the participants’ reflections.

7.3 P ARTICIPANTS ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

The instructor can observe and evaluate the participants’ knowledge, skills, and abilities as well as the participants’ on -going development, when the participants are active. To support their observation the instructor may engage in dialogue with the participants to understand why the participants chose to solve the task the way they did, and to clarify their attitude towards the task or topic. The instructor must be attentive to the participants’ use of relevant terminology and correct facts in their group discussions within the domain of knowledge and when they answer more or less complex questions. When the participants are engaged in practical training, the instructor can investigate their understanding of the task and the relevant theory by questioning and clarifying dialogue. On the basic level of ability, assessment by observation alone may be difficult, and the instructor must explore the attitude of the participants by inquiry and dialogue while they are training. For example, to find out if the participants show interest in a topic or take responsibility in the situation (which could be problematic to observe) the instructor must go into a dialogue addressing the participants level of interest or awareness of the task or topic. Assessment of ability on the more complex levels calls for even more focused observation and dialogue.

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