2022-04-01_CoHE_V1

GWO Control of Hazardous Energy (CoHE) Training Standard

V1

Publication date: April 1, 2022

Classification: Confidential

GWO CoHE Training Standard V1

1 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 3

2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................................................................... 4

3 COHE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ...................................................................................................................... 8

3.1 B ASIC S AFETY C O HE M ODULE .................................................................................................................................................................. 8 3.2 E LECTRICAL S AFETY M ODULE .................................................................................................................................................................... 9 3.3 P RESSURE F LUID S AFETY M ODULE .............................................................................................................................................................. 9 4 REFERENCE LIST ....................................................................................................................................................10

5 SCOPE ...................................................................................................................................................................11

6 GENERAL REQUIREMENT TO GWO COHE MODULES .............................................................................................12

6.1 O VERVIEW .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 6.2 T ARGET GROUPS ................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 6.3 A IMS AND OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 13 6.4 D URATION OF GWO C O HE M ODULES ..................................................................................................................................................... 13 6.5 V ALIDITY PERIOD .................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 6.6 C OURSE C ODES .................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 6.7 P ARTICIPANT PREREQUISITES FOR THE GWO C O HE T RAINING S TANDARD ......................................................................................................... 14 6.8 P HYSICAL DEMANDS .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15 7 GENERAL RESOURCES REQUIRED TO DELIVER GWO COHE MODULES ...................................................................16 7.1 I NSTRUCTOR / PARTICIPANT RATIO ............................................................................................................................................................. 16 7.2 T RAINING FACILITIES .............................................................................................................................................................................. 16 7.3 T RAINING STAFF ................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 7.4 E QUIPMENT ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 8 UNDERSTANDING GWO LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND TAXONOMY .......................................................................17 8.1 L EARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 17 8.2 L EARNING ACTIVITIES ............................................................................................................................................................................. 17 8.2.1 Reflection and experiential learning ...................................................................................................................... 18 8.2.2 Feedback ................................................................................................................................................................. 18 8.3 P ARTICIPANTS A SSESSMENT AND EVALUATION ............................................................................................................................................. 18 8.4 T HE GWO T AXONOMY F RAMEWORK ....................................................................................................................................................... 19 8.4.1 Ability ...................................................................................................................................................................... 19 8.4.2 Action verbs ............................................................................................................................................................ 19 9 MODULE 1 -BASIC SAFETY COHE ...........................................................................................................................22 9.1 A IMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE B ASIC S AFETY C O HE M ODULE ......................................................................................................................... 22 9.2 D URATION OF THE B ASIC S AFETY C O HE M ODULE ........................................................................................................................................ 22 9.3 I NSTRUCTOR TO PARTICIPANT RATIO .......................................................................................................................................................... 22 9.4 B ASIC S AFETY C O HE M ODULE TIMETABLE .................................................................................................................................................. 23 9.5 D ETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE B ASIC S AFETY C O HE M ODULE ........................................................................................................................ 24 Introduction to the training ................................................................................................................................. 24 Lesson 2 - Control of hazardous energies basic safety ......................................................................................................... 27 Lesson 3 - Lockout-Tagout for an Ordinary Person .............................................................................................................. 34 Lesson 4 - Mechanical safety ............................................................................................................................................... 39 Electrical safety ................................................................................................................................................... 43 Pressure Fluid safety............................................................................................................................................ 50 Hazardous Energy scenario ................................................................................................................................. 54 Training review.................................................................................................................................................... 55

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10 MODULE 2 -ELECTRICAL SAFETY............................................................................................................................58

10.1 A IMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE E LECTRICAL S AFETY M ODULE ........................................................................................................................... 58 10.2 D URATION OF THE E LECTRICAL S AFETY M ODULE .......................................................................................................................................... 58 10.3 E LECTRICAL S AFETY M ODULE - INSTRUCTOR TO PARTICIPANT RATIO .................................................................................................................. 59 10.4 E QUIPMENT FOR E LECTRICAL S AFETY M ODULE ............................................................................................................................................ 59 10.5 E LECTRICAL S AFETY M ODULE TIMETABLE ................................................................................................................................................... 59 10.6 D ETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE E LECTRICAL S AFETY M ODULE .......................................................................................................................... 61 Introduction to the training ................................................................................................................................. 61 Reponsibilities and role of a Qualified Electrical Person...................................................................................... 65 Electrical PPE ....................................................................................................................................................... 67 Electrical safe working practices ......................................................................................................................... 68 Electrically safe work condition ........................................................................................................................... 82 Lesson 6 - Testing and isolation ........................................................................................................................................... 85 Stored energy ...................................................................................................................................................... 89 Lesson 8 - Hazardous electrical safety scenarios.................................................................................................................. 92 Training review.................................................................................................................................................... 93 11 MODULE 3 – PRESSURE FLUID SAFETY ..................................................................................................................97 11.1 A IMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE P RESSURE F LUID S AFETY M ODULE .................................................................................................................... 97 11.2 D URATION OF THE P RESSURE F LUID S AFETY M ODULE ................................................................................................................................... 97 11.3 P RESSURE F LUID S AFETY M ODULE - INSTRUCTOR TO PARTICIPANT RATIO ........................................................................................................... 98 11.4 E QUIPMENT FOR P RESSURE F LUID S AFETY M ODULE ..................................................................................................................................... 98 11.5 P RESSURE F LUID S AFETY M ODULE TIMETABLE ............................................................................................................................................. 98 11.6 D ETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE P RESSURE F LUID S AFETY M ODULE ................................................................................................................. 100 Introducton to the training ................................................................................................................................ 100 Qualified Pressure Fluids Person -requirements and role .................................................................................. 104 Pressure fluid hazards........................................................................................................................................ 106 PPE..................................................................................................................................................................... 111 Safe work practices............................................................................................................................................ 112 Response to pressure fluid incidents ................................................................................................................. 119 Hazardous pressure fluid scenarios ................................................................................................................... 121 Training Review ................................................................................................................................................. 122 EQUIPMENT LIST ................................................................................................................................................125

TEMPLATE DESCRIPTION FOR A PERMIT TO WORK.............................................................................................129

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1 L IST OF A BBREVIATIONS

CoHE

Control of hazardous energy

GWO

Global Wind Organisation

PPE

Personal protective equipment

WTG

Wind turbine generator

PE

Protective earth

RCD

Residual current device

GFCI

Ground fault circuit interrupter

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2 T ERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Term

Definition

Hazardous energy

Any energy (electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, gravitational force etc.) that could cause injuries to personnel. Any task performed on an electrical installation that requires specific electrical knowledge to be performed safely and correctly. Examples: install components, alter a circuit, take electrical measurements, replace a component, create an electrically safe work condition etc. Qualified Electrical Person with specific training in the job and experience in high voltage. Work instruction approved by the company responsible for the work described, according to its internal processes. Normally done with its corresponding risk assessment that will include the control measures for all risks identified. Before starting each job, the employee in charge of the job must conduct a job briefing with the employees involved. The briefing must cover such subjects as: - hazards related to the job - work procedures involved - special precautions - energy source controls - personal protective equipment requirements

Electrical work (definition and examples)

The qualification requirements for working on high voltage systems

Approved work instruction

Pre-task or job briefing (toolbox talk)

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Establishing an electrically safe work condition (when and how to establish.)

When? Whenever someone is required to enter the Limited Approach Boundary to do other tasks different than "visual inspection" and whenever someone needs to enter the Restricted Approach Boundary for other tasks different from "switching" or "measuring" How? 1. Determine all possible sources of electrical supply to the specific equipment. Check applicable up-to-date drawings, diagrams, and identification tags. 2. After properly interrupting the load current, open the disconnecting device(s) for each source. 3. Wherever possible, visually verify that all contact points of the disconnecting devices are fully open, or that draw-out type circuit breakers are withdrawn to the fully disconnected position. 4. To mitigate for activation spring failure in circuit breakers equipped with spring activation, the spring must be released prior to opening the breaker or prior to using the breaker as the isolation point. 5. Where the possibility of stored electrical energy exists, this must be isolated or insulated. Where this is not possible the energy must be dissipated by using an approved tool rated and designed for the purpose. 6. Verify absence of voltage to verify that the circuit parts are de- energised. 7. For low voltage circuits with the possibility of induced voltage, apply short-circuiting earth connections rated for the fault current. 8. Apply lockout/tagout devices in accordance with the local legislation and specific company procedure and rules. Depending on the configuration of the circuit it may be necessary to perform this step prior to steps 5 - 7. Electrical components or parts capable of being inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person that is by not being enclosed or insulated (e.g. IP0X, IP1X)

Exposed electrical parts

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Approach boundaries

Limited Approach Boundary Is the closest distance that an Ordinary Electrical Person can approach exposed energised conductors without escort. An Ordinary Electrical Person may be escorted within the Limited Approach Boundary by a Qualified Electrical Person but may never enter the Restricted Approach Boundary. All persons in the Limited Approach Boundary must wear the minimum PPE for electrical work. All tools that enter the Limited Approach Boundary must be insulated for the equipment ’s voltage. Restricted Approach Boundary The Restricted Approach Boundary may only be entered by a Qualified Electrical Person. All parts of the Qualified Electrical Person that enter the Restricted Approach Boundary must be insulated from the equipment ’s voltage. An Energised Electrical Work Permit is required to enter the Restricted Approach Boundary, unless performing switching or taking measurements.

Minimum arc flash PPE

Minimum: - Safety glasses

- Non-melting clothing (including underwear) with long sleeves and long trousers (small parts of melting materials are acceptable but should be reduced to the minimum possible, ideally eliminated, for example elasticated waistbands) - Safety shoes with non-melting materials (acceptable exceptions are the sole and shoelaces)

The requirements for tools to be used for testing for the absence of voltage

Have limited functionality and be with fixed test leads. Or;

Be multi-meters with an audible alert function to warn the user in the event the meter function selector and test leads positions are not compatible. Test probes must be selected to match the physical requirements of the test point and be in accordance with local electrical regulatory requirements. Non-contact voltage detectors are for use only with non-contact voltage portals or for double checking that the lockout boundary is in electrically safe work condition. Non-contact voltage detectors are not allowed for ‘t est-before-touch ’ verification. Mandatory when performing energised work (in extraordinary circumstances under an approved special permit) that requires using the tools inside the Limited Approach Boundary or Restricted Approach boundary.

When to use insulated (voltage-rated), approved tools?

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Safe handling of batteries and capacitors

a. Always visually inspect the batteries and capacitors before starting work; look for signs of distress and leakage. b. Take precautions to guard battery terminals against short circuiting by covering the terminals with insulating tape or insulating mats. c. Ensure all batteries and capacitors are correctly and securely mounted. d. Ensure the batteries and capacitors are wired with the correct polarity as per the wiring diagrams and that all terminals are tight. e. Defective batteries and capacitors must be disposed of in accordance with local legislation. F. Insulated tools approved for the rated voltage must be used when working around live, exposed conductors. Compressible (e.g. nitrogen) and non-compressible (e.g. hydraulics) fluids under pressure. An isolation device shall ensure a reliable disconnection or separation from an energy source.

Pressure fluids

Isolation point

Test point

Point used to measure energy.

Live known source

Energy source where you know the level of energy (e.g. as part of a circuit, socket, or a hydraulic check/test point) A work instruction approved by a specific company according to their procedures. Equipment that is suspected to be damaged and must be treated with more caution than equipment in its normal condition. A worked example is a step-by-step demonstration of how to best perform a task or solve a problem. These include a starting point, a desired goal state, and a chosen solution to reach the goal state. They manage cognitive load by focusing on critical aspects of the solution steps and the solution. It is important to use a less is more approach and include only what participants need to understand the solution. Adding extra and ‘ nice to know ’ information or content makes it more difficult for participants to understand. For more information, please visit: https://3starlearningexperiences.wordpress.com/2018/11/13/why- and-how-to-use-worked-examples-in-the-workplace/

Approved work instruction

Deranged equipment

Worked example

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3 C O HE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1 Basic Safety CoHE Module

Note: The following roles are for general reference and are not fully aligned with any standard or safe system of work.

These definitions were made for the sake of creating this global training standard based on the common ground of different recognised standards.

Role

Responsibilities (limitations to what can and cannot be)

Qualified Person

A person who has demonstrated skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of equipment and installations specific to their work and has received safety training to identify the hazards and reduce the associated risk. Examples of responsibilities: performing isolations and testing, creating a safe work condition for others to work under, lead and supervise work parties. A person who is not a Qualified Person and does not have any responsibilities, given that this person generally needs control, instruction, and supervision to carry out assigned working activities. Additionally, a person who can be instructed to apply his personal lockout equipment in accordance with a company specific Lockout- Tagout program, procedures, and rules. A person designated to be in charge of a particular lockout. Examples of responsibilities: • For Lockout-Tagout at the place of work. • To ensure everyone working under the lockout applied follows the particular rules. • For the use of group locks, personal locks and other Lockout- Tagout equipment. This role has been trained in establishing a safe work condition through the application of Lockout-Tagout practices including: • Isolating the equipment or system. • Attach all locking devices and tags.

Ordinary Person / Unqualified Person

(Safe isolation) Authorised Person (role and responsibilities)

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3.2 Electrical Safety Module

Role

Responsibilities (limitations to what can and cannot be done)

Qualified Electrical Person

Perform electrical work. Needs to have been trained or instructed on the task and the equipment. Examples of responsibilities:

• Switch off, switch on, test absence of voltage, replace a component, establish an electrical lockout etc. • Lead and supervise electrical tasks e.g.: o Performing a pre-task briefing prior to work on electrical systems. o Acting as a supervisor for Ordinary Persons working on, or in the vicinity of, electrical systems.

3.3 Pressure Fluid Safety Module

Role

Responsibilities (limitations to what can and cannot not be done)

Qualified Pressure Fluids Person

Perform pressure fluids tasks. Needs to have been trained or instructed on the task and the equipment. Examples of the responsibilities of a Qualified Pressure Fluids Person are: • Performing isolations and testing for the absence of pressure in accordance with existing documentation to be able to safely carry out specific tasks like component replacement. • Creating a safe work condition that enable other workers to work safely on pressure fluid systems.

• Lead and supervise pressure fluids tasks e.g.:

o Performing a pre-task briefing prior to work on pressure fluid systems o Acting as a supervisor for Ordinary Persons working on, or in the vicinity of, pressure fluid systems.

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4 R EFERENCE LIST

This reference list contains the references of relevant standards and norms that were used to create the GWO CoHE Training Standard:

• EN 50110 “Operation of Electrical Installations”

• NFPA 70E “Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace ”

WTSR “Wind Turbine Safety Rules”

Note :

Please use the terms and definitions from the GWO CoHE Training Standard rather than terms and definitions used in the referenced standards and norms above. The terms and definitions in the GWO CoHE Training Standard were made for the sake of creating this global training standard based on the common ground of different recognised standards.

Participants could end up working under any variety of safe system of work, so the language and terminology have been chosen to be as applicable as possible across the most common systems of work.

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5 S COPE

Global Wind Organisation is a non-profit body founded by wind turbine manufacturers and owners. Our members strive for an injury free work environment in the wind turbine industry, setting common international standards for safety training and emergency procedures. GWO training standards describe the requirements for training courses that are recommended by members of GWO. Hazardous energies pose a high risk of injury to all workers working within the wind industry. One of the reasons for this is that hazardous energies are found in various forms within the wind turbine environment and within the environment of a wind farm. This standard has been developed in response to the demand for recognisable Control of Hazardous Energies (CoHE) Training in the wind industry. It has been created in co-operation between members of the Global Wind Organisation (GWO) based on risk assessments, in-depth descriptions of job roles and tasks relevant to CoHE in the wind industry as well as factual incident and accident statistics pertaining to the installation, commissioning, service and maintenance of wind turbine generators and wind power plants. This CoHE training standard describes training that complements company, turbine, regional and equipment specific CoHE trainings by providing a common basis for CoHE trainings that are recommended by the members of GWO but does not automatically qualify the participants . These nominations can only be granted according to company specific trainings, rules, and procedures along with national and regional legislation. Lastly, the members of GWO also strongly emphasise that company specific rules and procedures along with national and regional legislation shall always be looked up and followed when working in the wind industry. This is because CoHE rules, procedures and requirements can vary depending on: national and regional legislation; company approach and WTG model.

The standard comprises of three modules:

Basic Safety CoHE.

Electrical Safety.

Pressure Fluid Safety.

Training is verified through GWO’s WINDA database.

This standard has been developed by the GWO Training Committee. Disputes and potential non- conformities should be brought to the attention of the GWO Audit and Compliance Committee.

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6 G ENERAL R EQUIREMENT TO GWO C O HE M ODULES

6.1 Overview

The GWO CoHE Training standard is divided into the following three modules:

Basic Safety CoHE.

Electrical Safety.

Pressure Fluid Safety.

6.2 Target groups

Target Group for the Basic Safety CoHE Module

This module is targeted at candidates working in the wind industry where they are exposed to the risk of injury related to hazardous energies.

Target Group for the Electrical Safety Module

This module is targeted at candidates whose scope of work will involve performing isolations and testing for the absence of voltage (in accordance with existing documentation) to be able to safely carry out specific tasks like component replacement, servicing and planned corrective maintenance on low voltage 1 electrical systems. Additionally, this person will also be responsible for establishing an electrically safe work condition, as e.g. a Qualified Electrical Person (NFPA 70E), Electrical Skilled Person (EN50110), Authorized Technician (WTSR), to enable others to work safely on low voltage electrical systems. Note: The GWO Electrical Safety Module and Pressure Fluid Safety Module are aimed towards improving the candidates´ ability to “work safely” with electricity and fluids under pressure. This means that the two modules are not aimed at improving candidates´ technical knowledge, skills and abilities regarding electricity or pressure fluid systems. Candidates should already possess these technical knowledge, skills, and abilities before attending the modules. Similarly, it is not the intention of the GWO CoHE standard (or these two modules) to promote the acquisition of advanced knowledge, such as troubleshooting.

Target Group for the Pressure Fluid Safety Module

This module is targeted at candidates whose scope of work will involve performing isolations and testing for the absence of pressure (in accordance with existing documentation) to be able to safely carry out specific tasks like component replacement, servicing and planned corrective maintenance on pressure fluid systems.

1 Low voltage as defined and classified by the local legislation

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Additionally, this person will also be responsible for establishing a safe work condition to enable others to work safely on pressure fluid systems.

Note: Candidates, who already possess the intended knowledge, skills, and abilities of the GWO CoHE Training Standard can apply for merit using the GWO merit process.

6.3 Aims and objectives

The GWO CoHE Training Standard will enable participants to manage the risks related to hazardous energies in the wind industry and act safely when in the vicinity of hazardous energies or when working on systems and equipment containing hazardous energies.

6.4 Duration of GWO CoHE Modules

The total contact time for completing the stand-alone modules in this CoHE training standard is estimated to be 21 hours and 45 minutes . This is based on the time estimates given in the module timetables and summarised in table 5-6 below.

The training provider must not exceed the hours per day given in table 6-4.1 below.

The training provider must ensure that sufficient time is allowed for participants with prior experience to share their experiences related to the modules of the CoHE training standard in a way that is constructive. Durations stated in the table below are meant as guidance for anyone delivering the training. Variations between individual module duration are acceptable provided they do not compromise the achievement of the objectives for all participants. If the Electrical Safety and Pressure Fluid Safety Modules are delivered as part of a combined training, the common elements of introduction and evaluation may be combined, reducing the total contact time.

Modules

Duration

Basic Safety CoHE Module

4 hours

Electrical Safety Module

10 hours and 45 minutes

Pressure Fluid Safety Module

7 hours

Table 6-4 - Duration of the GWO CoHE Modules

Maximum duration per day

Contact time

8 hours

Total training day

10 hours

Table 6-4.1 - Maximum durations for training days

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6.5 Validity period

The CoHE Training Modules are valid for the period stated in the table below. Certificates and training records shall be renewed before the end of a given validity period. A certificate or training record can be renewed up to two months prior to expiry and maintain the original certification date by uploading the previous certificate’s valid until date in WINDA. If a certificate or training record is renewed outside of two months of expiry, it must carry the new date of certification.

The validity period is automatically calculated in WINDA by entering the course completion date.

Course/Modules

Certificate Validity (Months)

Basic Safety CoHE

24

Electrical Safety for Qualified Person

24

Pressure Fluid Safety

24

Table 6-5 - GWO CoHE Certificate validity periods.

6.6 Course Codes

Module

Course Code

Basic Safety CoHE

BaSC

Electrical Safety

ES

Pressure Fluid Safety

PFS

Table 6-6 - GWO CoHE Module course codes

6.7 Participant prerequisites for the GWO CoHE Training Standard

Medical fitness

All personnel participating in the GWO CoHE training modules shall be medically fit and capable of fully participating. Specifically, the participants must be made aware of the risks and hazards related to completing the specific CoHE modules. Training providers shall have a procedure that requires participants to sign a statement stating that they are medically fit to participate in the training modules. This should also state that participants: do not suffer from any medical illness that will prevent them from fully participating in the training modules or subject them to hazard or risk; and that are they not under the influence of any impeding substances like narcotics or alcohol.

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Participant s’ signatures testifying to their medical fitness shall be coll ected prior to the start of the GWO CoHE modules.

Training and experience prerequisites

There are prerequisites to attend the Electrical Safety and Pressure Fluid Safety modules.

The participants must have completed the Basic Safety CoHE and the BTT Electrical module before attending the Electrical Safety Module. It is strongly recommended that before attending the Electrical Safety Module participants have some applicable working experience with electricity supervised by a Qualified Person. This means that the participants should have experience working in a team lead by a Qualified Person, who performed pre-task briefings, isolations, and testing, created a safe work condition for others to work under, lead and supervised work parties. Similarly, the participants must have completed the Basic Safety CoHE Module and the BTT Hydraulic module before attending the Pressure Fluid Safety Module. It is strongly recommended that before attending the Pressure Fluid Safety Module participants have some applicable working experience with pressure fluids supervised by a Qualified Person. This means that the participants should have experience working in a team lead by a Qualified Person, who performed pre-task briefings, isolations, and testing, created a safe work condition for others to work under, lead and supervise work parties.

There are no training prerequisites for the Basic Safety CoHE module.

6.8 Physical demands

The GWO CoHE modules do not have any specific expected physical demands.

However, if there is any doubt regarding the medical fitness of any participant, the training provider shall stop training the participant and seek a physician’s advice. Note: Practical exercises shall be designed and delivered solely to meet this standard, and shall not place any physical or mental demands on the participants other than those required to meet this standard

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7 G ENERAL R ESOURCES R EQUIRED TO DELIVER GWO C O HE MODULES

The training provider shall ensure that staff, facilities, and equipment are in place to support the training of participants.

7.1 Instructor/participant ratio

The table below shows the maximum number of participants permitted (per instructor) in an instructor-led training for each of the three modules:

Modules

Instructor – Participant Ratio

Basic Safety CoHE Module

1:12

Electrical Safety Module

1:8

Pressure Fluid Safety Module

1:8

Table 7-1 - GWO CoHE instructor to participant ratios

7.2 Training facilities

All training facilities shall fulfil all the requirements listed in section 8 - Equipment and Physical Resources in the GWO ’s Requirements for Training Providers.

7.3 Training staff

The training staff shall fulfil all the requirements listed in section – 9 Instructor Qualifications in the GWO ’s Requirements for Training Providers.

7.4 Equipment

The equipment required for the GWO CoHE Training Standard is shown in Annex 1.

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8 U NDERSTANDING GWO L EARNING O BJECTIVES AND T AXONOMY

8.1 Learning objectives

Learning objectives describe what the participant should know and be able to do when the training is completed. The learning objectives in a training are based on the mitigating precautions analysed in the risk assessment. They are the foundation of the learning activities, the course contents and what the participant performance assessment must be based upon.

Coherence between the learning objectives , the learning activities and the assessment is essential.

The purpose of this alignment is twofold:

1. To conduct learning activities that are directly focused on reaching the learning objectives. 2. That assessment of how well the learning objectives are met is done in close coherence with what the participant has practised during the learning activities and in a comparable environment .

Figure 8-1 Alignment triangle

Defining learning objectives in relation to all training elements ensures the alignment between objectives, activities, and the on-going participant assessment. More guidance about learning activities and evaluation can be found in the GWO Taxonomy Framework, annex to Requirements for Training Providers. To be able to focus training on building up the necessary abilities, the learning objectives are described according to the GWO taxonomy in the three domains: Knowledge, Skills and Ability. Ability is what is performed and demonstrated during real-life exercises as well as in the real work situation and is the sum of personal experiences, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

8.2 Learning activities

Learning activities are planned and systematic activities designed to create learning and enable the participants to reach the learning objectives. An important part of learning activities in GWO’s approach is that participants must be actively taking part, for example in verbal discussions and practical training. Hearing or seeing a presentation without any subsequent reflection or critical thinking can only create learning on a very low level and such one-way activity should be avoided. While the participants are practising, the instructor can assess whether they demonstrate that they have reached the actual learning objective.

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Furthermore, when participants succeed through trying things out on their own, when they bring their relevant experience into play and when they use learning points from feedback; they develop a positive attitude towards the subject and a desire to improve their abilities in the work situation.

8.2.1

Reflection and experiential learning

Reflection is an essential part of the learning process and must be facilitated in all learning activities. We learn from experience, and we create experiences when we do something and afterwards reflect on and think about what just happened or what we just did and how it worked. Learning activities are what the participants must do to create the necessary experiences and learn and thereby reach the learning objectives – facilitated by the instructor. This process is illustrated in the Experiential Learning Cycle to the left. Reflection is more than just thinking about something. Reflection is critical and constructive thinking, that must be initiated by the

Figure 8.2.1 Learning Cycle, by David Kolb

instructor’s feedback, questions, and challenges.

8.2.2

Feedback The aim of feedback is to reduce the gap between the participant´s current performance and a desired goal. Feedback is by far the most effective way to generate reflection and so learning. At the basic taxonomic learning level, feedback must be provided to correct faults and encourage the participants to engage further. At the higher levels, feedback is more about coaching participants to find their own solutions. Suggestions help participants to figure out how they can do better, modify, and develop their knowledge and understanding relative to the learning objective. By posing challenging questions related to the given feedback the instructor initiates the necessary reflection within the participants. At the advanced level, feedback must be conducted in a dialogue where exploratory questions are the generator for the participants’ reflections

8.3 P ARTICIPANTS A SSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

The instructor can observe and evaluate the participants’ knowled ge, skills and abilities as well as the participants’ on -going development, when the participants are active. To support their observation the instructor may engage in dialogue with the participants to understand why the participants chose to solve the task the way they did, and to clarify their attitude towards the task or topic. The instructor must be attentive to the participants’ use of relevant terminology and correct facts in their group discussions within the domain of knowledge and when they answer more or less complex questions. When the participants are engaged in practical training, the instructor can investigate their understanding of the task and the relevant theory by questioning and clarifying dialogue.

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On the basic level of ability, assessment by observation alone may be difficult, and the instructor must explore the attitude of the participants by inquiry and dialogue while they are training. For example, to find out if the participants show interest in a topic or take responsibility in the situation (which could be problematic to observe) the instructor must go into a dialogue addressing the participants level of interest or awareness of the task or topic. Assessment of ability on the more complex levels calls for even more focused observation and dialogue.

8.4 T HE GWO T AXONOMY F RAMEWORK

Taxonomy is a way of describing that there are different levels of learning; some may be quite easy to reach, and some are more complicated and demanding. The aim of the GWO Taxonomy Framework is to ensure coherence and conformity between learning objectives and their related learning activities delivered in a formal learning setting. The structure of the GWO Taxonomy is based on the three learning domains: Knowledge, Skills, and Ability. Learning objectives are also defined at three taxonomic levels: 1) Basic, 2) Intermediate, and 3) Advanced level.

8.4.1

Ability “When we do our job, we apply our abilities.”

Ability covers the capacity to act responsibly, safely, and independently or in cooperation with others to meet a challenge or to get the job done. Ability can be thought of as everything we carry in the rucksack: our knowledge and skills, our accountability and ability to evaluate situations, make decisions, take responsibility, our caring for others and our social resources as well as our attitudes. In this definition, ability is what we apply in the reality of our workplaces and in life in general. Therefore, learning objectives within the Ability domain must challenge the participants initiative and individual reactions, and the degree of fidelity must be considered to enhance a realistic learning environment. In the field of Ability, the human factor plays a key role in the personal decision on responsibility and initiative and in the execution of “good habits “. Action verbs The taxonomy levels in the learning objectives are defined by a reasonable number of precise and explained action verbs (highlighted below). They are presented in a progression of increasing complexity – beginning on the Basic Level, where the participant can name, recognise or describe a tool or a procedure, and ending at the Advanced Level, where the participant can act responsibly, evaluate performance, assess decisions and supervise fellow workers.

8.4.2

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GWO CoHE Training Standard V1

Learning objectives in this standard are also tagged with an indication of the domain and taxonomy level in brackets (e.g., Skills, intermediate level) This is done to emphasise the importance of the alignment between objectives and learning activities: at a Basic Level, the instructor may facilitate simple learning activities, and to reach more complex learning objectives, the complexity in activities must be raised accordingly. The taxonomic domains and levels are presented in the figure below.

Figure 8.4.2, The GWO Taxonomy – condensed (from the GWO Taxonomy annex to GWO Requirement for Training Providers)

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Basic safety Control of Hazardous Energies (CoHE) Module

Classification: Confidential

GWO CoHE Training Standard – Basic Safety Module V1

9 M ODULE 1 -B ASIC S AFETY C O HE

9.1 Aims and objectives of the Basic Safety CoHE Module

The aim of GWO’s Basic Safety CoHE training module is to enable the participants to act safely while working in the vicinity of hazardous energies in the wind industry and be able to perform assigned tasks safely.

Overall learning objective for the Basic Safety CoHE Module:

The participants can solve the challenge of how to act safely while working in the vicinity of hazardous energies in the wind industry and will on their own initiative seek guidance when needed (Ability, basic level)

9.2 Duration of the Basic Safety CoHE Module

The total contact time for completing this Basic Safety CoHE module is estimated to be 4 hours. This is based on the time estimate given in the module timetable.

The training provider must not exceed the hours per day given in table 9-2 below.

Maximum duration per day

Contact time

8 hours

Total training day

10 hours

Table 9-2 - Maximum durations for training day

Note: Contact time includes delivery of course lesson contents, practical exercises and activities directly related to these .

The total training day includes contact time, meals and breaks and travel between training sites (where applicable).

9.3 Instructor to participant ratio

The table below shows the maximum number of participants permitted (per instructor) in an instructor-led training for the Basic Safety CoHE Module:

Module

Instructor – Participant Ratio

Basic Safety CoHE Module

1:12

Table 9-3 - GWO Basic Safety CoHE Module instructor to participant ratio

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GWO CoHE Training Standard – Basic Safety Module V1

9.4 Basic Safety CoHE Module timetable

Within the module timetables, approximate duration of each of the lessons are given. The training provider may choose to deliver elements of the training according to other timetables, as long as the total duration is not reduced, and practical elements are not reduced in length. Theoretical elements may be delivered during the practical exercises when feasible.

The order in which the elements of the training module are delivered may vary.

Approx. Duration

Lesson

Element

1

Introduction to the training

1.1

Safety instructions and emergency procedures

1.2

Facilities

1.3

Introduction

1.4

Aim and objectives

1.5

Ongoing assessments

1.6

Motivation

15 min.

2

Control of hazardous energies basic safety

2.1

CoHE in the wind industry

2.2

CoHE roles in the wind industry

2.3

Basic PPE

2.4

Protections

2.5

Emergency stop buttons in a WTG

TOTAL

30 min.

3

Lockout-Tagout for an Ordinary Person

3.1

Lockout-Tagout in the wind industry

3.2

Lockout-Tagout roles in the wind industry

3.3

Lockout-Tagout process

TOTAL

45 min.

4

Mechanical Safety

4.1

Why mechanical safety?

4.2

Mechanical Safety signs

4.3

The importance of appropriate isolation

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